Research methodology implies for the systematic and theoretical analysis of methods which in turn helps in findings suitable solution of issue. It encompasses paradigm and theoretical models which are undertaken by scholar for analyzing issue in an effectual way. Hence, research methodology may be served as a process which contains wide range of techniques from data collection to analysis. It is the systematic plan that provides high level of assistance to the researcher in conducting whole study in a highly structured way. In research methodology section, researcher identifies and mentions approaches, philosophies, data collection and analysis methods which are highly appropriate for the study (Mackey and Gass, 2015).
It is the one of the main sections or parts of the study on which effectiveness and outcome of the study depends. The rationale behind this, research methods and tools are key which in turn provides direction to the scholar about the manner in which data needs to gathered and analyzed. Hence, in this, several tools and techniques which have been employed by scholar to assess the impact of branding strategy of the customer behavior of Apple.
Research type can be distinguished into two types such as qualitative and quantitative which researcher is required to select for carry out study more effectually. Researcher needs to take care while making selection of research type. Moreover, choice of research philosophy, approach, data collection and analysis is highly influenced from the nature as well as type of investigation carried out. Hence, investigator needs to make focus on selecting suitable type of study by making in-depth evaluation of research topic or area.
Qualitative investigation provides deeper insight about the problem or issue as well as underlying reasons and opinions. Hence, qualitative investigation proves to be fruitful only when sample size is small (Mackey and Gass, 2015). Such investigation type provides a sound base for further decision making and helps in drawing suitable hypothesis for the near future. In accordance with such type, unstructured or semi-structured techniques are used by the scholar for data collection. Further, in this, non-statistical techniques are used by the researcher for data analysis aspect.
On the other side, quantitative research offers suitable and reliable solution only when numeric facts and figures are analyzed. The main objectives of researcher behind conducting such investigation are to generalize results from sample to the population of interest. In quantitative research or study, highly structured techniques are employed by the scholar for the purpose of data collection (Panneerselvam, 2014). This technique of research helps in drawing suitable conclusion by testing the hypothesis. In this, qualitative research type has been selected by the scholar to evaluate the impact which branding strategies have on the buying behavior of customers. Thus, by considering such type researcher has analyzed underlying reasons and opinions that entice the decision making aspect of customers.
Research approaches can be divided into three parts such as inductive, deductive and abduction. Such approaches of the research study are highly significant which in turn provides deeper insight to the scholar about the manner in which he needs to address or resolve the issue. Hence, inductive and deductive approaches are highly varied according to the type of investigation undertaken.
Inductive approach: In inductive approach, known premises or observations are used to assess untested conclusion. Along with this, under this approach, generalization moves from specific to the general aspects (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2014. In other words, in inductive approach scholar identifies solution after making in-depth evaluation of observation or specific pattern. In this, data is gathered and used by scholar to explore a phenomenon more effectively. This approach of research offers effectual solution when qualitative investigation is undertaken by the scholar.
Deductive approach: Under deductive approach, scholar makes assessment of the hypothesis by taking into consideration the existing framework. In this, generalization of theory is from general to specific. Hence, by testing the hypothesis, researcher presents solution of the issue which is going to be investigated (Adhariani, Sciulli and Clift, 2017). In this, data is collected by the scholar to evaluate specific propositions and hypothesis. Deductive approach is highly concerned with the verification of theory. Thus, such approach offers highly reliable solution when quantitative investigation is conducted by the researcher.
Methodology used: In order to evaluate the impact of branding strategies on the buying behavior and purchasing decision making aspect of customers of Apple inductive approach has been selected by scholar. Approach which has been selected by scholar is highly appropriate according to the type of investigation undertaken such as qualitative. In this, scholar has constructed new theoretical aspects by exploring, observing and analyzing the phenomena that are highly related to the branding strategies and customers buying behavior.
Research philosophy provides deeper insight about the manner in which data will be gathered, evaluated and analyzed the scholar. Philosophies of the research can be interpretivism and positivism which in turn highly influenced from the type of investigation carried out. Moreover, both such philosophies are highly affected from qualitative and quantitative type. Along with this, research philosophies also help in formulating suitable belief and assumptions. Positivism philosophy gives suitable solution when researcher makes analysis of quantitative figures (Kumar and Phrommathed, 2005).
