In the absence of manager, corporation cannot survive for long time because he/she is the person who has all authority to carry business practices. In a simple words, it can be said that manager is a person who is in charge of a certain group of tasks, or certain subset of a corporation this project report. Various roles and responsibility of an effective managers and important of their role in the business context has been addressed. Furthermore, diverse range of management styles and leadership characteristics has been discussed with the context of hospitality industry. In addition to this, evaluation of communication process and its impact on organisation culture are also studied in this report. The major objective of this project is to understand the importance and their responsibility in the business enterprise. In the last part of this project, a systematic career and personal development plan has been prepared for manager through which he/she can improve their existing performance in the business organisation.
Management plays very crucial role in an organisation in strengthening the bond amongst the
Personnel and making them work together as a single unit (Zhao, 2015). Management styles are the attribute through which the organisation can take decision related to working practices of the workforce. In order to implement management style in the organisation, manager have most important role who is responsible to manage and coordinate with employee according to mentioned aspects. There are various types of management style which are adopted by the Marriott hotel and Hilton hotel. These styles are as follows-
Autocratic style of management- An autocratic management style is one where the manager makes decision unilaterally and without interferences of the employees. In this style, all rights and authority for taking decisions regarding business activities and function are in the hand of the manager and he/she does not take participation of personnel in the decision making process (Massa, Farneti and Scappini, 2015). All employees are largely dependent upon the manager decision and they do not have the authority to share their suggestion and advice to the management. In the Hilton hotel, autocratic leadership style can be adopted by manager in order to control the activities of workforce and take quick business decision. Generally, this style is used in times of crisis where lots of time is unavailable and the managers are responsible to give order only. Moreover, in this style, there is high command of manager over the personnel and they have to follow rules and regulation which are made by manager.
Democratic style of management- Democratic management style is just opposite to autocratic style because under this style, manager provides opportunity to the personnel for participating in the business decision making process (Hassan and Hatmaker, 2015). Marriott hotel's manager adopts this management style under which he/she allows the workforce to involve in the business decisions. In this style, employees are free to share their personal views, opinion and suggestion to the management related to business activities and practices.
Leaders are important person in the business organisation who is liable to develop an effective working environment at the workplace. The major responsibility of leader is to coordinate, motivate, guide, direct and encourage personnel as they can effectively perform their job. In order to properly coordinate and lead subordinates, leader must have some characteristics and skill which are as follows-
Communication- Leader of Marriott hotel must have skill of effective communication through which he/she will able to convey information and his knowledge to its subordinates. If leader have effective communication skill then he/she will effectively define the norms and policies of the business and guide subordinates in an appropriate manner.
Coordination- Coordination is another utmost skill of the leader through which he/she can maintain or manage all assignments or task among various subordinates at the workplace. It is an important characteristic to accomplish the desired target within a specific time period.
Positive attitude-Leader have various kinds of roles and responsibility such as guide, direct, motivate, lead and encourage. (Scarbrough, Panourgias and Nandhakumar, 2015) For these all responsibilities, leader must have positive attitude through which he/she can inspire the subordinate.
Knowledge of business survival- In the Marriott hotel, leader must have knowledge about the business strategies and practices so as he/she can achieve desired objective within a specific time period.
In the Marriott hotel, communication play a very crucial role through which all departments such as marketing, finance, human resources, operation can be connected with each other and exchange business related information. Furthermore, communication process is essential for enhancing the guest experience as it conveys their queries to staff member and they can resolve their queries in an appropriate manner. In a simple word, communication is a systematic process under which convey of information between two or more people. In the context of business, there are various types of communication process. Marriott hotel can adopt horizontal communication process under which the transmission of information between division, department or people within the same level of organisational hierarchy. With assistance of this communication process, corporation can resolve their conflicts and business related issue among various departments. Furthermore, Marriott hotel can improve its productivity by sharing information problem solving, collaboration and conflict resolution. Moreover, all employees can easily disclose their personal issue between the same level departments. In this manner, cited venture can adopt verbal and written communication under which the higher authority can transfer their information related norms, policies, strategies and regulation by using the notice board, business letter, conducting meeting, business mail. On the other hand, lower level management convey their message by using their email, fax, business letter etc. In the cited venture, when manager is required to communicate with all departments he can conduct the business meeting. On the other hand, Hilton hotel can adopt vertical communication process under which information or message flows up and down through the organisation's hierarchical structure. In this, information moves through a chain of command typically is vertical.
