Consumer behaviour is complex in nature. The decision of consumer depends upon his needs and demands. It also reflects his values and morale on how they react to a specific product. Companies needs to market their product in such a way that it does not harm people beliefs and values (Moutinho and Vargas-Sanchez, 2018). They must be able to attract them by providing high quality goods at lower price. The taste and preference of consumer changes from time to time. So does their decision. Along with this, ethics plays a crucial role in buying decision. It provides a base for decision making. This assignment will explain consumer decision process and dimensions of culture that affects it. Besides this, it will evaluate how dime interact and influence consumer decision process.
A) Explanation of consumer decision making process
There are many situations that influence consumers in their decision making process. It highly affects the consumers in making decision to purchase a product. Consumer does a brief research and analyse every information of all options available (Dessart, Veloutsou and Morgan-Thomas, 2015). This helps them to make a correct decision in buying a product. Also, the need of consumers varies according to change in their tastes and preference. This is the main reason why there is constant change in consumer behaviour. Besides this, there are several steps followed by consumers in this (Stages in Consumer Decision Making Process, 2016). These are as follows:
It is the first step in that affects consumer behaviour to a great extent. A consumer will recognise his need before buying a product. This will help in making correct decisions. His need is the most important element in buying behaviour. According to needs decides what product he has to purchase (Schütte and Ciarlante, 2016). For example- individuals will buy cold drink or mineral water in order to fulfil their need of thirst
In this individual tries to gather as much information as he can. This is used to analyse the assignment online alternatives available. In this, person finds out what other options exist that can be used to satisfy his needs. The information is gathered from various sources such as personal source- friends, relatives, etc. commercial source- advertisements, sales people, etc. Public source- newspaper, radio, etc. (Tukker and et..al 2017). experiential source- someone own experience.
Evaluation of aternatives-
After analysing the information of products, evaluation is done. This evaluation helps in selecting an appropriate product. It is done on the basis of several factors. These factors can highly influence the consumer behaviour. It consists of price, quality, etc. and then individual makes decision. The product must be according to person’s taste, needs and budget.
Purchase of product-
At this stage, the decision is made by person to purchase a product. After finally making decision consumer approach for buying product (Solomon and et..al, 2014).
Post purchase behaviour –
The above step is followed by post purchase behaviour. In this, consumer analyses whether product is able to satisfy his needs or not. It is done on some basis. It helps the consumers in finding out value of product with price paid. Moreover, it is useful in taking decision in the future regarding product.
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These all steps are involved in consumer decision process (Tomczak, Reinecke and Kuss, 2018.) It helps consumer to take appropriate decision of buying product. Besides this, it evaluated how an individual follows these steps and what results are drawn from it. This helps in getting views of people regrading how he used this process to buy a product.
B) Brief outline of two typical dimensions of culture
Consumer buying behaviour is also influenced by the cultural factors. It shows that how they respond to a particular product (Vigneron and Johnson, 2017). Moreover, the culture of individual reflects upon his needs. It shows what their needs are and how it can be fulfilled. People needs are based on society. There are two dimensions discussed in this that are ethnicity and nationality.
It refers to an individual’s birth place or country from which he belongs. The nationality of people plays a vital role in influencing consumer’s buying behaviour. It is because; it consists of culture, values, etc. that reflect a country’s social status. It states person belonging to specific group as common cultural tradition.
It consists to ethic, morale values and beliefs. This reflects the societal rules and regulations. Also, the ground rules on which an individual can take decision (Tanner and Raymond, 2015). Apart from this, ethics are usually related to society and religion. This influence person buying behaviour. However, there is difference between
Thus, these two dimensions are most important in influencing consumer behaviour. They provide a base on which decision can be taken. However, there are many dimensions that is considered in buying behaviour. But the initial stage of consumer behaviour is started by this. Moreover, as stated in process, purchase decision is based on this. Nationality and ethnicity influence consumer buying decision. The both are interrelated with each other. As nationality describes the type of ethics being followed by people in a nation. Business should consider these dimensions while delivering goods to people
C) Evaluation of how dimensions interact and influence consumer behaviour decision process
Consumer behaviour is influenced by many factors. These factors play a crucial role in creating a base for consumers to take a decision. The culture and society of nation reflects upon behaviour of people towards a particular product (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016). It shows the perception of people for that product. Companies focus on them for marketing. It is because; it helps in describing the social needs that can be fulfilled. Company should analyse the culture of nation in promoting a product. It will help in attracting more people and thus, increasing sales. If there is any mistake done by company then it can lead to huge loss or poor image of that product in the market. The dimensions are as follows: -
The country society and traditional values reflects its nationality. It shows what kind of religion is followed by people and what are their beliefs and values (Tomczak, Reinecke and Kuss, 2018). Therefore, this dimension influences consumer behaviour in the decision making process. For example- in developed countries, people needs increased due to rise in income. Whereas, in developing countries, it is opposite. Hence, companies keep their price low in developing countries so that people can afford it. For example- McDonald’s products differ in different countries. This is because of country’s traditional and cultural values. Their food items in India is vegetarian while in other countries it sells both veg and non-veg items. Thus, McDonald knows the values and beliefs of people in India. Therefore, they have created these products so that needs of people can be fulfilled (Heding, Knudtzen and Bjerre, 2015). Besides this, they have named item on the basis of traditional culture of India such as Maharaja, Panner tikka, etc. This is the reason why buying decision of people has been influenced in India.
