Research Methods for Nursing


In the present era, problem in relation to obesity are increasing with the very high pace. Due to the unbalanced diet and daily activities problems among the teenagers in relation to obese are increasing with the very high pace. In this regard, the present report will discuss the extent to which school nurses have made contribution in preventing the problem of obesity which are facing by the teenagers.

Literature review

Text: It may be defined as a process in which scholar critically evaluates the findings that are presented by the other researchers in their articles, books, journals etc. (Elo and, 2014). This in turn provides in-depth knowledge to the researcher about the research issue or topic.

Paper: In the research paper, by making evaluation of the secondary sources scholars presented that increasing problem of obesity among adolescents has been increased dramatically by 34%. Along with this, Bean and, stated in their study that students who lie between the age of 12 to 19 are majorly suffering from the problem of obese. Besides this, due to the problem of obesity teenagers prone of several other diseases like diabetes, insulin resistance, metabolic resistance, blood pressure etc. Along with this, by evaluating the several articles scholar found that in the present time high level of changes take place in the lifestyle of people.

Now, adults and youngsters prevent to gain more weight and places emphasis on living a healthy life. In the literature review scholars also depicted the findings of Ogden and, that if school nurses have desired level of skills and abilities then they are able to control the problem in relation to obese to the large extent. Hence, authors presented that nurse intervention has placed positive impact on the habits of teenagers in relation to eating oily foods, soft drinks etc. Now, large number of students follow dietary chart which is prepared by school nurse for preventing the problem of obesity facing by teenagers.

Critique: Literature review which had conducted by the scholars are highly effectual. Moreover, in this, researcher has evaluated the findings of different scholars of several years approximately 8 years. However, on the critical note, it has been stated that themes which are prepared by the scholar are not directly addressed the aims and objectives of research. This is turn closely affects the accuracy of the secondary data investigation conducted by the scholar. In addition to this, researcher had also failed to undertake suitable data for the purpose of investigation. This aspect highly limits the significance of the output derived by the researcher.

It has been critically argued on the basis that researcher gathered data about overweight and obesity adolescents from the year 2005 to 2012 henceforth; latest performance has not been evaluated. However, it is essential for every investigation to generate current data; out-dated information is not of huge importance. Therefore, it is one of the weaknesses of the presented article which limits the outcome of the research to a great extent. In order to prepare a good article, it is necessary for the investigators to generate current facts and figures; historical data analysis and examination is not of great significance.

Research topic, phenomenon of interest and questions or hypothesis

Text: Research topic is one of the main parts of the study which clearly entails the aspects that will be evaluated by the scholar. Along with this, phenomenon of interest implies for the area in which scholar wants to explore his knowledge (Holloway and Wheeler, 2013). Further, research questions imply for the issues which scholar need to resolve by taking into account the suitable methods. In addition to this, research hypothesis the predication that is tested by the scholar with the help of SPSS.

Paper: Topic selected by the researcher for the purpose of investigation is: ''A School Nurse -delivered Intervention for Overweight and Obese Adolescents''. In this article, researchers have applied the nursing theories and their knowledge to resolve the issue. Further, hypothesis about the research has also been made by the scholar according to the aims and objectives.

Critique: In the present time, obesity is one of the major issues from large number of people specifically youngsters suffers. Hence, topic on which study is conducted by the scholar is prevailing nowadays. In this regard, by conducting investigation on such topic scholars can grab the attention level of potential readers to the large extent. However, on the critical note, it can be stated that research hypothesis are framed by the scholars on the basis of their own assumptions or predictions. Hence, by taking into account such aspect it can be said that outcome are biased to some extent. Further, it has been assessed that in the case of research hypothesis, scholars place emphasis on satisfying the fact to which they want to support. In this way, outcomes presented on the basis of hypothesis are biased in nature rather than true.

Research methods

Text: Research methods include approaches, philosophies as well as technique related to the selection of sample, data collection and analysis (Polit and Beck, 2013). Hence, by determining the suitable methodology, searcher can present the fair solution of issue.

Paper: Cited article presents that inductive approach and interpretivism philosophy has been employed by the scholars. Further, researcher has undertaken convenience sampling technique to assess the students on research will be conducted by him. By considering such aspect, researcher has selected students who satisfy the condition of BMI > 85th percentile.

Critique: In order to assess the impact of nurse intervention on reducing the obesity level quantitative investigation has been conducted by the scholars. This is one of the main limitations of this study because on the basis of this scholar had not studied the phenomenon in natural setting. Further, for the quantitative investigation researcher had used statistical tools and techniques such as T-test, regression, correlation etc. Hence, in the study, investigation had made use of T-test to analyze the data which is not appropriate. Moreover, this statistical test is not suitable when large sample size is going to be investigated. Hence, in this, by conducting qualitative investigation researcher will be in condition to present the fair outcome of issue. In this regard, by applying the thematic perception test researcher would become able to present the accurate results by supporting the findings from the literature review section.