Organizational Culture and change in selected businesses
The concept of organizational culture is a prominent part of management theories and principles. Marriott International and Hilton are cited organizations that are operating within international business environment. Both the organizations have American origin having worldwide scope of services provided. Marriot has chain of restaurants located in more than 100 countries of UK. Marriot International has been known since long back to till date for exhibiting excellence in providing higher level of comfort by delivering super values to its customers. Organization’s cultural environment is a uniquely constructed one, wherein number of values, beliefs, assumptions and morals are integrated in an appropriate manner. Senior executives and managers of Marriott have believed in designing specific code of conduct for its human resources to promote the ideology of working with disciplinary behavioral principles. The cited organization believes in putting its people first as they are an important part among list of valuable resources (Proctor, 2014). Marriott’s organizational culture can be accredited for its current super performance in providing quality assured meals and accommodation facilities. Moreover, it has been analyzed that the cited organization appreciates innovative ideas and recommendations from its human resources to promote overall organizational goal by aligning with cultural diversities that has emerged as it has been operating in number of national markets. Marriott has aligned with decentralized organizational structure as its business expansion strategy was promoted at a rapid speed.
Hilton is another leading worldwide organization having set of beliefs and core values followed by its employees. These assumptions focused on designing strategies and policies in such a manner so that it can continue with providing higher level of satisfaction to its customers having different cultural origins. Moreover, the cited company believes that entire globe is a single family wherein employees as well customers having respective cultural origins are not differentiated on any basis. Hilton properties located worldwide are managed and controlled as independent resort or hotel properties. Providing ownership of Hilton properties brought about a change in organizational structure, as it aligned with franchisee form of marketing to expand its business activities (Frost and Wallingford, 2013).
Management skill performance
As a general manager for Dorchester Luxury Hotel in London, I am responsible for managing revenue and cost functions of marketing and sales department. It is my core responsibility to manage each marketing and sales activity in such a way so that all of organizational objectives and goals are attained within specified time. The process of management in a hospitality company is a complex one, involving controlling with number of activities with respect to accommodation, meals or entertainment. I have to manage daily routine activities in a significant manner such that each of functional department is able to work with integration for achievement of common goals and objectives. There has been extreme consideration for delivering quality assured services to customers so that the cited organization is able to maintain long term relationship with customers from different cultural background. The cited organization is existing within international business environment and this requires the management executives including me, to align with latest communication means provided by social media. Efficiency in building an effective communication system within an organizational structure of Dorchester Hotel Company, is one of the core skill possessed by me.
Moreover, most importantly I am capable able to align each of the task with strategies and policies framed by top executives. This has enabled Dorchester Company to deliver services of super quality by observing disciplinary norms (Pohl, 2010).
I have leadership skills possessed by me, that have enabled me to provide required guidelines to personnel responsible for reservation and bookings departments, revenue collection department, miscellaneous services department, etc. I have super qualities for managing each task that is carried out to provide convenience as well as a peaceful and comfortable environment to our customers, so that they can spend quality time by experiencing various relaxation facilities such as spa and foot massage services. Moreover, I have a unique skill of understanding and analyzing even smallest requirements of foreign clients that might include providing required facility for local transportation (Higgins and Aspinall, 2011).
I believe in promoting brand image of Dorchester Hotel Company by exploiting benefits of words of mouth, that is I believe, one of the most effective means of promotional function.
Personal strength, weakness, opportunities and threats
Creativity in organizing various cultural fests within hotel environment of Dorchester to promote higher level of tourism attractions.
Developing environment of providing adventure and nature based fun activities for clients booking reservations to avail experience of unique services to be provided as complementary.
Attracting inbound tourist by enabling respective hotel company for participating in International Travel Marts.
