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Managing business at global level is a difficult as well as complex task which required proper planning. An unplanned expansion can have negative effect on the business performance. International business strategy is defined as a plan which is designed for guiding commercial transactions taking place in between entities in different countries. These plans or strategies are formulated by management team in an organisation for identifying the ways for increasing profits. The objective of these strategies is to assist firm in managing business activities or operations at global level. Strategies created by management team in an enterprise assists an organisation in reducing negative effects or influences of changes in external or internal factors on business operations. It also helps business entity in gaining competitive advantage in market. There are mainly three types of international strategies which are international, multi domestic, global as well as transnational. The study of international strategic management is important as it will assist an individual in managing business at international level. The purpose of report is to develop understanding about several theories of leadership, motivation, change management and their effective implementation in an international context.
1. People management issues that potentially underpin difficulties that Jan is facing
Managing the business at global level is a critical as well as difficult task. There are variety of issues such as cross cultural, language, business attitude, which might be faced by managers when managing several functions at international level. In addition to this cultural diversity is the big issues due to which human resource manager might face difficulty in managing people. In given case scenario, main issue faced by manager is related to managing people as well as their performance at workplace. There has been number of issues that have been faced by Jan. One of the major issues is lack of support of workers. Without having the support of employees, it is difficult for the management team expected to customise the new product in the production plant, and sales are not taking off as forecast (Johnson,2017)
While sales agents around world are trained in new product they seem to be having problems accessing crucial prospective customers. It has been identified from the given case that all these problems were faced by Jan and other people due to difference in opinions in between staff members. These small as well as major problems have significant as well as direct impact on the business performance, productivity and other operations. It has been analysed from the given case scenario that there is power culture in an organisation and manager has adopted the authoritative leadership style. Power has been used by production manager for threatening employees to increase their efficiency as well as supporting change within an enterprise. All these activities as well as rude behaviour of Jan has given the rise to other major problems within an organisation. Jan has also been accused by the production manager of not working with his management team or listening (Kossek, Petty and Michel, 2018)
Another reason for all these issues is overburdened work and pressure of responsibility. Other issue which was faced by Jan is lack of support from co-workers and other employees. These factors have created the major barriers in formulation as well as implementation of strategy at workplace. (Jamali, ed., 2016)
There are several leadership theories such as transformational leadership, transactional, continuum of leadership behaviour and great man theory.
Transformational leadership: Leadership approach that causes change in a person as well as social systems. In its ideal form, it creates valuable and optimistic change in the followers with the end goal of developing subordinates into leaders (Grinblatt and Titman, 2016)
Great man theory: As per this concept, great men or leaders have high influencing power to motivate people for performing specific task or activity. This theory is based on the assumption that some people are born with the essential attributes which make them different from others and that these attribute. A leader is considered to be as a hero who accomplishes goals against all odds for his subordinates (Mouton, 2017)
Continuum of leadership behaviour: As per this concept, successful leaders have understanding that which behaviour is the most appropriate at a particular time. It is the quality of an effective leader that such people develop their attitude after analysing of self, their subordinates, organization and environmental factors (Belias, Trivellas, Koustelios and et.al., 2017.) It has been analysed from the given case scenario that Jan does not have understanding about the behaviour he should adopt in specific situation. This is the reason that Jan has to face various problems (Gray, Wharf Higgins and Rhodes, 2017)
Contingency theory of leadership- As per this concept, effectiveness of leadership depends upon the nature or complexities of situation. There are several factors such as nature of task, leader's personality and make-up of group being led. In context of the given case scenario, Jan does not have knowledge as well as understanding about this concept. This is a reason he has not able to become an effective leader (Grant, 2016)
Implementation of change can sometimes become difficult process due to could not motivate people to support the change. As per the Kurt le win Theory which is based on the concept of Psychology. This hypothesis examines the patterns of interaction between person as well as field. Lewins force field hypothesis is considered to be as significant contribution to the hypothesis of change management. In given case scenario, it is required by Jan to develop understanding about the change procedure. Kurt-in Lewis force field hypothesis is based on the assumption that any situation is the result of forces for and against the current state being in equilibrium. As per this hypothesis there are several drivers which force company to bring improvement in plan, policies, procedure and business system. Lewins force field hypothesis driving force are those which have effect on situation. As per this model , it is required by Jan to understand that the change can result in dissatisfaction. It is required by Jan to develop appropriate strategies for bringing improvement within a business system. As this activity will help in implementing successful change within an enterprise (Hakanen and van Dierendonck, 2014)
