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Introduction of Social, Culture and Economic Context to Healt
Health and social care is a term which are related to services that are provided by the health care institutes. Health and social care is a way to provide social and health care qualities services health care institutes provided the high quality services to customers. The principles of health and social care are the respect, dignity, equal opportunities, respect and privacy that helps the social care organisation to improve the clients life and also enhance trust among the staff workers. In this case we will discuss about the health and influence of social determinants on health. And aware social and cultural environment from the major illness. Also will analysis the inequalities in health and social care and discussed about the provisions under health care. And impact on influencing social a cultural and economic factors. Along with increase awareness about the scarcity of choice and significance. Also discussed with the government appreciation in the health and social care. At last we will discuss about the roles and responsibilities of government as per the case of health and social care..(Lloyd, L., 2010.)
Demonstrate a critical understanding of the production of health and well-being and influence of social determinants on health.
In this context, critical review would be done in order to generate high level of understanding over the production of health and well-being. Apart from this, factors will be defined that would result in influencing the social determinants on health. Although, social determinants are the situations or circumstances in which an individual grows, born and lives. Production function of health defines the relationship between health and the health inputs, like provided health care, needed to produce health. There are so many factors which are affect the health of individuals and communities. economic and social context for health behaviors, access to health care and ultimately the health of the population.(Lloyd, L., 2010.) Social determinants have a significant impact on health outcomes. Social determinants of the health are the based on different conditions in which people are born, grew, live, work and age. They include factor like socioeconomic status, education, income, employment, environment and housing, as well as health care. Moreover, social determinants of health is important for achieving greater health care.
Health care department is define health disparities where as differences in health outcomes that are closely linked with social economic and environmental disadvantage. In this case definitions recognize that health disparities in social economic and environmental context in which people alive..(Seal, K.H., Cohen, G., 2011)
Achieving health equity is also define, those social and environmental determinants through both broad population based approaches and targeted approaches focused on those both broad population- based approaches and targeted approaches focused on those communities experiencing the great disparities. As per the general way there are some problems which are affect to our social life. There are so many problems such as smoking, alcohol drug's junk food and so many that products are create a bad impact on our health. .(Lloyd, L., 2010.) Every person want to a safe and healthy life. But in some circumstance people are more affected to those products and that are the products are render on the bad impact on health. These type of food is such a big issue in our culture. So many people are consumed that type of food and that are consumed in different cultures and societies can affect the health and medical care of an individuals. Eating junk food which can be seen as status symbol in some societies can be affect to health of individuals and society. As just look at all the children who think these type of food is cool and is like to increase our status symbol that is absolutely wrong because these type of food our affect the health as being negative or that shows influence. These are the problems are render a big impact on individuals lifestyle.
Demonstrate critical awareness of the social and cultural context within which health and illness are defined and experienced.
Present section is going to explain the positive and negative aspects in relation with the awareness of social and culture. Here, the major factors that will be explained are culture awareness, competence, sensitivity and safety. Social and cultural awareness is becoming aware of our social and cultural ethics and beliefs. Social and cultural factor in context of health and illness which are discussed about the mental illness or some other critical illness. In this context are main objective is aware people to about various health care products and give them safety precautions. It can be very helpful for the future generation because knowing proper information about the health and safety care is helpful for the save from the medical illness. Provide different different type of health campaigning programs which are provide information and aware general public.(Seal, K.H., Cohen, G., 2011)
These type of sessions are conducting in time to time. In this context providing proper information about the scope of medical anthropology, where people in different cultures and social groups explain the causes of ill health, the type of treatment they believe in. In this also describe the study of how these beliefs and social changes in the human organism, in both health and disease. It is the study of human suffering and the step that people take to explain and relieve that suffering. .(Lloyd, L., 2010.) The concept of culture itself has sometimes been misunderstood or even misused. One should always avoid using generalization on explaining people’s beliefs and behavior . One cannot make broad genralisation about the member of any human group without taking into fact differences among the group.