Exploiting various incentives provided by political authority of different regional area of United Kingdom to promote tourism as well as confront number of benefits before organization with which I am working (Rousseau, 2012).
Not able to manage various global events and association meets, due to lack of recruitment of skilled manpower.
Not able to manage IT department for resolving data insecurity issues and various hacking threats.
Not able to design effective expansion plans to enable respective organization to extend its footprints to different parts of globe.
Enhancing personnel skills by increasing passion for pursuing carrier within travel and tourism sector. Thereby taking active participation in various hospitality campaigns and projects.
Developing marketing skills by researching on mobile marketing and implementing usage of same, so as to stay connected with trends and issues of hospitality sector and thereby staying up dated with latest news (OLIVEIRA, 2011)
Non compliance with IT infrastructure like Firewall, Manageable switches, Antivirus can hinder overall personnel development process.
Lack of knowledge of social media marketing in using blogs to create buzz and attention among potential customers can prove to be greatest threat in future.
Lack of skill in experimenting with product and service differentiation to enable the cited organization to retain customer loyalty, can have adverse impact on overall carrier development in future.
Objectives and targets to develop own potential
Based on list of weaknesses and threats mentioned in above section, it is important to prioritize and set objectives to develop own potential by exploiting core capabilities and thereby enhancing management and technological skills. Below mentioned is a list of objectives and targets prioritized by me to boost up my personality and skills:
Enhancing leadership skills to control effectiveness of potential projects that will be assigned in future.
Understanding the process of application of principles of operations management by researching different operational procedure carried out in hospitality industry.
Highlighting personnel expectations to be gained by working within tourism and travel sector, to draw a clear picture of what is desired to be achieved.
Setting a time limit for achievement of number of job related tasks. This will enable me to achieve objectives set by me, within specific time frame.
To attain a prominent position in hospitality industry by staying in constant touch with industry players.
Understanding tax structure of countries in UK, to provide accurate guidance to top executives in framing effective revenue and cost strategies.
To develop a stage wherein I can appreciate ideologies of personnel working under my supervision for understanding what constitutes sustainable travel according to them. Thereby, I can explore new plans and working pattern for the organization I am working for.
Gain complete knowledge of emerging trends and issues within hospitality industry, thereby providing service to Dorchester Hotel Company for promoting my image as most knowledgeable personnel of cited organization.
Leading and motivating a team
Managing number of activities along with important functions of a newly established restaurant requires greater extent of active participation and involvement from a personnel having expertise in management context. An efficient manager has to effectively manage number of projects and tasks as well as lead various team members to enable them to integrate their respect task for achievement of common goals targeted by senior executives. Most importantly, it is necessary to analyze current situation and measure the extent of impact of various trends and issues. Depending upon prevailing situation, a manager can apply different leading and managing styles to appreciate its team managers and employees working under him. For ensuring minimum cost to be incurred for managing human resources, responsible personnel must provide managerial services as well deliver his image as that of an efficient leader too. It is the duty of manager to design plans for achievement of goals and ensure implementation through controlling of activities performed by employees and staff. During initial stage of strategic implementation, managers must apply authoritative approach and impose strict working norms, so that desired organizational structure is established. Employees must be directed to work as per the criteria set within organizational cultural environment. Complete information about organization’s objectives as well as information must be provided along with training to introduce newly recruited human resources to company’s operating pattern. After providing required guidelines, employees can be expected to execute their personalized skills into practical implementation. It must be ensured that equal opportunities are provided to these employees so that there is no place for partiality or bias on the basis of cultural diversity or caste differentiation (Müller and Turner, 2010).
Once these employees have completed aligned their working behavior with that of organization’s policies, they can be expected to contribute in decision making process by providing required suggestions and recommendations. Most common issues faced by them, must be noted down clearly and resolution must be provided so that they can work efficiently within comfortable business environment. This gives a way to align with principles of participative leadership style. Employees will execute best of their managerial and personnel skills to enable newly established hotel, deliver increased level of customer satisfaction. More focus must be laid upon experimenting with new and innovative recipes confronted by cooking experts. Chefs putting forward mouth watering and delicious recipes as well as those who are able to provide unique dishes of various cuisines must be appreciated. This will not only enhance organization’s image but will also provide ample of opportunities to every individual working for cited new hotel and thereby promote their career development plan (Kimball, 2011).