However, researcher can also use such philosophy to assess the qualitative facts. Along with this, researcher can also evaluate data gathered from large sample in an effectual way by taking into account the positivism philosophy. In addition to this, according to such technique scholar needs to gather data from highly structured technique which in turn helps in presenting the fair view of study.
Besides this, interpretivism is another main philosophy that can be used by researcher for extracting suitable information from qualitative data set. Such philosophy helps in analyzing the views of sample in more depth. On the basis of interpretivism philosophy, researcher interprets or analyzes the views of respondents by considering the existing theoretical framework. In this way, such philosophy helps in understanding the difference between human role and social factors (Glesne, 2015). Hence, by keeping in mind all such aspects it can be said that interpretivism philosophy has been selected by the scholar.
By undertaking this, researcher has assessed the level to which branding strategies and other factors influence decision making aspect of the customers of Apple. In this regard, by interpreting the reviews of respondents in accordance with existing framework or theories outcome has been presented by the scholar.
Research design refers to the several tools and techniques which can be employed by scholar for assessing the suitable solution or issue or problem. There are several research designs which can be used by scholar to address the problem or issue in the best possible manner. Types of research design include descriptive, causal, experimental, and semi-experimental etc. Exploratory study may be defined as the one which places high level of emphasis on exploring the research issue or purpose. Thus, one of the main aims of exploratory research is to find and develop a new hypothesis through the means of survey and secondary data sources. Hence, by making evaluation of books, journals and scholarly articles scholar can present the fair view of study.
However, under the case study method scholar makes in-depth evaluation of specific incident or problem. Hence, in this, researcher makes effort in relation to finding the causes which in turn assists in evaluating the results of specific incident or phenomenon which is going to be investigated. In causal study, researcher makes efforts in relation to determining the relationship between cause of problem and its effect on result.
Experimental design can also be divided into two types such as formal and informal. By taking into consideration all the above mentioned aspects, exploratory research design has been selected by scholar. In accordance with such design, by diagnosing the problem or issue such as impact of branding strategies on customer decision making researcher is in position to present the suitable view of study.
In order to conduct researcher in an effectual way research is required to gather suitable data. Hence, there are mainly two types of data such as primary and secondary which can be gathered by scholar to conduct investigation in the best possible manner. Primary data sources include interview, focus group, observation, survey etc. Such sources help researcher in gather data according to research issue as well as aims and objectives. Primary data is highly effectual which provides assistance to the researcher in finding suitable solution of issue (Simonsohn, Nelson and Simmons, 2017).
Moreover, it assists in collecting highly specific data which in turn helps in finding suitable solution of issue. On the other side, secondary data may be defined as one which has already been gathered and published by scholar. Now, there are several researchers who present the outcome their study to the general public at large. In this regard, by making use of books, journals and scholarly articles researcher can gather secondary data.
In the present research, data has been gathered by the researcher from both primary and secondary sources. To analyze the extent to which branding strategies have impact on buying behavior and decision making aspect of customers of Apple survey has been conducted by scholar to gather primary data (Kothari, 2004). The rationale behind the selection of such method is that it directly helps in evaluating and generating information about the mindset of personnel.
By considering such aspect scholar has taken decision in relation to doing survey on 30 customers of Apple. Along with this, secondary data has also been collected by researcher through the means of books, journals and scholarly articles which are highly related to the branding strategies. Hence, for developing better understanding about the aspect customer behavior, model and decision making process research paper and articles have been studies by the researcher. Along with this, government reports also have been analyzed by the researcher to get information about the manner in which branding strategies influence the decision making aspect of customers. assignment help australia
Sample represents the sub-set of whole population who possess similar characteristics. Researcher places high level of emphasis on the selection of suitable sample with the aim to gain several benefits such as saving of time and monetary resources. Along with this, researcher becomes able to get quick response when study is conducted on small sample who having characteristics of population (Kumar and Phrommathed, 2005).
