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Critical Literature Review and Methodology

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Critical Literature Review and Methodology

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Introduction to Paper Work

TASK A

It is mainly in accordance to the prevalent industry of construction in UK where it is continually foreseen as an evolving sector. It is also due to its high level of contribution in the GDP rate of the nation where this particular industry is evident to employ more than 2.2 million individuals of UK. This has in  turn made a spectacular contribution in intensifying both profitable and developmental growth of the nation with a raised state of employment (Ball, 2014). It is also in context to yet another factual statistics of construction industries in UK where presently there exists more than 192000 ventures of construction. It is with a transcribed order of £18.7 billion  in the fiscal year of 2009 that has been received by the private construction organisations of Great Britain. Wherein, the public sector organisations in this analogous sector has acquired the projects of worth £15.1 billion (Ameon group Ltd., 2016). However, the leading projects that are mainly being handled by the construction industries of UK involves Crossrail and Heathrow airport, etc. It is with a significant matter of concern to accomplish the undertaken projects at a stipulated period of time so as to maintain the brand image of the organisations in a pertinent manner.

It is basically due an increasing persuasion of this particular industry where they are highly demanded by hotel industries, spa, hospitals and educational sectors, etc. It has hereby showcased an increasing rate of demand where their projects are directly linked with the satisfaction level of their respective clients and users (Dadhich and et.al., 2015). It thereby gets essential for the construction industries to timely attain their projects that in turn reflects to be a greater influential mean for all affiliated organisations with it. Though, on referring to a mere conception of construction industries, there success if evident in case they are effective in handling their undertaken projects on time. Wherein, there together exists such varied factors that atrociously impact upon the projects as a mean of delaying the submission. These factors involves an ineffective sense of planning with low level coordination and inappropriate estimation of funds (Gilbert, 2014). It is thus referred to be a crucial measure for the construction industries where they are hereby required to consider a prior riddance of such inefficient measures and in turn make a timely submission of their undertaken assignations.

It is thence based upon a case study on a renowned construction enterprise named Ameon Group Ltd.   It is one of the leading company of UK in this sector that is officially registered in England and deals into the projects of sports & leisure, education, commercial & industrial, healthcare, accommodation in hotels and retail constructions, etc. This company is evident to follow the registration of ISO 9001: 2008 with assured quality standards that in turn reflects a prior intent of delivering high quality services to the customers (Khosrowshahi and Arayici, 2012). With respect to which, they are also convergent to adopt feasible measures of health and safety while constructing the buildings that are directly related to the prospect of maintaining the health standards of their workers and customers.

TASK B

Literature Review

Trend of UK construction industry

In the present scenario, the construction industry within UK is going through recession and this has directly resulted in creating obstacles in growth and success of business. As per the view of Murray and Dainty (2013) even before the exit of UK from European Union, the industry was facing wide range of issues and challenges.  Along with this, the expert in country also believes that demand of products and services in construction industry is more likely to fall among businesses and customers in UK. However, Potts and Ankrah (2014) has argued that in the coming years, the industry is going to boost up again and will overcome the key issues and challenges which it is presently facing. In context of the recent trend, it can be stated shortage of skilled and efficient labour is one of the major obstacles in construction industry of UK.

The rationale behind this is that during recession large number of skilled employee left their jobs and construction industry. As per the present situation businesses in construction industry are striving for effective and skilled personnel’s. It can be also argued that shortage of skilled workers not only lies in terms of lower level and businesses are also facing problem in terms of finding workers for all level of management. Lack of skilled employees has emerged as key obstacles in terms of delivering high quality and satisfactory services to customers. As per the view of Sarhan  and Fox (2013) offsite and prefab methods of construction will become more popular in the coming years. The rationale behind this is that prefab methods supports in saving cost of operations, time and resources. This will contribute a lot to overall growth and development of business operating in construction industry. Apart from this, the recent trend also depicts the fact that in the coming years, businesses or companies in construction industry will become more selective in terms of picking up a particular project. It can be stated that because of the recession which has occurred, companies have become very selective and now they are only picking up the work which they can manage easily. Many big and small projects have been cancelled because of shortage of labour and therefore companies are still trying to recover from the loss which they have incurred due to recession. Other than this, the demand of business information modelling is also going to increase in the construction industry. According to the view point of Sherratt (2014) the use of or installation of business information modelling provides wide range of benefits to businesses irrespective of their size and level of operations.