According to the transition model there are mainly three stages of of transition that people go through when they experience change. These are:Ending, Losing, as well Letting Go. The Neutral Zone and New Beginning. Transition hypothesis states that People enter this initial stage of transition when leaders inform, them about change. Ending, Losing, as well Letting Go., this phase include resistance as well as emotions. As employees are being forced to adjust them self in working environment as well as culture. This situation is identified in given case scenario, where working are forced by Jan to support change. As a result of this attitude by Jan many of the employee has left their jobs. The other problems which was faced by Jan is it was very much difficult for him to bring change in business organisation culture. Another major problem which Jan faced is engaging the critical stake holders who are affected by this change. In the given case scenario, Communication is identified as an issue where the perception of the manager is different from employees understanding (Bridges, 2009)
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2. Steps which Jan is required to take in the short and medium-term, to get the launch of the new product
Kotters 8 step change model can be adopted by Jan for launching a product and dealing with several issues. This hypothesis is considered to be an effective tool in terms of increasing an organisational capacity to change and increasing the chances of success. By adopting K otter model Jan can eliminate chances of failure and can successful implement change within an enterprise. Result of utilising the hypothesis is that business entity has no longer require adjusting the changes (Kotter, 1995)
As pet K otters model, workers in an organisation not always experience change as something positive. Involvement or participation of both internals s well as external stakeholders are essential in the procedure in order to implement change in systematic and successful manner .This Hypothesis states that leaders in a company is required to develop a good as well as creative environment at workplace. Before planning to bring change leaders or managers in an enterprise are required to conduct internal and external audit. As This activity will assist management team in identifying the are will require change and also recognising the need of change. Internal as well as external analysis will also help managers or leaders in recognising the factors which can have negative influence on change procedure. It will also support management team in analysing the internal capability of firm to change and determining the resources which are required for facilitating change within an organisation (Daft, 2014) The 8 steps which are included in the K otter model are :
Create a sense of urgency:At the first phase, It is required by Jan to create urgency. Jan should communicate with other people at workplace and required to inform workers about the need , urgency as well as importance of change. As this strategy will help Jan in gaining supports from employee should have focus on open, honest as well as interaction. The another strategy is Jan is required to adopt Convincing attitude. As this strategy will support Jan in positively influencing people to support the change and help firm in bringing improvement.
Building a Guiding coalition :In the second phase, it is needed by Jan to hire or appoint team for implementing change within an enterprise. As this will assist an organisation in managing the change in systematic manner. Project team will be responsible for all efforts and motivating employees to cooperate as well as take a constructive approach.
Establishing Vision for change: It is very much important for Jan to establish and definer the objective of change. As this strategy will help employees in identifying their role as well as responsibilities in change procedures. Establishing Vision for improvement this activity makes changes more concrete and creates support to implement them.
Communicating the objective or purpose of change :Jan with the support of manager should provide open communication channel to employees. As this strategy will assist business entity in ensuring the effective as well as efficient utilisation of resources and avoiding the overlapping of activities. It is very much essential for Jan to facilitate continuous interaction with the workers and supports them in adjusting into new environment. As effective communication between employer and employee will assist in developing mutual trust as well as understanding between both the parties. This strategy will also assist in eliminating the barriers in implementation procedure which has occurred due to ineffective communication. This strategy will also assist Jan in rebuilding as well as improving his professional relationship with internal and external stakeholders. Effective communication strategy will also help Jan in getting innovative ideas for bringing change in an enterprise. It will also assist Jan in identifying the workers who are resting to change and people in a company who can support leader in implementing change in successful manner (Iqbal, 2015)
Eliminating Barriers: Before change is accepted at all levels, it is important for Jan to have positive attitude. By utilising the influencing power and effective communication skills , Jan can easily convince the people those are not ready for accepting the change.
Creating Short term wins: Jan should establish short term targets so that the employees have a clear idea about the process and business strategies . When the goals have been met, the workers in an organisation will be motivated to support the change.
Consolidating improvements :As per Kotters 8 step change model, the significant reason for failure is victory is declared too early. Achievement should be declared after the completion of the procedure and achievement of desired outcome.
Monitoring the changes – It is required by Jan to establish some specific standards as well as criterion for measuring the success. Values and standards must agree with the new vision and the employees’ behaviour must provide a seamless match. Jan should also facilitate continuous discussions and need to regularly evaluate progress.
