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INTRODUCTION TO QUALITY MANAGEMENT
In every business enterprise, it is essential to maintain the quality in products or services so as to attain high amount of efficiency and also to attract large set of consumers. In this context, quality can be understood as a standard of particular things which is being measured with other things of similar nature. It reflects whether the specific thing is of worth paying certain specific amount or not (Farner, Luthans and Sommer, 2001). With the rise in competition and decline in profit margin of numerous companies, product development is not always the option available in boosting competency. In this concern, managing quality may help company is boosting its competency in the marketplace and attaining an edge in much cost effective manner. However, present report is prepared for attaining in-depth knowledge about the concepts of quality and its management. For this purpose, Rose and Crown Hotel is taken into account which is facing several issues related to service offering and poor management of operations. From this report, emphasis is laid on offering certain recommendations to cited hotel in order to streamline its quality as it is not in position to develop new product due to financial issues.
1.1 Definition of Quality
Quality can be understated as a specification and attribute of a product which makes products of one company different than that of other. In business, quality is an interpretation of non-inferiority or can be rather denote as superiority of particular products from which actual needs and desire of customers gets attained. Quality is meeting the diverse need of customers and offering services as per requirement. It also involves fitness for purpose for which service is being offered. In the context of hotel, quality can be reflect through different sort of support services that are been offered along with core accommodation services. This may involve offering of necessary information, appropriate hospitality, entertainment and other related activities (Hernon and Altman, 2010). However, quality in terms of service provision is identification of customer needs and hence providing services as per its specification so that satisfaction can be derived from their end. It can be articulate as a concept of self evaluating in order to develop a significant position against its rivals (Babin and et. al., 2005). In the context of Rose and Crown Hotel, quality can be reflects with its service offering and amount charge against it. It is essential for cited hotel to set a standard for service offering so that more of customers can be attracted towards it. Quality is also reflects value for which service is paid.
1.2 Process of Inspection and Quality Assurance
Quality control or inspection is a process that seeks that each set of activity has executed as per the set standards so that there is a low chance of deviation from it. Under it, checklist and accreditation system can be incorporated so that required quality can be maintained every time. In this context, process of plan, do, check and act can be employed on the basis of which set quality can be attained by Rose and Crown Hotel (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). "Plan" involves setting standards and "do" ensures execute of service. "Check" emphasizes on matching of quality and "act" involves taking corrective actions if necessary.
In addition to it, quality assurance is a process of declaring that particular products or service is of quality nature. In this context, ISO 9000 and 9001 mark plays a crucial role in assuring quality. However, this mark can be obtained by adhering to quality guidelines set against such mark (Maxwell, McDougall and Blair, 2000).
1.3 Approaches to Improve Quality Management
There are numerous approaches for which quality can be improved of cited hotel. In this concern, philosophical approaches of quality management can be taken into account. This involves Dr. Deming’s 14 Points on Total Quality Management. This involves constancy of improvement, adoption new philosophy, dependence, regular improvement, portfolio of supplier, training, leadership, avoiding barriers, setting targets and other related (Räisänen, 2003). Through this, the firm can able to boost its quality. Further, approaches of Dr. Armand Feigenbaum can also be considered. This involves total quality control which can be done by quality development, making efforts for quality improvement, regular maintenance of quality and developing a group a people in order to ensure production and service offering with economic nature (Min, Min and Chung, 2002). In addition to it, Dr. Philip Crosby approaches to quality management can also be implemented to improve quality at cited hotel. According to him, company should offer zero defect services to its customers. For this, company must set a tone and environment so that same can be followed by employees in order to offer services of appropriate nature. For this, company needs to offer effectual training so that desirable results can be attained (Kandampully and Suhartanto, 2000).
1.4 Similarities and Difference between Different Methods
Different methods that focus above are different elements of total quality management, total quality control and zero defects. There are significant differences in each set of practice. Different elements of TQM emphasis on boosting quality by focusing on each and every management areas. It involves purchasing of stock to offering of services. In this context, it can be state that it possesses huge scope (Giritlioglu, Jones and Avcikurt, 2014). However, total quality control only focuses on maintenance and taking corrective actions in order to gain appropriate set of quality standards. This is highly narrow approach than the former one. Contrary third approach focuses on identification of loopholes in the operations so that effectual decision can be taken into account (Davidson, 2003). Also it focuses on zero defect by developing tone and environment as per requirement. But all possess similarities boosting quality and performance of company in a desired manner (Berezina and et.al., 2012).
2.1 Customer Satisfaction
Customer satisfaction is a broader term that involves satisfying the actual needs of customers by offering variety of products or services in accordance with needs. For every product or service, there is a particular level of expectation which is perceived by customers on the basis of amount charged against it and surrounding at which company is offering services. It is a voice of consumer and hence needs to be managed accordingly in order to gain regular business from their side (Milakovich, 2005). However, satisfaction varies from nature of consumers and therefore organization needs to assess the same so that appropriate actions can be followed. For hotel, corporate guest and leisure guest that possess high difference in its expectation and therefore same is needed to maintain so that expectation level can be matched appropriately (Hernon and Whitman, 2001). Further, it can be understood as a concept of value for money and hence appropriate service is needed to be offered for delivering value for money.