Justifying managerial decisions
Managerial decisions taken at various levels during different life cycle stage of an organization have a greater impact on overall brand image in hospitality industry. It is important to put an emphasis upon designing plans that have an considerable effect on each activity carried out. For ensuring integration of number of activities including lodging, entertainment and relaxation providing activities, effective plans must be taken to implement required managerial decisions. Most important is rate strategy decisions that determine the manner in which each product or services will be rated to ensure maximum profit attainment. Attempts must be made for continuing with following of competitive pricing wherein, suitable price for each product is determined to provide better value-for-money experience to clients. Moreover, for achieving a competitive advantage against number of rivals, efforts must be made to design plans in well advance so that higher prices for current products and food items can be charged to survive in toughest competition within hospitality environment. For chefs, decisions are taken in such a way so that cited restaurant acts as a medium to showcase potential and creativity (Pnueli, Sa’ar and Zuck, 2010).
With the growth of a well-travelled population and with eating out gaining more traction by the day, managers utilized best of these opportunities to venture out on their own. Decisions leverage over menu planning and experimenting to see both type of operations that focus on striving to create the best dish and staying close to reality of market. Managerial decisions taken focus on providing demonstrative and proof based approach to sustainable branding. Emphasis has been laid upon exploiting ocean of opportunity within hospitality industry to promote brand image of newly established restaurant in Covent Garden, London. Moreover, each of managerial activity undertaken focuses on designing innovative ways to propagate the vision of newly established restaurant, for maintaining sustainability in aligning with customer’s preference and needs. Decisions are thereby taken to promote capability in product development, production and service to enable the organization in establishing its image as most admired and respected food service restaurant.
In the current case study in order to achieve the goals and objectives of restaurant which is like competitive advantage the manager takes decision for cooking and producing delicious food. Along with this with the help of using highly nutritional ingredients the manager able to provide attractive food items to the customers as compare to competitors. In the market, users want to purchase and consume updated, innovative and well as new food items because from the same they get bored. In addition to this, by considering and implementing the cost control methods the manager reduce total cost and expense of the products and food items. When the costs comes under control then the newly opened restaurant can offer products at the lowest price compare to rival firms. Along with this, the manager take decision to purchase raw materials in bulk where suppliers provide high discount which lead to decline cost of the overall production. Hence, these are the best strategy for achieve competitive advantage within industry of food.
Managerial and personnel skills supporting carrier development
An efficient manager must perform best of his duties and responsibilities to deliver expertise to an organization for which he would be working as an management executive.
Communication: Effective communicative skills will enable me to transfer important information and guidelines to various personnel working along with me. Strategies and policies framed by top executives will be communicated to other employees, providing me an opportunity to build my image as that of a good communicator. Constant interaction with personnel working at middle and lower level will enable me to analyze issues faced by them (Kimball, 2011).
Thereby, I will be able to develop my image as a mentor, providing required guidelines to those working under my supervision. Transferring details from top to bottom and bottom to top will enhance my image as that of an efficient coordinator.
Thinking: I will get lots of opportunities to analyze issues related to management, communication structure and plans implementation. This will enhance my capability of thinking out of the way to provide instant resolutions for various issues. I will be able to think of innovative plans so that I will exploit my creativity and intelligence in an appropriate manner. Keeping myself busy in thinking for providing motivational as well as appreciation means will enable me to enhance my knowledge in designing reward structures for sustaining human resource within respective organization.
Learning: I will be confronted before different situations, wherein I will face my issues. However as I believe in constant learning, I will transfer those uncertainties into personnel experience. I strongly believe that there are no limitations for gaining knowledge with respect to various fields related to hospitality (Herman, 2011).