After completion of this procedure , it is need by Jan to ensure that employees who have made active contribution in the change procedure must receive public recognition or rewards. As this activity will assist business entity in seeking support from these stakeholders in other procedures as well (Krogh, Nonaka and Rechsteiner,2014)
3. Leadership style which Jan should adopt
It has been identified from the case scenario, that presently Jan has adopted the commanding leadership style , due to which He has to face several issues. Commanding leadership style have adverse impact on behaviour of people in an organisation as well as creates negative environment at workplace. It has been analysed from the case scenario that Jab have the high potential to deal with problematic situations. As per the leadership theories, leaders who lacked emotional intelligence are rarely considered as outstanding in their annual performance reviews.
There are several other leadership style which can be adopted by Jan which will help him in becoming effective leaders as well as managing the change as well as people at workplace. Some of leadership styles are:
Visionary leadership style: Leaders with this type of leadership style encourage people to support firm in achieving business objectives. This leadership style will assist Jan in driving employees towards organisation vision. This leadership style have positive influence or effect on employees.
Coaching:Leaders with this type of leadership supports people in adjusting to new environment. Such types of leaders are mainly concerned about the problems faced by their subordinates. Coaching leadership style can be adopted by Jan as this will help him in improving relationship with subordinates.
Affiliation : This leadership styles is generally adopted by leaders for building emotional bonds. Leaders or managers with Affiliative leadership style Works best to encourage workers during the time of workload. It helps in developing positive environment at workplace. This leadership style when adopted by leaders helps them in providing high level of satisfaction to workers and encouraging employees to participate in decision making process as well as increase their contribution in bringing positive change within an enterprise.
Democratic: Leaders with this type of leadership build consensus through participation. This leadership style is also recognised as participative leadership style. It is suggested to Jan that he should involves his subordinates in decision making process. As this strategy will assist Jan in making appropriate judgement and identifying the appropriate solution to business problems.
Pacesetting : managers or leaders with this type of leadership style are generally self directed and have high expectation from their subordinates. These people Works best to get quick results from a highly competent team.
Commanding : leaders with this type of leadership style demand immediate compliance.
Works best in crisis.
It has been advice to Jan that he should adopt the leadership style as per the demand of situations, need of workers etc. As this strategy will assist them in becoming an effective leaders and seeking the support from employees during the time of complex or difficult situations. As these are certain circumstances where subordinates requires direction , guidance , visionary. Leadership style adopted by the leader have great as well as significant impact on the behaviour as well as influence in performance of team member (Lee and Lawrence, 2015)
4. Any decisions or support that might be needed at board level to help improve this situation
The managers at top level management position in an organisation is required to develop attractive policies. As this will assist manager in reducing the employee turnover rate and attracting new highly skilled as well as talented workforce. Effective communication should be ensured as this will help management team in avoiding the conflicts as well as misunderstanding.
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Development of attractive policies, reward or incentive system which can be formulated by top level manager for ensuring the participation of both internal as well as external stakeholders in various business activities as well as procedures. Management team in an enterprise is required to develop their focus on identifying the needs of workers and fulfilling the same. As this strategy will assist manager in providing high level of satisfaction to workers and inspiring them to increase their contribution in driving firm towards achievement of success. Communication is the significant activity which is required to be facilitated by top level management. Ass this task supports workers in keeping themselves update with the latest policies , business objective , organisations strategy etc. The management team can also improve ethics by developing emotional intelligence. As this strategy will aid firm in eliminating ethical issues and legal obligations. It is required by the top level management in an organisation to set some criterion or standards this activity will help management team in measuring the actual performance with standard. It will also assist manager in identifying the performance gaps. In context of change, proper planning is required to be done and proper communication as well as suitable strategies are required to be developed. As this activity will help management in implementing successful change within an enterprise (AlMazrouei and Zacca,2016)
It has been concluded from the report that leadership styles have great as well as direct influence on subordinates behaviour as well as performance. Study has also concluded that successful change can nit be implemented without the support of stakeholders. It has been concluded that there is no single leadership style which can be adopted or applied by leaders in all types of situations. Report has highlighted the some leadership style which can be adopted by Jan in order to deal with complex situation at workplace.
Jan has been suggested that He should posses positive leadership style. As this will help him in motivating workers to support change.
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