2.2 Continuous Improvement
It is a process that involves regular development in the service offering so that actual needs of customer can be attained. In order to practice continuous improvement, regular feedbacks and reviews are invited by guest and customers so that gaps can be identified. After this, improvement tactics are taken into account so that effectual results can be attained through it. In addition to it, self assessment and organizational audit can be done in order to gain idea about the loopholes that exist in business operations (Williams and Buswell, 2003). With the help of it, tailored service offering way is designed so that ultimate needs and expectation can be attained. With the help of it, hotel can boost its efficiency in the market and hence can gain customer loyalty in an effectual manner. However, it is a never ending process but Rose and Crown Hotel can incorporate this practice in order to streamline its business activities (Nadiri and Hussain, 2005).
2.3 Types of Added Value for Continuous Improvement
Value added for customers can be understands as a complimentary services option available to customers along with core services so that their needs can be satisfied. It raises benefits to customers and hence aids in gaining loyalty. For organization, it an option for boosting its operational efficiency and service offering so that more of customer can be attracted and retained. With the help of continuous improvement, hotel can added numerous values ion its operations and service offering. With the help of improvement, Rose and Crown Hotel can able to lower its operating cost as it can identify ways of executing work from which overall cost can be managed (Presbury, Fitzgerald and Chapman, 2005). Further, it supports in reducing waste as strategy can be developed for managing waste and gaining best of it.
Also, continuous improvement will assists in saving time as employees are able to incorporate standardization in serving guest. With this, led time will be reduced and hence effective services can be offered to them. Beside this, improvement will help in reducing support while serving as this will leads to demonstration of roles and responsibilities to each employee (Swan, Bowers, and Grover, 2002). With the help of all these added value, customer will be offered with most effective hospitality services which will essentially leads to attainment of customer loyalty. With the help of it, overall efficiency of the firm gets improved from continuous improvement.
2.4 Types of Information made Available to Customers
There are certain information that needs to be delivered to customers in order to offer them conveniences. In this context, opening time of hotel is the information that needs to be offered so that customers can make decisions accordingly. With the help of it, company is able to serve customers in an effective manner and also it helps in making prior adjustments. Further, information of location is also of importance as this will help customers in reaching to hotel without any difficulty (Noone, Namasivayam and Tomlinson, 2010). In addition to it, information regarding tariff of rooms, dinning charge and other reacted pricing information is need to be offered so that customers can make decision accordingly. Also, it creates sense of belongings among customers and hence attracts large set of customers on its side. This certainly creates awareness among general audiences from which sales of company can be boosted. Moreover, it creates true image and hence assists in targeting concerned group of people only. This essentially leads to marketing of company and aids in boosting firm's efficiency in the market place (Schneider and White, 2004). It is essential to determine the source of communication from which information can be transferred to target customers. In this context, Rose and Crown Hotel can incorporate newspaper, promotion, social media, websites, banners, and interactive ads on websites, e-mails and other related source.
3.1 Measurement of Quality Management
There are various measurement tools that assist in this context. Most prominently, system documentation can be prepared in which standard of quality of different activities are set so that activities are executed as per standards. Under this, procedure for operations are set by operation managers and same is monitored by them in order to ensure that quality services are been offered. With the help of system procedure, evaluation of activities can be done and hence this leads to offering of most desirable and quality services (Pallet, Taylor and Jayawardena, 2003). Beside this, comparison with past performance is another tool for measurement of quality. In this respect, sales volume and profit margin of two consecutive years are compared in order to know whether business is growing or not. It assists in taking corrective actions along with measurement of quality management in a hospitality organization. Beside this, concept of quality circle can be incorporate in hospitality operations so that better decision making activity can be done for boosting the quality of operations (Zeithaml, 2010). This involves experts of different fields that offer valuable suggestions. Further, benchmarking can be used in order to offer standard set of services. This aids in boosting the performance of company. Six-sigma can be engaged in order to ensure that required set of quality is offered. For this, practice of statistical quality control can be implemented in which set standard can be set in order to ensure consistent quality (Angoujard, 2005). This will essentially leads to situation of total quality management.
3.2 Benefits of Users and Non-Users Survey
With the help of survey from users, following benefits gets attained to organizations:
- Assessing of target customer's needs specifically.
- Gains ideas about the like and dislikes of customers
- Helps in acknowledging about the expectation of existing customers
- Assist in gaining idea about the loopholes in the operational activity
- Identification of areas that needs improvement.
On the other hand, survey of non-users helps in gaining underneath mentioned benefits:
- Market trends.
- Actual needs and wants of non users
- Perception of non users towards company
- Aids in gaining idea about the barriers to access the services of hospitality organizations
- Gaining recommendation for converting non users into users and hence leads to boosting of sales volume.
