Organizational Leadership and Management

Introduction of Organizational Leadership and Management

The concept of leadership and management is considered as an integral part of an organization.The skills which are required in this prospect help the overall industry in performing their daily works and achieving success. In this assignment, the concept of leadership style and techniques is discussed.Along with that, the difference between the concepts of leadership with that of management practices is evaluated. There are various theories of leadership in the current business model. Two distinct theories which are discovered as the most utilized and highly effective are compared and contrasted in this scenario.

The entity which is chosen in this assignment is British multinational retail industry based in London UK named Marks and Spencer. This is a very successful firm which has been operating since 1884 in England and now it has successfully expanded their brand name in the global sphere. Then an effective analysis about the selection of leadership and the process of a training program in respect of a chosen firm is discussed. Thereby the possible implications of those concepts in the current and future changes within that corporate entity are analyzed. Then a contextual argument is presented in perspective of a transformation of managers into leaders by providing suitable training. Herein the topic is about leadership and management within the organization and various related scenarios in this prospect are efficiently presented (

Difference between management and leadership

According to Bolman and Deal (2014, p.245) management and leadership practices are essential for any individual's success as well as for that organization. Leadership is a process to set up a new way or vision towards its followers so that they may follow him like a spearhead. Effective leaders develop themselves through never ending processes in training, education, experience etc. there are many things which do not come naturally but are gained from practical experiences. Renz (2016, p.50) stated that skills and knowledge enhance the process of management and leadership. Its process involves aligning and motivating people through developing a vision by communicating.

As per the view of Armstrong and Taylor (2014) leadership and management are considered as effective terms that assists in executing operations of firm so that desired results could be attained. Leadership within business is being stated as the crucial part so that individuals could release their stress and develop appropriate relationship with each other. However, it also influences business to originate from formal sources and thus help leaders to obtain crucial position in organization. On the other hand, management is being considered as the way through which delegation of authorities are being provided in regard to fulfill aims and objectives. Still there is much confusion among management and leadership within industry.

Both these terms are interconnected to each other. In the current selected industry which is related to retail sector assesses both leadership and managers as crucial part in order to attain organizational goals. Also, it could be evaluated that both leadership and management have certain differences in relation to operational efficiency. Leadership is considered as the quality that aids in influencing individual to follow their path in order to attain common goals. While, management plays a crucial role in instruction and directing individuals to carry out the task and attain business success.

Avolio and Yammarino (2013) stated that leadership is considered as the skill that helps in leading people and inspiring them so that they could attain targets. However, in retail sector it is significant for business to obtain effective relationship within leadership and management so that operations could be carried out. While, management is considered as totally different concept that helps in incorporating a complete balance of managing business operations so that retail sector could flourish and thus set targets could be attained. However, Baum (2015) argued that responsibilities of leaders and managers are also different from each other. They both are considered as inseperable and thus helps in attaining organizational success. Manager possesses the qualities of leadership skills so that they could inspire their subordinates in regard to accomplish the goals. While, managers possessess the quality of managing the task through instructing subordinates so that success could be attained.

As said by Nahavandi (2016, p.80) management and leadership are inter dependable and linked complementarily but they are not the same thing and it might cause a problem if tried to separate them. Leadership includes encouraging people through the virtue of leading them whereas management manages the activities in the organization. As stated by Solomon et al. (2016, p.143) management calculates statistics, methods, timetables and routine, in short, its practice of science.

Thus, it could be assessed that leadership and management are two different concepts and both of these concepts obtain opportunities in order to attain desired targets. It is essential for leaders to possess clear vision about the goals of M&S so that they could focus upon accomplishing the targets. While, management possess different objectives to expand the business, manage workforce etc Goleman, Boyatzis and McKee (2013). Thus, both these concepts are different from each other and therefore, they also possess effective skills and capabilities in regard to satisfy the needs of employees. Relationship within management and leadership is not at all clear as they both follow different direction and path so that it helps in overcoming inefficiency and thus helps leader to assign different task so that appropriate solutions could be obtained.