Probabilistic and non-probabilistic are the main two types of sampling technique which can be used by the researcher to determine suitable sample for the study. Probabilistic sampling technique implies for the one in which each element gets similar chance or having probability of selection. Such technique of sample selection is highly effectual which in turn helps in deriving solution in unbiased way.
Simple random, strata cluster and systematic etc. are the main probabilistic techniques which are used by the researcher to select sample. On the basis of such techniques, samples are randomly selected by the researcher randomly.
In contrast to this, under non-probabilistic technique researcher selects sample according to convenience and purpose of study. Under such technique, there is the probability of getting unbiased results because in this researcher selects sample according to his convenience (Silverman, 2016). Convenience, snow ball, purposive etc. are the main non-probabilistic sampling techniques which in turn assist in conducting study more effectively and efficiently.
With the motive to assess suitable solution of issue 30 customers of Apple have been selected by scholar by considering the simple random technique. Such method has been undertaken by the researcher to avoid any kind of biasness in the outcome. Hence, out of population 30 people have randomly been selected by the researcher to assess the level to which branding aspect affect their decision making (Adhariani, Sciulli and Clift, 2017). Moreover, customers who purchase the product of Apple have better idea about the factors do to which they prefer to purchase branded products and services. In this, by reviewing the views of customers researcher can assess the impact of branding on the decision making aspect of customers.
Data analysis may be defined as a process which is highly concerned with making systematic evaluation of gathered data. Hence, researcher plays a vital role in assess suitable outcome of issue by taking into consideration both statistical and non-statically tools. In other words, data analysis is the process which is associated with the illustration, condense, recap and evaluation of gathered information. Hence, data analysis process highly varies in accordance with the type of investigation undertaken. Moreover, collection of data and development of hypothesis is highly influenced from the type or nature of study.
To determine suitable outcome from quantitative data set SPSS tools are usually undertaken by the scholar. Hence, there are several SPSS techniques such as chi-square, T-test, Z-test, correlation, descriptive statistics, ANOVA etc which can be used by researcher to present fair solution of issue (Panneerselvam, 2014 ). All such tolls and techniques are highly effectual which in turn provides assistance to the scholar in testing the hypothesis more effectively and efficiently. In this way, by employing such techniques quantitative data can be evaluated or analyzed by the researcher more effectively and efficiently.
On the other side, thematic perception test technique is used by the researcher to analyze and determine outcome from qualitative facts as well as figures. This technique of data analysis helps in assessing underlying reasons or opinions related to issue in the best possible way. Hence, by developing several themes according to the questionnaire researcher makes analysis of data. In this, researcher supports the findings of respondents through the means of secondary data findings. In this, researcher has taken decision in relation to conducting qualitative investigation (Blumberg, Cooper and Schindler, 2014). By considering such aspect scholar has selected thematic analysis technique to analyze the views provided by the customers of Apple. In this, outcome has been presented by the researcher in relation to the impact of branding strategy on the purchasing behavior of customers through the means of literature review findings.
There are several ethical aspects which have been followed by the researcher to enhance the effectiveness of study and its outcome. Hence, researcher has taken prior permission from customers before initiating survey. Moreover, ethical aspects show that researcher needs to approach to the customers first and ask the whether they are interested to take part in survey or not. Moreover, not all the customers have interest to take part in survey.
Along with this, interest level of customers also has high level of impact on survey in terms of filling questionnaire appropriately. Hence, by keeping all such aspects in mind researcher has sent questionnaire to the respondents by taking permission from them. Along with this, there are several customers who do not like to disclose their identity in front of others and responses provided by them. Hence, by considering such aspect researcher has made use of highly advanced tools which in turn helps in maintaining high level of confidentiality served by them.
In addition to this, prior permission aspect shows that researcher has not compelled respondents in relation to filling the questionnaire. Further researcher encouraged customers of Apple to give suitable and appropriate responses without any kind of biasness. Besides this, all the sources have properly been cited by the scholar. It shows that all the content has properly rephrased by the scholar rather than copied.