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Government imposes certain rules and regulations on basis of nationality of people. These rules are based on ethics of people so that companies does not harm them. Also, those products are not allowed to sell that are against people beliefs (Zhang, 2015). This has to be ensured regarding ethics. Business ethics constitutes what is wrong and right, goods or bad, etc. it focuses on activities that concentrates on moral values and business environment. Business should promote product in such a way that it attract person (Tomczak, Reinecke and Kuss, 2018). These products are based on social values. It defines how person is able to make decision whether to purchase it or not. Also, if the rules and regulation of country influence individual decision.
Ethics of people must be followed while marketing product. It is because it influences individual in buying a product. The social group of person will reflect on his needs and demands. It will help in identifying which needs are essential and not. Then, accordingly person is able to decide which product he has to purchase or not (Moutinho and Vargas-Sanchez, 2018). The ethics if individual will help in buying decision. For example- India is country of diversified people and religion. Therefore, people who are vegetarian will not buy any non veg item. It shows their ethics. Ethics are related to needs of people. It follows Maslow hierarchy needs theory in which physiological needs are food, clothes and shelter. After this comes social and safety needs. This change individual behaviour in buying product.
If his physiological needs are fulfilled then only social needs will be fulfilled. Apart from this, ethics includes guidelines and rules on which decision has to be made. They allow person to use those while buying product. Ethics allow people to decide whether specific product is goods for them or not. It restricts them to purchase goods that is harmful for their society or is against moral values or beliefs. For example- Hindu people does not eat non veg items (Dessart, Veloutsou and Morgan-Thomas, 2015). It is against their ethics. Similarly, business so not market items that can harm beliefs of people. Besides this, consumer buying decision influenced by people who interact with them. They give different advise regrading goods. Advise given by them helps in knowing benefits and drawbacks of product. On this basis final decision is taken by individual to buy or not.
These both influence buying decision in their own way. First one is base of ethics. People nationality is based on their ethics and religion. It will allow business to consider ethics while developing products (Horner and Swarbrooke, 2016). They know it can influence consumer decisions. So they need to related it with social needs so that it is easy to attract people. Consumer is influenced by other people when they take views of products. This provide them details of product features and its value. Also, it helps them to select it from options available.
Thus, it is concluded that nationality and ethnicity influence consumer buying decision. The both are interrelated with each other (Schütte and Ciarlante, 2016). As nationality describes the type of ethics being followed by people in a nation. Business should consider these dimensions while delivering goods to people. This must ensure that beliefs or values of society is not hurt. If goods are provided according to social needs then it will be easy in attracting consumers. It will be easy for people to judge product on basis on ethics.
It can be concluded from the above report that consumer behaviour is complex in nature. There are many situations that influence consumers in their decision making process. It highly affects consumers in making decision to purchase a product. Consumer buying behaviour is also influenced by cultural factors. It shows that how they respond to a particular product. Moreover, the culture of individual reflects his needs. It has been assessed that consumer behaviour is influenced by many factors which play a crucial role in creating a base for consumers to take a decision. The culture and society of nation are also important dimensions that reflect behaviour of people towards a particular product. As nationality describes the type of ethics being followed by people in a nation. Business should consider these dimensions while delivering goods to people.
Dessart, L., Veloutsou, C. and Morgan-Thomas, A., 2015. Consumer engagement in online brand communities: a social media perspective. Journal of Product & Brand Management. 24(1). pp.28-42.
Heding, T., Knudtzen, C.F. and Bjerre, M., 2015. Brand management: Research, theory and practice. Routledge
Horner, S. and Swarbrooke, J., 2016. Consumer behaviour in tourism. Routledge.
Moutinho, L. and Vargas-Sanchez, A. eds., 2018. Strategic Management in Tourism, CABI Tourism Texts. Cabi.
Schütte, H. and Ciarlante, D., 2016. Consumer behaviour in Asia. Springer.
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