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Introduction to Holiday Decision Making
Holiday decision making proved to be an ongoing process that was not necessarily characterized by consumer buying behaviour stages and also does not stop once the decision is being made. However, consumers makes a generic decision regarding whether or not to go on a holiday and hence sometimes the generic decision made was irrelevant. For instance, a young family possess possible holiday plans such as they decide regarding transportation, accommodation and activities. In the present study, traditional problem solving approach to consumer decision making process is developed in regard to identify the consumption pattern of individuals. Report also discusses the significance of traditional consumer decision making and carry out detailed steps so that effective decision can be made in order to attain desired results.
Consumer behaviour is the study being carried out in order to mental and emotional processes and observable behaviour of consumers during searching, consumption and post purchase of product or service. Therefore, it is essential for tour operators to identify the traditional decision making process and successfully market the product to consumers.
Holiday decision making involves consumers who have been traditionally portrayed as rational and risk averse. However, consumer decision making has been presented from a problem solving or information processing perspectives. Such models start from the assumption that any consumer need or desire creates a problem within individual. Further, consumer undertakes to solve that problem through deciding a course of action in regard to satisfy the needs of individuals. Therefore, decision making typically starts from need recognition, information search, evaluation of alternatives, product choice or purchase decision making and post purchase behaviour. At the time when individual is searching for holiday information tends to be memory based rather than stimulate based. Individual always collect information in order to decide the destination and thus identify the consumption patterns so that actual choice can be identified.
TRADITIONAL DECISION MAKING
It involves five crucial steps of traditional consumer decision making process such as
Need recognition and problem awareness
It is considered at the time when consumer has identified a particular need or a problem that has been not met and requires to met immediately. It involves two different style of need recognition present among consumers. Here, the categories of consumers are those who choose a product as the present product that they are failed to carry out the function efficiently. Such consumers are referred to actual buyers while there are another consumers who just want to purchase the product because they desire for the same. Hence, the desire becomes the trigger in their decision process. Altogether a consumer at this stage can be referred to as an consumer who stimulate to make appeal of products.
It is another step of traditional consumer buying behaviour wherein consumer has already identified a product that will cater to individual's need. It involves two types of searches i.e. internal and external search. For instance, the internal search is when the consumer recollects their past experiences and makes it as the base of their decision. While, an external search is when the consumer inquires the external environment factors for making buying decision. It is because individual lacks in making sufficient experience of buying the products. Further, consumer also tends to involve themselves in involve high risk so that best results can be attained.
Evaluation of alternatives
Further, consumer has identified a number of particular product or service that will satisfy their needs. Here, the decision is made in relation to identify the available potential alternatives on the basis of brands and number of preferred criteria against which these products are assessed.
It is the stage wherein the consumer actually purchases a particular product after assessing the need, conducting the search and evaluating possible alternatives. Further, consumers are normally identified to be making three different types of purchases that are trial purchase, repeated purchase and long term commitment purchase. However, the trial purchase assesses that consumers tries to evaluate a product or brand through using it first time. Repeated purchase is a case of established brand loyalty wherein clients repeat purchase is done for long term.
Post purchase evaluation
It is the stage wherein consumer has bought and used a particular product in order to satisfy the needs of consumers. Here, the clients needs to be met so that repeat purchase can be done.
At the time when holiday decision making plan is made of 27 Belgium households were analysed as it was found that Holiday decision making model does not possess any fixed sequential stages as per the traditional decision making model. However, it was observed that within the Holiday decision making model, here, the administrative factors plays a crucial role in deciding the choice and time of holiday decision making. In addition to this, it was assessed that unlike the traditional decision making model while planning for a holiday,there was no sequential evolution of holiday plans. Furthermore, the typical factors that influences the requirement and the decision of holiday was assessed to be situational factors that involves level of involvement, day dreamers, nostalgia and anticipation etc.
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It is a completely different process from the traditional buying decision making process that has very well structured and sequential process. However, the need for a particular product or service is assessed that follows the informants search and evaluation of alternatives is carried out effectively. Moreover, it leads to the consumer towards making a purchase and then post purchase evaluation. Apart from this, at the time of making Holiday Decision Model different factors that influence the decision making process of consumer in traditional consumer decision making is triggered because of the failure of a product that they are using or desire to have a new product.