Critically analyse the inequalities in access, provision and outcomes of health care services.
This section outlines inequalities in distribution of health care services on the basis of social class, gender and causes. Additionally, there will be different models that will be explained in this context such as behavioral model, materialist and psycho-social model.(Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
Where Behavioral Model of health inequalities is based on model which are used to describe the overall behavior of the individuals. Focus on Individuals behaviors choice such as smoking, diet, lack of exercise is considered as a lower social economic groups. These behavior is hardly prevent risky behavior. 50% of health inequalities are due to health related behavior. Where Meterialist model of health inequalities is consist for a control over a income related to housing, nutrition, work environment etc Further divided into: Neo-materialistic Life-approach where The effect of material circumstances on health reflects a lack of resources at individual and community level Related to public under investment in the physical, health and social infrastructure Think of community not just the individual..(Lloyd, L., 2010.) Psychological Model of health Inequalities is a consist of a stressful condition or low self esteem . Stress affects health, indirectly unhealthy behavior like smoking, drinking and other harmful products which are also render harmful impact on individual health.
Economic factor and social inequality are some of the most important causes of ill health, since poverty may result in poor nutrition, overcrowded living conditions, drug and alcohol.in the developing world too, whatever the local culture, poor health is usually associated with a low income and poverty, this influences the sort of food, water, clothing, housing and medical care that people are able to afford. Health disparities and the physical environment in which poorer communication live can directly impact on health.
Critically evaluate the social, cultural and economic contexts that influence the organization of health systems.
It is seen that health is determined by several factors such as personal, inheritance and external environment. However, the current section is going to examine different factors such as culture, economic and social which influence the health care organizations. (Hewitt, G., Sims, S. and Harris, R., 2014.)
In social environment is affect health in throughout life. Some people are fit into society are likely to be more content and as a result healthier, both physically and mentally. Our human body is built to be part of a society and putting time and effort into positively interacting with others, this can be help bring you many health benefits.(Seal, K.H., Cohen, G., 2011)
There are the most powerful standards for the health environment and growing understanding of the remarkable sensitivity of health to the social environment.(, Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E. 2011) The social determinants of health is might have affect include the life long importance of health determinants in early childhood, and the effects of poverty, drugs, working condition, unemployment, social support, good food and transport. Social environment play a crucial role in the health of each individual in our community. Inequalities can mean the difference between life or death or a life health. Education level, employment all those factors are influence a person’s daily life. (Pulsford, D., Jackson,2013)
social economic status is a broad term which are used to describe factor about the person’s lifestyle including occupation, income and education. It is important for to study about health studies. This is because most of the people are the different level and have different kind of medical care like healthy food and physical activities. These are all factors that can affect health. The relationship between social economic status and physical and mental health disability and many more.(Pulsford, D., Jackson, G.,2011) High social economic status is for those people who can buy high quality care services and able to paying for that. On an other hand small social economic status is for those poor people who cannot afford the quality care services and wont be able to take better medical facilities. This is the factor is based on the country economics because as per the economic bases people will be present to take them medical facilities.(Hewitt, G., Sims, S. and Harris, R., 2014.)
Under the culture factor some culture or societies view point is affect the health care . Because in our nation so many different type of religions are there they all have to belong different different culture . Also the type of food that are consumed in different cultures and societies can affect the health and medical care of an individuals. Eating junk food which can be seen as status symbol in some societies can be affect to health of individuals and society. As just look at all the children who think these type of food is cool and is like to increase our status symbol that is absolutly wrong because these type of food our affect the health as being negative or that shows influence.(Ellis, K., 2011)
Demonstrate critical awareness of the significance of scarcity and choice.