However, Zanni, Soetanto and Ruikar (2014) has critically argued that in the coming years, the demand of green buildings in sectors such as residential and commercial also tends o increase at rapid pace. Nowadays, construction industry of UK has started looking forward to green constructions in both commercial and residential sector. This can become a great opportunity for businesses operating in this sector in terms of growth and development.

Several factors which may cause delay in construction projects

Delay is defined as an event that results in extending the time period required to accomplish a targeted set of work as per the conferred statement of Bassi and et.al. (2012). Delay is together termed as time overrun where an undertaken work is either done beyond the specified data of completion or has extended the date as per the specified contract and did not met the set deadline of work with is usually a permitted clause of delay. Wherein, the type of delay in the construction industry is referred to be an overrun delay of work where the company often fails to meet the set deadline of work with a non granted extension of work. However, the delay over hereby is further categorised in two leading factors known an internal and external reasons of delay.

Higham, Fortune and James (2015) has hereby enlightened the fact behind both these circumstance of delays where an intrinsic delay in construction arises from the involved bodies of the organisation like the contractors, clients and consultants, etc.  However, the extrinsic delays are apparent to take place due to some outer elements that governs the organisational work that are beyond the control of their administrative bodies as well. This includes the governmental parties of the marketplace in which the establishment is presently operating their business along with the martial suppliers, etc.

Killip (2013) has further classified these delays in three different concepts with a foremost measure of excusable yet non compensable delays that are usually originated by such events that are dimensional to any of the organisational bodies. Wherein, a compensable delay exists due to an omitted act of the proprietor as a due negligence of the owner with entire liability to pay for the same. An inexcusable delay is the one that exists due to a faulty approach of the contractors and their subordinates like subcontractors or material suppliers, etc.

As per the carried research of Pacheco-Torgal (2014) to analyse some associated factors of delay in the construction work of residential projects has proven due to some financial difficulties that often exists a changed order of the proprietor that entirely changes the budgeted prospect of the contractors. Where time performance is referred to be yet another vital factor that results in a delayed completion of work. It is therefore important for all respective bodies associated with such contractual framework of construction projects to disregard an impatience context of work by together avoiding continual modifications in the proposed plan.

Sarhan and Fox (2013) has however enlightened another substantial fact of delay in such construction works where it often exists due to many associated factors in which, a single party cannot be embalmed for the same. A balanced perspective of work is thus recommended over here where all affiliated bodies like contractors, proprietors and suppliers should collaboratively work with each other in a cooperative sense of accomplishment. However, another due negligence is also envisioned over here where many times the outer bodies of the organisations are reluctant to carry out their work due to some intra-group conflicts among them. This in turn make some terrible impact upon the organisations who are directly associated with the business of construction.

Impact of construction project delay on brand image of construction enterprises

This is context to specify some vital impact of delayed construction work on the brand image of those establishments that are directly into this industrial sector. With reference to which, Taroun (2014) has hereby defined it to be a global phenomena that not only affects the construction industry but in turn impacts upon the entire economic system of the nation. A delay is however evident to include multiple issues that are often complex in nature and are exigent to the parties affiliated with the contractual terms of construction.

Tutt and et. al. (2013) has argued that these problems tends to care the entitled bodies to retrieve the costs for delay. It is with a prime requisition of extending the deadline of an undertaken project with its eventful allowance for recovering applicable reimbursement for corrections in the agreed schedule of work. It is with some pertinent queries that arise so as to depict the factual cause behind the delayed projects into which the distribution of faulty accountability tends to evolve into conflicts and legal proceedings where no one is prompt in accepting their faults.