Moreover, plagiarism is considered as crime in the field of research. Thus, to avoid such aspect researcher has conducted literature and thereby present findings in own language according to the level of understanding. It shows that findings are highly appropriate and analyzed in the best possible way. Thus, all the above mentioned aspects clearly show that ethical aspects have been followed by the scholar to a great extent.
Reliability and validity
Researcher also needs to lay high level of emphasis on enhancing the reliability and validity aspect of study. Moreover, both are the main factors which increase the effectiveness of study and its output to a great extent. Factors which have been undertaken by scholar for ensuring the feature or reliability and validity in the study are as follows:
Data collection from authentic sources or websites: To gather highly suitable and appropriate data authentic websites have been visited by the researcher. Moreover, accuracy and reliability of data sources are highly required to evaluate the issue in right direction. In the present study, data about branding strategies, customer decision making and purchasing behavior have been gathered by the researcher through the means of books, journals, scholarly articles etc. In this, authentic sources which are secured through copyright have been considered by researcher. The rationale behind this, data which is protected through specific measures are highly reliable and valid as compared to others. In this, by collecting data from highly valid sources appropriate data regarding branding strategies researcher has raised validity of the study.
Use of latest data sources: In the present investigation, latest data sources have been used by the scholar to develop better understanding about branding strategies and the manner in which it affects the decision making aspect of customers. Moreover, in the recent times, quick changes take place in the customer’s need, want and expectation level. By considering this, data has been gathered by the scholar from articles which are published after the period of 2010. This in turn provides deeper insight about the factors that are considered by the customers at the time of decision making. In this, by using such strategies researcher can provide Apple with effectual framework about the factors that are considered by customers while making selection of products.
No manipulation in data gathered: With the motive to maintain high level of accuracy in the results no manipulation has been made in the data gathered from varied sources. Scholar has presented the findings of study in an appropriate manner. Hence, researcher has rephrased data or each and every aspect in an effectual way which entails that all the data has been rephrased in a proper manner. It shows that findings which are presented by the scholar is new in nature and thereby enhances the effectiveness of study.
Proper citation of websites: In this, proper citations of the sources have been made by the scholar of the sources from which data has been collected. Moreover, in the absence of citation content is considered as copied rather than the new one. Thus, by keeping such aspect in mind researcher has properly cited the sources from where data regarding branding strategies, customer buying behavior and decision making is collected. Further, articles which are presented by other scholars on branding strategies and its impact on customer decision making has been undertaken. Moreover, specific articles and data sources provide researcher with suitable information which in turn helps them in analyzing issue more efficiently and effectively.
- Financial constraints: Monetary resources are the main factors that require conducting investigation more effectively and efficiently. The reason behind, at every stage, from data collection to analysis researcher requires enough amount of money to act in accordance with the specific outline. Hence, for applying highly advanced tools for data analysis such as SPSS etc business entity requires enough amounts of fund. However, researcher has reduced the impact of such financial constraints more effectually by undertaking the tool of thematic perception test. Moreover, in this, issue of the research is qualitative in nature. By keeping in mind such aspect data has been evaluated or analyzed by the scholar through the means of thematic technique.
- Limited time frame: Time is the major limitations that have high level of impact on the significance level of study. Moreover, research and its outcome assists researcher in gaining competitive edge over others when they are presented within the specified time frame. Hence, with the aim to fulfill such objective specific schedule and time chart has been prepared by the scholar. Hence, by going through all such aspects researcher has conducted and presented study along with its outcome within the suitable time frame.
- Availability of limited data sources: This is one of the main issues that have created difficulty in front of researcher while making collection of data. Moreover, there are several sites which are not easily accessible. Due to such accessibility issue researcher have faced difficulty in the collection of data. Along with this, difficulty has already been faced by the researcher in relation to the identification of authentic data sources. In this way, all such aspects have created difficulty in front of researcher in the collection of suitable data. However, data has been gathered and analyzed by the scholar through the means of highly authentic sources by conducting in-depth research or investigation.
Hence, by taking into consideration all the above mentioned aspects it can be stated that researcher has addressed all the issues more effectually through the means of strategic framework.