This section outlines the advantages and disadvantages of importance of scarcity and choice of patients. It is going to focus on the needs and satisfaction level of patients and services provided in health care organization. Each and every person is want to feel safe and disease free, they also want to take proper checkup’s in well repudiated hospitals and take out from the better quality care services.(Pulsford, D., Jackson,2013) In big city these type of facilities is easily provided and this is the significant advantage of person’s choice. People are make choice to get well facilitated provided organisation. In big areas desire demand of customers is fulfill. On in other hand if in some case person’s choice is not fulfill, which means customer wants better quality services from the well organisation this is the desire choice of customer but in some case they cannot meet to fulfill these choice, in that case absence of the well organisations for quality care so in that case customer take to case from other resources company.(Coughlan, M. and Cronin, P., 2016.) Create awareness about the new technologies advancement and innovations. This is the dis advantage for the person who had choice to meet their . As in general way we have to build awareness of the health care in scarcity areas.(, Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E.2011) Increase awareness in that hospitality industry which are not providing the better quality care services. Starts some campaigning about the social care and some of the campaigning is for free health checkups and have to spread out the information about the rest hospitals which are not listed in customers mind , so in that case aware public to that hospitals are also provide good services.
Critically appreciate different approaches to financing health services.
There are different approaches of financial health services such as general revenue, private insurance as well as community financing that will be explained in this section.the approaches that countries use to finance their health system provide the financial resources those system provide the financial resources. All health financing approaches should try to follow three basic principles of public finance: (Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
raising funds for health, reducing financing barriers to access through prepayment funds, and ensure the payment for purchasing health services in efficient manner. To enable learner understand the importance of regulation in managing financial resources. To introduce the learner to the regulatory framework in the management of financial resources in health and social care.(Pulsford, D., Jackson, G.,2011)There are various kind of health financing mechanisms as follows:
General tax revenue is an important source of financing health care. This revenue can come from a variety of taxes like income and profit tax, value added tax, tax on import and export. Generally tax revenue is used to support a wide range of government programs including the health system.(Lloyd, L., 2010.) There are some problems is also occur in this program such as health system has to compete with other sector for funds, and depending on the types of taxes and economic conditions.(Seal, K.H., Cohen, G., 2011)
Social health Insurance-
It is a financing mechanism that provide some packages of benefits for the specific period of time. Social health insurance is compulsory for each and every one in that every one an eligible for must enroll and pay a specific premium over the package of benefits. Social health insurance funds are generally required to maintain their solvency and produce to high transparency and accountability. Social health insurance programs can be needed but all time is not necessarily. There are one main difficulty in this program is requires fiscal capacity of government and labor due to higher social insurance premiums.(Ellis, K., 2011.)
Private Health insurance- In this health insurance program insurance scheme is voluntarily purchase from the private companies.in this program people can chose their own plan and may feel more secured and more empowered. This method is provide less risk pooling and cost are highly excluded. Private insurance set is complex to managed by the management.(Pulsford, D., Jackson,)
Under this financing approach financing and delivery of primary care can be separated or integrated, but high level of care is usually purchase by the scheme.(, Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E.2011) Community based health insurance schemes vary widely in size,and it is also referred to as community financing or community based financing. All of which refer to scheme in which affiliation are based on community membership, with strong involvement of the management system. There is one major difficulty is local control may produce more transparency and accountability. (Ellis, K., 2011)
Out of pocket spending-
out of pocket payment are paid directly by patients for medical care and these expenditures are not reimbursable by insurance or other third parties. Out of pocket payment includes official user fees, co payment, unofficial and informal payments all those payments is render on service user for suppliers and not to be available in health facilities. Out of pocket payment are often the largest type of health care financing in low income countries out of pocket payment also may make health system less efficient. (Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
Many poor countries rely on foreign aid to as a financing source for their health sectors. Although some low income countries are highly dependent on external funding for the health health care systems, nationally generated resources are generally more important in most countries and are likely to be more so in the future.
Demonstrate an appreciation of governance in health care.