As a result to which, Rostami and et. al. (2015) has hereby mentioned that the associated stakeholders of construction organisations are largely concerned about the entitled duration of their undertaken  projects. It is also due to some other prevalent origins like an exploding rate of interest, inflation and commercial pressure from the outer bodies of the organisation without whom it is infeasible to lay out their business operations. Wherein, a delayed construction project is proven to result in conflicts and such assertions that will in turn result in growing the demand of judicial decision by legal proceedings, etc.

All these propulsions are evident to make a direct impact on the brand image of the companies associated with construction businesses. It is as per the bestowed standpoint of Lee and et. al. (2014), where a delayed project work resulting in litigation and arbitrary procedures can directly hamper the image of the organisation getting into such conflicted measures. Other than this, it is also evident to shatter the entire business operation of the construction organisation that in turn lowers their profitability index as well. There applied tactics of marketing together fail to succeed in a directional way that in turn destroy their icon in front of their clients and users.

It is basically due to certain impediment elements of delay as specified by Eadie and et. al. (2013) where an inconsistent approach of work with short term thinking of some afflicted organisational bodies are also evident to result into a delayed work. This in turn impacts upon the overall brand image of the organisation where they fail to receive much projects that resultantly affect the status of their profitability as well with a significant loss of their icon. It is where one referral system producers another where a negative propulsion directly results in loss of their brand image.

Relationship between project delays and brand image in the construction industry of UK

There exists a direct relationship between the delayed projects of construction industries with that to their brand image as emphasised by Dadhich and et. al. (2015). It is where brand image is defined as a carried perception of the users that is usually carried out by the consumers. It is basically a message that is given to the audiences in the form of brand image. It is hereby considered to be a vital practice of marketing by the firms associated with the construction industries as a mean of defining the carried perception of the users. It is thereby important for the entities to maintain an affirmative outlook of their undertaken assignations by carrying out their agreed projections on time.

Cao and et. al. (2015) hereby highlighted a prior requisition of networking to the companies associated with the matrix of construction. Additionally, a delayed completion of work by the construction industries is also evident to impact upon the marketing procedurals of the enterprises where their adopted measures may get fail by the spread of their negative work procedurals. Wherein, it get essential for the organisations to outlook some contemporary means of marketing in order to attract a larger base of customers and appoint proficient set of employees. It is with a fundamental sense of making timely submission of work where the employees should hereby tend to work with a united sense of achievement.

Cannon and Hillebrandt (2016) has also proposed two vital strategies to aid the same where reward systems and other motivational tools can greatly support the administrative bodies of construction organisations to create a vital sense of encouragement in them. This will significantly help the construction organisations to obviate any pessimistic consequences in their image where they will resultantly make timely completion of their undertaken projects. It is basically due to a proven fact of brand image that is directly inclined with the carried perception of the users with is an influential element and can be easily disrupted by such delayed submission of assignations.

TASK C

Research Methodology

This unit is another most significant concern of the researcher to carry out the investigation in a technical manner. This section will hereby tend to define the undertaken methods by the surveyor to carry the study in a directional sense with an ultimate achievement of its formulated goals. The current research work is conducted to discover the causes behind construction delays and its impact on the overall brand image of Ameon Group Ltd. In accordance to which, below are the technical assumptions made by the investigator-

Research approach

It is mainly in accordance to opt for a substantial approach to carry out the study in a pertinent direction where the researcher is hereby liable to choose from a definite method of research approach. This will in turn reflect some significant elements of this study by together rationalising the configured matrix of the investigation. With reference to which, there exists total two vital measures to conduct either an inductive or deductive approach of the study. Both of it exists with some vita points of distinction among both where a deductive approach is known to minimize the scope of the study (Deductive Reasoning Versus Inductive Reasoning, 2014). It is basically due to its nature of existence where a deductive study is evident to move from general to specific approach. Whereas, another approach to carry out an inductive study, the entire survey is considered to move from specific to general context that in turn broaden the range of investigation. Researcher in the present investigation has thus chosen to carry out an inductive study in order to widen the scope of the survey whose acquired outcomes can be later implicated in other similar studies.