Moreover, I like to participate in campaigns and programmes that are carried out by regulatory authority of hospitality development. I would also enhance my career development plan by gaining expert opinion from professionals who have been working within industry since long time.
Attitude: I have a pleasing attitude that reflects my image as that of holding a strong personality. Senior executives would be delighted with my positive attitude and thereby I will be able to enhance my career by working with them (Poisson-de Haro and Turgut, 2012).
Behavior: Accepting defaults of team members and appreciating characteristic feature will enable me to enhance my career for dealing with people following different ideologies.
Responsibility: I believe in completing task and projects assigned to me within specified time limit. This will provide higher level of surety and confidence of seniors in me.
Adaptability: I have a strong liking for accepting new environment, so that I am able to explore new fields within hospitality industry.
Aspirations: There is higher level of aspirations in me. I want to put in a lot of hard work to achieve targets set by me.
Opportunities: I am keen to exploit various opportunities coming ahead on the path of my career development procedure.
Reviewing career and personal needs
A career development plan indicates list of personnel needs of an individual and measuring his level of performance to ascertain future needs that can be fulfilled by applying various managerial as well as personal skills possessed by an individual.
Career development needs: I am a responsible member of society to which I belong. I believe that I must promote my image to enhance my career, so that I can serve my society. I must contribute in delivering unique services for hospitality industry in such a way so that I can provide at least some knowledge to others who have keen desire to work and apply conceptual knowledge into practicality (Müller and Turner, 2010).
Personal Development needs: I have a long list of targets and goals to be achieved by me so that I can construct self esteem and prestige for myself. I would apply my knowledge and expertise to gain life time recognition within hospitality sector.
Current performance: Presently, I am working as a management executive in well renowned organization. I have set my image as that of a role model for various employees working in integration with task performed by me. However, I will that, there are lots of opportunities available through which I might construct a stronger development plan for myself. I have been researching latest trends and prevailing condition of hospitality sector, to align myself with industrial environment of tourism field (OLIVEIRA, 2011).
Future needs: Emerging trends and increasing level of competition amongst individual working for hospitality industry have put a pressure for various industry participants including myself, to enhance career development plan. Sustaining secured position within hospitality environment requires that I must expand my desires and needs to work harder for achieving same.
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It can be hereby concluded that the report has efficiently highlighted the role of a developing manager for promoting a hospitality company’s image as a leading one, in tours and travel industry. Considering the scenario of Marriott International and Hilton, it has been determined in the report that how these leading organizations have structured there organizational culture and thereby have been successful in aligning with various changes emerging in hospitality sector. Further, the importance of leading and motivating a team working for newly established restaurant of Jamie Oliver has been clearly stated. Lastly, the report ends by designing a career development plan including personnel and managerial skills applied in appropriate manner to enable an organization to achieve overall objectives and goals. List of managerial and personnel skills are highlighted within the report to reflect how an individual can enhance his career for achieving success within hospitality industry.
Hassan, S. and Hatmaker, D. M., 2015. Leadership and performance of public employees: Effects of the quality and characteristics of manager-employee relationships. Journal of Public Administration Research and Theory. 25(4). pp.1127-1155.
Massa, L., Farneti, F. and Scappini, B., 2015. Developing a sustainability report in a small to medium enterprise: process and consequences. Meditari Accountancy Research. 23(1). pp.62-91.
Rocha, R., Mollo, V. and Daniellou, F., 2015. Work debate spaces: A tool for developing a participatory safety management. Applied Ergonomics. 46. pp.107-114.
Scarbrough, H., Panourgias, N. S. and Nandhakumar, J., 2015. Developing a Relational View of the Organizing Role of Objects: A study of the innovation process in computer games. Organization studies. 36(2). pp.197-220.
Zhao, G., 2015. Jiangnan Orogen in South China: developing from divergent double subduction. Gondwana Research. 27(3). pp.1173-1180.
Massa, L., Farneti, F. and Scappini, B., 2015. Developing a sustainability report in a small to medium enterprise: process and consequences. Meditari Accountancy Research. 23(1). pp.62-91.
Chambers, C. A., Universal Electronics Inc., 2015.System and method for managing
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