Theories of leadership

The concept of leadership is best discussed as the process which effectively influences the other persons and helps in achieving the objectives in such a way to make the overall work structure highly coherent and cohesive. As stated that Miller and Matzel (2014, p.72) in this process, the individuals make an influence on the subordinates to bring success by achieving common targets.There are four major factors of this theory of leadership.This includes leaders, followers, communication process and managing of situations.

In this assignment, the researcher has chosen two of the most common and traditional style of leadership which is found to be highly effective. Those theories are a Behavioral style of leadership and contingency style of leadership. Further, analysis of one leadership theory is being done i.e. contingency theory. As per Wilbur and Myers (2016, p.186) in behavioral theory, there is a scope for a new perspective and is mainly focused on the attitude and behavior of the leaders. That body language is reflected among the followers and thereby influences them. However in the contingency theory is mainly based on a particular situation on which the effectiveness of the leader is evaluated.

Behavioral theory

The behavioral theory of leadership is focused on a specific behavior of a leader in an organization. Behavior predicts best on the leadership of his/hers success rate. As opined by Hallinger and Wang (2015, p.12) this approach provides real marketing potentials for a specific response to stimuli. This theory does not seek for inborn traits or capabilities but looks into the works of the leader. Success is often described in action that is easy for the rest people to act in the same way. This assumes that that capability in leadership can be learned and not inherited. This widens the development in leadership as opposed to the assessment in psychometric that provides them the potentiality from those who might not get the chance. It's easy to develop as it views both the actions of the leaders as well as the leadership qualities. The success can be correlated statistically with its behaviors. There are certain assumptions that state leader's effectiveness because of the actions they take. Mujtaba (2013, p.23) highlighted that the limitations are the situational factors that can be ignored; the behaviors do not generalize across situations and the leaders need to be flexible.

Contingency theory

Contingency theory is closely associated with the situational approach. This theory of leadership was first proposed by Fiedler. Shattock (2013, p.221) agreed that it emphasizes the importance of the situation as well as the leader's personality, which he operates. There are the two related styles one is the relationship motivated and the other is the task motivated. It claims that no best way can organize in a corporation, to make new decisions or to lead a company apart from this theory.It is the optimal course of action on the internal and external situation.Its leader should effectively apply its own style of leadership in the right situation. The model focuses on the natural leadership style and situations where it will be more effective.The leaders are either relationship or task focused. It can be matched to various situations making it more effective to use.

As per the view of Schuhmann et al. (2014) contingency theory could be stated that success of leader is a function that helps in developing contingencies so that it involves different subordinates, task or other group in order to develop leaders and thus carry out business targets. Further, contingency model assists leaders to undertake effective decision that helps business to identify the traits of their subordinates so that set targets could be attained. It is essential for leaders to obtain contingency model that helps in making effective decision so that business could be attain success. It is significant for leaders to manage, leader and direct other so that set targets could be attained. It could be assessed that contingency theory involves concept of situation which obtain different factors such as-

  • Leader-member relations- It is one of the main factor that helps individuals to develop trust, loyalty and confidence so that leaders could attain desired targets Schuhmann et al. (2014, p. 25).
  • Task structure- Further, it is another factor that helps workers to identify the clarity of task and thus accomplish the same so that needs of individuals could be fulfilled.
  • Position power- It is being related to the amount of reward and punishment authority so that leaders obtain effective power in regard to accomplish the targets Offord et al. 2016, p.294).

Analysis of contingency theory

As per the view of Alabdulhadi et al. (2017) contingency theory is considered as suitable for leaders in order to influence themselves according to situation and also develop good skills and attributes. It is the best way that helps leaders to make effective and quick decision making so that appropriate targets could be attained. Contingency theories helps leaders to support the team and thus possess people oriented style in regard to improve their own skills and capabilities and obtain successful targets. While, it could also be assessed that contingency theory helps individual to identify different independent factors and thus predict that leaders are those individuals who obtains personal traits and thus helps in matching the needs of the situation so that success could be achieved. However, it could also be stated that contingency theory is suitable for leaders in regard to use within firm and thus grow and develop business up to a great extent. It also aim to focus upon set targets so that desired goals and targets could be

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