Research philosophy

It is yet another leading consideration of a surveyor to opt a moralised way of carrying out the study. This requires the researcher to opt from the two leading philosophies of interpretivism and positivism where an interpretivism is a general way of interpreting the obtained outcomes of the investigation. Wherein, the study of positivism necessitates the surveyor to opt for a study that is based on accrual facts and findings. As a result to which, an interpretivism philosophy is evident to support in acknowledging the subjective nature of the subject matter (Gast and Ledford, 2014). This in turn relates to the study of social science and human behaviour, whereas, another philosophical alternative for conducting a positivism survey, the researcher is hereby required to investigate the objective nature of the subject matter. Wherein, the current study is hereby based upon the study of interpretivism in support of reflecting a thematic context of its elected topic.

Research design

In this particular section, the investigator is hereby required to opt for a spectacular design of the research. This is with a need base consideration of reflecting a dignified sense of carrying out the study with a promptly selected configuration for the same. With a similar reference to which, there exists total three leading designs to conduct a survey entitled as, descriptive, exploratory and explanatory constellations. There selection mainly depends upon the nature and context of the chosen subject matter where a descriptive design is usually represented in case of conducting a research based upon elementary topics (Research design, 2009). It is with a similar reflective of an explanatory study that also involves an analogous structure of research with a mere explanation of its chosen subject matter. An exploratory survey is with a distinctive nature that is opted to carry out a study on some newer topics to create varied set of ideas and assumptions based upon it. The investigator in the recent research work is referring to designate a descriptive study as a mean of discovering the origin behind delays in construction and its impact on the overall brand image of Ameon Group Ltd. This is with a prime assistance of the selected research design that will in turn aid in carrying out an in depth analysis of this particular topic.

Data collection

This is mainly in accordance to choose from the most skilful way of data collection in order to obtain a most liable set of information from the targeted set of audiences in the study. With reference to which, there exists two vital forms of data collection that involves primary and secondary measures to collect a considerable set of information. The primary method is implicated by carrying focus group interviews that also involves varied observatory methods to accumulate resourceful data from the respondents. This largely assists the researcher to refer a newer set of data that postulates a direct conversation with the responders as a thorough way of interrogating them. It is hereby done with support of a framed set of questionnaire with some configured queries that are especially formulated for the participant audiences of the investigation (Research Instruments for Data Collection, 2014). However, the secondary mean of data collection hereby necessitate the surveyor to refer some well established data as a mean of generating information from some verified books, journals and online publications, etc. It is however with a prime concern of the surveyor where they are hereby required to refer only the attested publications as a mean of supporting the study with no exhausted and counterfeit informations. The investigator in the below carried research work has referred to concentrate upon both the measures of data collection.

Sampling

This is the distribution mean of research in which the investigator is hereby required to distribute the targeted set of respondents in an equivalent proportion so as to carry a balanced form of study. There exists two leading methods of sampling to make either random or purposive distribution of the responders (Mackey and Gass, 2015). A random sampling of data is usually to make a probable distribution of the respondents with no goal-directed selection. However, a purposive selection of responders is done via a non probability method or with a goal directed consent as done in the recent investigation. Into which, 5 managerial bodies of Ameon Group Ltd. have represented as the respondents of this research work as a mean of acknowledging delay in construction work and its impact on the image of their brand.

Data analysis

This section depicts the way to evaluate the above gathered data by selecting a reliable measure for the same. This evaluation will further support the researcher in timely accomplishment of the research goals and objectives where there exists total two leading methods for assessment known an qualitative and quantitative measures. A qualitative study is carried to thematic structure of the survey with some valid assumptions by the researcher made upon the investigation topic (Taylor, Bogdan and DeVault, 2015). However, a quantitative data analysis exists with certain distinctive  norms and standards that postulates the surveyor to refer varied numerical tools so as to involve the conceptual framework of mean, mode and median, etc. This is in supposition of carrying out an objective form of study that entirely differs from another configured plan of a qualitative study. The researcher in the current investigation has opted to conduct a qualitative analysis of the data in support of the preceding selection of interpretivism philosophy.