Reference group is the group that involves individuals who identifies the behaviour of others and thus influence them to make purchase decision. Thus, at the time of making purchase decision, buyer is influenced by their reference group which involves family members, relatives or friends. It involves people who have already made any purchase decision influences other buyers to purchase the same product or service. Thus, at the time of planning for holidays, individual make decision making process by influencing from their relatives or friends so that it helps in improving the purchase decision making process. It involves both positive and negative type of reference groups. Within positive reference group it involves the people who are ones individual want to be accepted and thus they influence each and every individual to imitate them regarding the action which explicitly develops norms and values. Apart from this, another aspect is negative reference groups which does not want to be identified with and also serve as a source of self evaluation that helps in avoiding different people. At the time of planning for holidays, individual is always affected from their peer groups and thus it helps them to make decision so that they can effectively plan for tour.
Reference groups are crucial part in decision making process to plan holidays and thus it raises the desires of individual. Following are the characteristics of reference groups that needs to be identified as such people play a crucial role in decision making process
- It can be assessed that individual or group behaviour helps in developing the decision making process of individual so that they can plan holidays.
- It also assists individuals to compare others experience and then plan the tour to make effective decision so that best results can be attained.
- Here, it identifies that group behaviour or reference group desires to rise higher in the social scale and thus identify the weakness so that effective decision can be made.
There are different reference groups such as family members, friends or colleagues which influences the decision making process for holidays so that best decision can be made. It also assesses that firm needs to implement effective strategies and thus they influences the people in order to make decision so that success can be attained. It is essential for firm to develop effective decision making process and thus plan the holidays effectively. Further, researcher aims to evaluate the decision of different individuals that helps in identifying the opportunities so that success can be attained in an effective way.
Reference groups influences the decision making process and thus it is essential for individual to identify the nature of different people so that they can make effective decision so that best results can be attained. At certain point of time, reference group influences the people to make effective decision making in order to plan for holidays where the peer groups have visited. They influence other members of their family to visit the place and thus make decision in order to obtain effective decision making.
It can be evaluated that it is essential for individual to adopt effective information search process as it was described to plan for holidays and thus compare the same with the another product category i.e. household appliance at the time of purchasing the product. Consumers are required to take the help of social media, internet or reference group while making decision for holidays so that effective decision can be made in relation to enhance the productivity of firm. Information search process helps in describing the consumers behaviour so that best product can be purchased by the consumers. However, information search process tends to be ongoing and thus it does not stop at the time when holiday has been booked. It is essential for individual to get involved in developing information such as preparing them for their entire trip in much detail so that it helps them to discover and identify unexpected things in the holiday. At the time of searching for holiday information tends to be memory based rather than stimulus based. Solomon, M.R., 2014Information is often collected accidentally and passively so that holiday information is collection in order identify the actual choices but rather indicates preferences.
As compared to holiday information search process, consumers uses social media search at the time of searching for another product category such as household appliance. For such type of product, consumers are required to develop effective information search decision so that knowledge can be obtained regarding the products or services so that best information can be obtained through internet and thus it helps in developing effective decision making process. At the time of buying the products, consumers carry out search process on internet and thus evaluates the benefits of the products as well as other required information so that desired outcomes can be attained.
Comparing the information search process it helps in describing for holidays and thus analyse the search process followed for another product category i.e. household appliance. For both the products, information search process is different as for holiday it is essential for consumers to assess the experience from reference groups and thus plan for holiday. Apart from this, individual uses social media and compare different alternatives available in the category of household appliance so that best product can be identified and thus it helps in increasing the awareness among clients. Thus, with the help of social media it helps in identifying the information search process it assists in obtaining desired results.