On the other side body mass index had used by the scholar to measure the rate of obesity prevailed in each student. In this way, researcher selected suitable students for conducting investigation. Moreover, the prime focus of the present investigation is to assess the level to which school nurse has made contribution in reducing the problem of teenagers in relation to obesity. Along with this, BMI also helps researcher in assessing the level to which students are suffering from the problem of obesity related diseases. Hence, by considering such aspect it can be said that suitable methodology has been employed by the scholar in accordance with the type of investigation undertaken.

Data collection methods

Text: Data collection methods can be distinguished into two types such as primary and secondary. Further, to conduct study in the right direction, researcher has to gather data for evaluating the issue in an effectual way. Survey, observation, focus group etc. are the main methods which can be used by the researcher to gather primary data (Creswell, 2013). On the other hand, secondary data can be collected by the scholar through the means of books, journals, published reports etc.

Paper: In the given article, scholars have gathered data from both primary and secondary sources. Survey has been conducted by the researchers on the students of 6 high schools who are situated in Massachusetts. Further, secondary data also has been gathered by the scholars from books, journals and other scholarly articles.

Critique: Scholars have selected students on the basis of body mass index. On the basis of this, survey had conducted by the scholar on the students whose BMI > 85th percentile. Hence, effectual technique had been undertaken by the researcher to select the students for the purpose of survey. Moreover, weight and height are the main elements which provides deeper insight about the extent to which individual is healthy or fit. Along with this, survey is the most effectual techniques which assist the researcher to gather suitable information. Thus, scholars had collected primary data more effectively and efficiently. However, it is to be critically evaluated that limited amount of secondary data has been gathered by the scholars. They have gathered data from the year of 2005 to 2012 which is not sufficient. Moreover, researcher had not collected data of the latest years. Along with this, scholars also had made evaluation less scholarly articles which are published before the year of 2005.

Data analysis

Text: Fishers t-test is the most effectual data analysis technique which is used by the scholar to compare the categorical variables (Fink, 2013). Along with this, correlation ship helps in assessing the relationship which takes place between two variables.

Paper: To analyze the data gathered from survey T-test or Wilcoxon rank sum test has been used by the scholar with an aim to analyze the data gathered from the survey. Hence, linear mixed models have been used by the scholar to measure the physiologic aspect, physical activity, diet etc. Along with this, logistic regression model has also been used by the scholars to compare the dichotomous outcomes for diet and activity behaviours. Outcome of data analysis presented that large number of student support the fact that nurses are very helpful and develop feeling of comfortableness among them.

Critique: In the present article, researcher has used T-test to get information about the extent to which nurse offers support to them. Along with this, regression, correlation and descriptive statistic technique has been used by the scholars to analyze the data gathered by them. Hence, it can be said that data is effectively evaluated by the scholar through the means statistical tools and technique. However, on the critical note, T-test which is applied by the scholars to resolve the issue is not appropriate. Moreover, T-test offers suitable and reliable solution only when sample size is small. On the other side, in this, researcher had offered solution by applying T-test on the large sample size. Hence, results presented by scholars on the basis of such analysis are accurate to the some extent.


Text: It is the main part of the research study which presents the solution that is identified by the scholar from whole study. This section provides deeper insight to the readers about the extent to which hypothesis made by the scholar is true (Grove, Burns and Gray, 2014).

Paper: From the journal of school health it has been assessed that by organizing the weight management counselling session within the school awareness can be developed among the students about obesity. Thus, planning in relation to organizing the session was feasible. Further, it has been found from the study that nurse intervention generated high level of positive outcomes. According to the guidance of nurse several students reduced their habit in relation to drinking soda and eating fast food from the restaurants.

Critique: The above mentioned findings are reliable to the large extent. Moreover, in this, survey conducted by the scholar on the large sample size. Hence, usually researcher is able to present the fair view of the issue when investigation is conducted by him on the large group of people. Thus, researcher had presented the suitable views of the situation by doing study on large group of people. However, it is to be critically evaluated that in the study, scholars had used cluster randomized design which also limits the appropriateness of the outcome of investigation. Moreover, for the purpose of investigation only small number of schools which are located in one specific geographical boundaries had selected (Schneider and Whitehead, 2013). Hence, scholars would become able to present fair solution if investigation will be conducted by them on the number of schools. In addition to this, the intensity of control intervention also created difficulty in assessing the extent to which obesity level of the students have reduced from the guidance or interference made by the nurse.


From the above report it has been concluded that intervention which is made by the nurses placed positive impact on the health aspect of teenagers. Besides this, it can be inferred that there are some deficiencies which closely influences the outcome of study.


  • Elo, S. and, 2014. Qualitative content analysis. Sage Open. 4(1). p.2158244014522633.
  • Fink, A., 2013. Conducting research literature reviews: from the Internet to paper. Sage Publications.
  • Grove, S.K., Burns, N. and Gray, J.R., 2014. Understanding nursing research: Building an evidence-based practice. Elsevier Health Sciences.
  • Holloway, I. and Wheeler, S., 2013. Qualitative research in nursing and healthcare. John Wiley & Sons.
  • Polit, D.F. and Beck, C.T., 2013. Essentials of nursing research: Appraising evidence for nursing practice. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
  • Schneider, Z. and Whitehead, D., 2013. Nursing and midwifery research: methods and appraisal for evidence-based practice. Elsevier Australia.
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