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Diagnosis and Management (Diabetes)

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Introduction to Diagnosis and Management

Diabetes commonly associated with the sugar level is defined as the disease which is characterized by increased sugar levels in blood due to two main reasons. The first reason is that the body is not able to produce sufficient amount of insulin which is required by the body to function normally. The second reason is that the cells and tissues associated with the pituitary glands are not able to respond properly to insulin.

The overall report will be based on diagnosis and treatment of diabetes. It will include physiological aspects related to diabetes. I will also include diagnosis, investigative process and treatment to cure diabetes.

1.1 Physiological origin of diabetes

Diabetes is diagnosed as the long term condition which is reported to contain high level of glucose and sugar levels in body. There are generally two types of diabetes. Type 1 diabetes is generally known as diabetes insipidus whereas type 2 diabetes in referred as diabetes mellitus. Diabetes insipidus is generally not prevalent and is caused due to insufficient production of insulin in the body. Majority of individuals who suffers from diabetes are reported to be suffering from type 2 diabetes. In both the cases, patient suffers from frequent urination, frequency of thirst, hunger and unusual weight loss.

1.2 Signs and symptoms of diabetes

There are various signs and symptoms which can help in identifying the disease at a very early stage. The prime symptom is increased in the frequency of urination at short intervals of time. The condition of polyuria is accompanied by polydipsia in which the frequency of thirst is also increased. In many cases symptoms tends to appear very soon but it can also be delayed due to various reasons. Other indications include blurriness in vision, severe headache issues, fatigue, excessive high levels of glucose in blood, slow recovery and healing of wounds and injuries. Diabetes also causes skin irritation and rashes that persists throughout the day.

1.3 Contributory factors to the onset of diabetes

There are many contributory factors that are responsible fro developing diabetes in a person. Type 1 diabetes is generally caused due to lack of sufficient production of insulin into the body. This is also regarded as autoimmune disorder that attacks the immune system. Genetic susceptibility is also one of the major issue which increases the chances of person encountering diabetes. Certain genes have the property of changing the protein codes which causes illness in many individuals. Obesity, physical inactivity and other environmental factors are also responsible which leads to develop type 1 and type 2 diabetes in current generation.

2.1 Process of referral to identified specialist services in diabetes

There are many recommendations which are identified in order to improve the quality of care provided to all the patients who have encountered type 1 and type 2 diabetes. The nurse and other specialist should identify and integrate various community based programmes so that secondary care is provided to all the patients. All the individuals who are suffering from diabetes should be given proper training and education so that awareness about the diseases is increased. The specialist who are involved in treating diabetes should deliver care services with full efficiency so that the prevalence of disease is reduced.

2.2 Investigative processes and procedures in diabetes

There are several investigative procedures which are involved in testing and screening of diabetes in healthcare centres. The most effective test used in determining the presence of diabetes is plasma glucose level test. It is generally conducted when a person is fasting. Another simple test is oral glucose tolerance test which is conducted by in-taking sugary solution two hours prior to the diagnosis. Other test involves recording of arterial pH values, serum bicarbonate test, urine analysis and thyroid test. Depending upon the results drawn from the test, the physicians or GP identifies the types of diabetes a person is suffering from.

3.1 Care services available in diabetes

There is variety of care services available for patients who are suffering from type 1 and type 2 diabetes. It is very important to provide effective medical assistance to all the individuals who have developed diabetes. A joint effort by multidisciplinary team will help in delivering better care services. They can increase the awareness related to diabetes by organising various health programmes and foundation associations. All the individuals who are suffering from diabetes and hypertensions should get themselves registered in GP so that they are able to avail services from GP which is managed by different communities. They can also be managed by their own GP or nurses. Inpatients of diabetes and hypertension are provided care coordination so that their case is managed and can help all patients able to navigate safely. It also handles cost effective outcomes and communication so that they are able to manage hospital services effectively.

3.2 Roles and responsibilities of the professionals in relation to diabetes

In recent times all patients who are suffering from diabetes are aware that care for diabetes is usually given by primary healthcare providers. Majority of care is provided by generalists who can manage diabetes to enormous levels. It is the responsibility of all care persons to avoid all the complications related to diabetes. Although handling situation in diabetes vary from patient to patient. One of the main roles of all the professionals is to provide support all the patients so that their condition is improved

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People with diabetes are likely to suffer from discrimination at various stages of life, hence it is the role and responsibility of healthcare professional to provide them with effective care services ices so that they are treated equally. All the health officials involved in diabetes treating practice should develop plan and strategies which can reduce the impact of diabetes on a patient. According to various research the prevalence of diabetes is bidirectionally linked to depression and anxiety in person. A multidisciplinary team should be established by all healthcare organisation so that care services provided to all the patients helps them in recovering at a speedy rate.