It assesses that managers are required to identify the purchase decision of holiday made by consumers so that they can identify the risk involved, expectancy, availability and loyalty. It is assessed that purchase of holiday decision making is done frequently in order to depend upon the mod and emotions of consumers. Therefore, tour operators and travel agents assesses that they need to identify the emotional factors and thus effective holiday choices were made. It is essential for travel agents to assess the requirement of individual and thus provide them appropriate choice made in order to enhance the sales and profitability of firm. It highlights that the affective choice made in order to transfer the information to consumers. It is significant for travel agents and tour operators to be optimistic and idealistic in order to make final decision so that set objectives can be attained. The feeling of cognitive dissonance can be thoroughly involved in collecting information during and after the holiday experience. Further, traditional decision making model helps in identifying the significant action whereas it helps in overcoming traditional consumer decision making model. It helps in discovering the need, conduct information search and evaluates the alternatives so that effective holiday decision making process is made.
Through analysing the purchase stage of the holiday decision making it can be assessed hat final decision making was made by clients in the last minute and thus it is essential for travel agents to provide them appropriate travel plans so that their needs can be fulfilled. Personal relationship needs to be developed with the tour operators because they provide crucial information to individual which helps them to buy the crucial travel package and thus identify the emotional moods of persons so that desired results can be attained. Emotional factors needs to be identified so that effective holiday choices can be made and thus traditional decision making so that information processing mode can be made in order to improve the holiday package plan. Traditional decision making model needs to learn and feel so that crucial decision need to be made in regard to make effective decision so that appropriate holiday package can be developed. Travel agents and tour operators needs to develop proper tour package so that best results can be attained. It evaluates the effective traditional decision making model in order to improve the prepare appropriate decision making process so that best information can be attained.
Here, as per the culture of people it can be assessed that people possess different types of culture that impacts the consumer decision making process. Within Belgium consumers there decision regarding purchasing holiday package needs to be developed so that appropriate choice can be developed in relation to attain results. Thus, it affects the choice of selecting the culture that impacts the stages of consumer decision making process and thus identifies the best results in order to improve the buying process. Hence, it is essential for tour operator to identify the choice of buying holiday package and thus making crucial decision making process so that culture needs to be developed effectively. In Belgium there is a culture that each and every household i.e. singles, couples, families and group of friends plans for travel package so that all these individuals are interested in order to challenge traditional ways of holiday package and make effective consumer decision so that best results can be attained. Here, tour operators needs to identify the culture of the country and thus prepare appropriate tour package for different travellers so that best decision can be made. Thus, culture stages needs to be made in order to develop effective decision making so that best results can be attained.
Tour operators are required to identify the culture of Belgian consumers as it impacts the culture have upon the consumer decision making process in order to purchase the tour package and enhance the sales. Thus, it is essential for firm to identify the culture of Belgian consumers so that it would impact upon the stages of the consumer decision making process. Hence, culture plays a crucial role in order to adopt appropriate decision making process and thus evaluates the purchase decision so that best results can be attained.
Here, travel agents are required to identify the culture of Belgian consumers that does not impact the consumer decision making process and help them to bring positive results. Further, it is essential for travel agents to make effective decision making process as per the culture of people and thus make effective consumer decision making and develop proper tour plan. Culture positively impacts upon the consumer decision making process and help people to prepare proper tour plan so that best results can be attained.
It can be concluded from the study that consumer decision making process helps in identifying the alternative for traditional problem solving approach so that best holiday decision can be made. Right from the stage of need recognition till the stage of post purchase behaviour it is essential for consumers to evaluate their decision and identify the disparities and identify holiday decision making as it is highly based upon opportunities, adaptability and emotions to a very large extent. Apart from traditional consumer decision making holiday decision making needs to assessed in order to combine different processes. Thus, all together holiday decision making is assessed in order to be a rational process and make effective decision so that crucial goals can be attained. However, it assists individual to analyse the possible reference groups that affects the decision making process for holidays and thus helps people to visit the destination. Social media is the best way that helps in comparing the information search process for holidays with another product i.e. household appliance. Hence, through comparing between both these products it helps in analysing that the products information can be easily gained from internet and utilise it in order to purchase the same. It is essential for tour operators or travel agents to draw effective managerial implications and thus attain desired results.
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