Ethical consideration

A prime consideration of ethics is referred to be yet another major concern of a researcher while carrying out a study to obtain genuine resultants at the end. It is mainly in supposition of referring to some crucial approaches like to take a prior consent of the research participants along with another concern of conducting a confidential investigation (Bauer,  2014). It is where the participant bodies of the investigation should not reflect a forceful impulsion on them to answer the questions where they should willingly respond to it. Another prime concern in regard to carry out a confidential study is in accordance to protect the acquired set of information from any unauthorised user. There together exists some other vital concern of the investigator in regard to employ genuine citations with an authentic set of references for the same.

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Research limitations

There exists certain impeding elements for the surveyor while carrying out the study that in turn obstructs the intended goals of the entire research work. These limited constituents are specified as a constricted period of time and funds to carry out a definite investigation in a directional format. It is however important for the investigator to consider these limited sources and opt for a preplanned way for accomplishing the formulated objectives of the study (Neuman and Robson, 2012). A planned mode will largely assist the surveyor in timely acquiring the configured aim of the research where using a Gantt Chart is often referred to be a guiding tool for the same. It is a scheduled timeline that depicts the need base period of the activities that are required to be carried out within a stipulated time period. This in turn assists in eliminating any possible hindrance like lack of time, etc., with a smooth flow of study that eventually leads to attain the undertaken objectives of the investigation.

TASK D

Reference List

  • Ball, M., 2014. Rebuilding Construction (Routledge Revivals): Economic Change in the British Construction Industry. Routledge.
  • Bassi, A. and et.al., 2012. UK and Italian EIA systems: A comparative study on management practice and performance in the construction industry. Environmental Impact Assessment Review. 34. pp.1-11.
  • Bauer, G.R., 2014. Incorporating intersectionality theory into population health research methodology: Challenges and the potential to advance health equity. Social Science & Medicine, 110, pp.10-17.
  • Cannon, J. and Hillebrandt, P.M. eds., 2016. The management of construction firms: aspects of theory. Springer.
  • Cao, D., Wang, G., Li, H., Skitmore, M., Huang, T. and Zhang, W., 2015. Practices and effectiveness of building information modelling in construction projects in China. Automation in Construction. 49. pp.113-122.
  • Dadhich, P. and et.al., 2015. Developing sustainable supply chains in the UK construction industry: A case study. International Journal of Production Economics. 164. pp.271-284.
  • Dadhich, P., Genovese, A., Kumar, N. and Acquaye, A., 2015. Developing sustainable supply chains in the UK construction industry: A case study. International Journal of Production Economics. 164. pp.271-284.
  • Eadie, R., Browne, M., Odeyinka, H., McKeown, C. and McNiff, S., 2013. BIM implementation throughout the UK construction project lifecycle: An analysis. Automation in Construction. 36. pp.145-151.
  • Gast, D.L. and Ledford, J.R., 2014. Single case research methodology: Applications in special education and behavioral sciences. Routledge.
  • Gilbert, A., 2014. Overview of the UK Residential Ventilation Market and Initiatives to Improve the Quality of the Installed Systems. International Journal of Ventilation. 13(2). pp.103-110.
  • Higham, A., Fortune, C. and James, H., 2015. Life cycle costing: evaluating its use in UK practice. Structural Survey. 33(1). pp.73-87.
  • Khosrowshahi, F. and Arayici, Y., 2012. Roadmap for implementation of BIM in the UK construction industry. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management. 19(6). pp. 610-635.
  • Killip, G., 2013. Products, practices and processes: exploring the innovation potential for low-carbon housing refurbishment among small and medium-sized enterprises (SMEs) in the UK construction industry. Energy Policy. 62. pp.522-530.
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