This context outlines the corrective measures taken by government towards health care organizations.() Firstly we can describe what is government regulation, government r, Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E. 2011egulation is a Regulation which may widely be defined as any government measure or intervention that seeks to change the behavior of individuals or groups . It can both give people rights , and restrict their behavior. There is main purpose of regulatory services is provide better accountability, effectiveness of systems and processes, fair and openness policies, proper integrity in an organisation structure, and reduction in financial crime .(Aveyard, H., 2014.)
The Governance Board is responsible for signing off and directing the planning of Health care UK activity plus overseeing the delivery of the strategy. Specific responsibilities include:
- Responsible for regulating all providers of NHS-funded services.
- Making sure that foundation hospitals, ambulance trusts and mental health and community care organisations are well led and are run efficiently, so they can continue delivering good quality services for patients in the future. (Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
- Making sure essential NHS services continueif a provider gets into difficulty.
- Making sure the NHS payments systems rewards quality and efficiency
- The Audit Commission’s role is to protect the public purse.
- Make recommendation on process improvement
- Advisory work on the review of community care budget and improving care pathway
- Providing quality account on Governance structure, systems and processes
- UK’s tax authority, the UK’s tax authority responsible for making sure that money is available to fund the UK’s public services. administer the tax system in the most simple, customer focused and efficient way
- Companies House is a registry of corporate information.
- Responsible for promoting high quality corporate governance and reporting to foster investment. (Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
- Manage negligence and other claims against the NHS in England on behalf of member organisations.
- evaluation and agreement of the strategy and annual business plans for Healthcare UK.
- supporting the development of its strategic direction through identifying and reviewing target markets and considering whether Healthcare UK will be proactive or reactive in those markets (Lloyd, 2010).
- overseeing what Healthcare UK is signing up to in terms of National Health Service (NHS) provision, helping to protectNHSbrand.
- advising on resource levels and expenditure.(, Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E.2011)
- providing corporate governance and accountability, including ensuring Healthcare UK’s Key Performance Indicators are managed appropriately and undertaking periodic reviews.
- assistance in identifying and advising on major issues of concern relating to trade in healthcare goods and services, which may require Departmental / Governmental intervention.(Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
As per the above report we can discussed about the health and social determinants on the current health care conditions.( Bertenthal, D., Cohen, B.E. 2011) In this case we describe the impact on current health status that influenced by the junk food and bad product which are largely consumed by the customers. In this case also describe the social and cultural impact with the help of major illness. And also analyze inequalities of heath care services with the different social culture, and also set some provisions for the equality in health care. In the above content also evaluate the social cultural and economical impact on health care system.(Aveyard, H., 2014) . In this scenario describe what are the main causes which are create influence the organisation of health. In above content build a critical evaluation of technologies advancement and aware from the existing product and services. On an other hand also discuss on different approaches to financing health services which are helpful to keeping record for fund raising. In this point we can discus about the companies which are providing funds for the health care industries. At last study about the government responsibilities for the health cares and regulatory services under this health care organisation. Those all topic is under related to health and social care and in whole scenario which are inter related to the influencing people with not so good products and largely bad impact on health. (Murdoch, T.B. and Detsky, A.S., 2013. )
- Aveyard, H., 2014.Doing a literature review in health and social care: A practical guide. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
- Coughlan, M. and Cronin, P., 2016.Doing a literature review in nursing, health and social care. Sage.
- Dickinson, H. and Glasby, J., 2010. ‘Why Partnership Working Doesn't Work’ Pitfalls, problems and possibilities in English health and social care.Public Management Review.12(6) pp.811-828.
- Ellis, K., 2011. ‘Street‐level Bureaucracy’Revisited: The Changing Face of Frontline Discretion in Adult Social Care in England.Social Policy & Administration.45(3). pp.221-244.
- Hewitt, G., Sims, S. and Harris, R., 2014. Using realist synthesis to understand the mechanisms of interprofessional teamwork in health and social care.Journal of Interprofessional Care. 28(6). pp.501-506.
- Lloyd, L., 2010. The individual in social care: the ethics of care and the ‘personalisation agenda’in services for older people in England.Ethics and Social Welfare.4(2). pp.188-200.