3.3 Ranges of treatment available for patients with diabetes

Treatments for both the diabetes vary depending upon the severity and causes associated with it. Treatment usually involves controlling the diet, physical activeness and regular blood glucose check-up at home and hospitals. In many of the cases injections of insulin is needed to cure or lower down the level of glucose in the blood. It is very important tot coordinate and control the activities in daily life so that mental and physical health is balanced appropriately.

3.4 Monitoring processes involved for diabetes

It is very important to monitor blood glucose levels on regular basis in order to avoid severe complications associated with diabetes in later stages of life. Monitoring involves regularly reviewing the blood sugar levels, blood pressure, serum and albumin status in liver and other qualitative analysis. All these analysis can be practised in home and as well as in hospital. If a person is diagnosed with diabetes mellitus then his/her care professional will regularly follow a HbA1c test IT can be done with the help of blood glucose meter, lancet device to measure sugar level and strip test.

4.1 Extent to which an individual diagnosed with diabetes would need to adapt his/her lifestyle

It is very important for all the individual to maintain a proper lifestyle so that they are not prone to encountering various diseases at early or alter stages of life. Diabetes is one of the most dangerous diseases which are prevalent in many individuals around the world. Patients who have encountered this illness should control and balance their lifestyle ion such a way that there complications are not increased. They should follow a proper diet chart which can help in maintaining their weight and basal metabolic index. They should be physically active so that chances of obesity are decreased to minimum.

4.2 Range of strategies that would help individuals cope with lifestyle changes caused by diabetes

Different strategies and plans help in managing diabetes to a greater extent. These strategies also help in preventing the illness if it is diagnosed at initial stages. Dietary factors play a major role in coping with diabetes. People should be involved in more and more physical activity so that they do not increase the risk of getting obese. Boosting the immunity level will gradually increase the production of insulin in body. This will help in maintaining the blood glucose level to a normal range. Increasing the intake of fibre in daily food supplements will decrease the risk of diabetes in later stage of life.

4.3 Prognosis and potential long term outcomes for the individual for diabetes

The most common long term outcome of diabetes is that it produces macro-vascular damage such as injury to blood vessels, blood cells, brain damage and renal failure. Eye problem in eduction in vision efficiency can also be one of the severe complications of diabetes. A person who is suffering from high blood glucose level will also have higher risk of encountering chronic heart diseases.

CONCLUSION

The study was conducted fro diagnosing and managing diabetes in various individuals. It further included the physiological characteristics and origin related to type 1 and type 2 diabetes. Signs and symptoms were also included in the report which helped in diagnosing and treating the illness effectively. Other contributory factors which can increase the chances of blood sugar level were also discussed in the report. Various investigative procedures, such as blood test, urine test, physical examination and non laboratory test were explored in the study.

REFERENCES

  • Albiero, M. and et.al., 2014. Diabetes causes bone marrow autonomic neuropathy and impairs stem cell mobilization via dysregulated p66Shc and Sirt1.Diabetes.
  • Antenor-Dorsey, J.A.V. and et.al., 2013. White matter microstructural integrity in youth with type 1 diabetes.Diabetes.
  • Inzucchi, S. E. and et.al., 2012. Management of hyperglycemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach: position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).
  • Inzucchi, S.E. and et.al., 2012. Management of hyperglycaemia in type 2 diabetes: a patient-centered approach. Position statement of the American Diabetes Association (ADA) and the European Association for the Study of Diabetes (EASD).Diabetologia.
  • Mima, A. and et.al., 2012. Protective effects of GLP-1 on glomerular endothelium and its inhibition by PKCβ activation in diabetes.Diabetes.
  • Morino, K. and et.al., 2012. Regulation of mitochondrial biogenesis by lipoprotein lipase in muscle of insulin-resistant offspring of parents with type 2 diabetes.Diabetes.
  • Patrick, C. and et.al., 2013. Promotion of autoimmune diabetes by cereal diet in the presence or absence of microbes associated with gut immune activation, regulatory imbalance, and altered cathelicidin antimicrobial peptide.Diabetes.
  • Travers, M.E. and et.al., 2013. Insights into the molecular mechanism for type 2 diabetes susceptibility at the KCNQ1 locus from temporal changes in imprinting status in human islets.Diabetes.
  • van Abeelen, A.F. and et.al., 2012. Famine exposure in the young and the risk of type 2 diabetes in adulthood.Diabetes.
  • Xu, Y. and et.al., 2013. Prevalence and control of diabetes in Chinese adults.Jama.
  • Yu, A. and et.al., 2015. Selective IL-2 responsiveness of regulatory T cells through multiple intrinsic mechanisms supports the use of low-dose IL-2 therapy in type 1 diabetes.Diabetes.
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