Considering this, it is advisable that company must involve users for survey if the motive behind is to boost the quality standard of company. This is so because only user will be in position to comment on the quality and areas for improvements within organization. With the help of it, appropriate decision can be taken for boosting the quality standards from which customer satisfaction can be increased (Angoujard, 2005). However, if motive is to boost the sales volume and to incorporate new services in the operations, then both users and non users will need to be involved so that research objectives can be attained in a desired manner. Hence, it can be conclude that involving users for internal development and both users and non users for product development can aid company is attaining its objectives.
3.3 Methods of Consultation
There are various methods of consultation that can be employed for gaining idea about the customer requirement. In this context, questionnaire, suggestion schemes, focus group, open meeting with officials, employing complaint procedure and observation are few of the most prominent methods. But in order to assess the customer requirement, questionnaire and suggestion schemes can be employed majorly so that appropriate findings can be attained through it (Davidson, 2003). In this context, structured questionnaire can be offered to customers that might involves both open and close ended question so that ideas can be gained about the quality which is required by customers. In addition to it, suggestion schemes may assist in gaining idea about the customers about the things that can be employed in operations. From the outcome of these consultation methods, decision can be taken for improvement of service quality.
3.4 Value of Complaint Procedure
Complaint procedure is a form that comprises of questions on which customer can response if anything wrong is happened to them. With the help of it, areas that need to be improved are identified instantly and hence assist in taking appropriate actions. Further, it helps in evaluating whether problems of guest is resolved or not (Milakovich, 2005). This essentially assists in boosting the efficiency of firm and hence aids in attaining business objectives in an effectual manner. Moreover, it is a tool from which value of customer satisfaction can be measured and hence assist in taking appropriate actions for streamline the satisfaction level. Complaint procedure is easy to analyze and hence offers clear picture about the modifications which is required at a particular stage of time. Further, it offers ideas to company which they can incorporate in operations in order to boost its capability and performance level.
4.1 Role of Self Assessment
Self assessment helps is evaluating one's performance on their own. Holiday Inn can self assess its current state of health by different means. First of all, judgment can be done based on its current practice by evaluating it with good practice. With this help of it, idea will be attained that company is heading towards right direction or not. Meanwhile, past performance can also be tracked in order to know whether there are any changes in the operations or not. Moreover, benchmarking is another set of practice in this regard which will assist in assessing the current state of heath (Nadiri and Hussain, 2005). This eventually helps in identifying whether firm is leading towards right direction or not. Company can even compare its performance with other prominent hotels so that improvement can be attained in service quality.
4.2 Importance of communication and Record Keeping
There are numerous benefits of communication and record keeping to Holiday Inn. These are as follows:
- Communication aids in sharing information both vertically and horizontally from which necessary steps are taken accordingly.
- Helps in decision making
- Act as a document for future references so that strategy can be formulate as per requirement.
- Helps in gaining accuracy in business operations.
- Management of critical situation
- Helps in addressing grievances of customers
- Boosting of firm's efficiency and several others (Hernon and Altman, 2010).
4.3 Stages of Staff Consultation
In order to implement effective quality scheme, following stages must be incorporated in staff consultation
Setting Scene: First of all, scene is demonstrated to employees so that they able to know the motive of meeting.
Demonstrating Rationale and Objectives: Here, employees are offered with objectives so that necessary steps can be taken in this regard.
Commitment from staff: Further, commitment is ensured from employees and hence ideas are attained from their side for successfully implementing the quality scheme.
Communication method: Here, whole team is engaged and ideas of any individuals are communicated to every member so that its effectiveness can be assessed (Berezina and et.al., 2012).
Implementation: At this point, ideas are actually implemented for streamline the quality.
Feedback and review: At the last stage, feedbacks and reviews from customers as well as from member are invited in order to know whether quality is of determined level or not.
4.4 New System to Improve Service Quality
With a motive to improve the service quality in Holiday Inn, company can set a standard process in this context. For this, greetings and concept of welcome drink can be start in the hotel in order to boost the customer satisfaction. Further, mush friendly and active behavior will support cited hotel in offering quality services (Räisänen, 2003). With the help of it, sense of belongingness gets created in the customers and hence leads to attainment of customer loyalty. However, close monitoring will be done by concerned supervisor in order to ensure that quality schemes is been followed appropriately. In addition to it, performance indicator will be included which involves quality, responsiveness, attitude and other related indicators for boosting the service quality.
Responsibility for managing and organizing activity
My responsibility in managing activity is to supervise each set of work which is being performed by my subordinates. Main motive behind this is to ensure that service quality is in accordance with standards. I also offered guidance to my subordinates so that they can execute their set of roles in a desired manner.
With the help of this report, it is concluded that quality management is of key importance in service sector and it certainly reflects the brand image of the company. Moreover, it supports in attracting large set of customers from which market share gets increased and hence leads to attainment of business objectives.
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