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Tourism has become a very crucial part of any economy in the world. People around the world are spending their discretionary amount on travelling all over the globe. It has became a way of lifestyle. The role of tourism in sustainable economic development cannot be undermined because of the fact that it generates employment as well as source of revenue and awnings for a lot of section of society. Therefore, it is of paramount importance that right kind of policies and procedures are framed and developed by government in this regard. Sustainable tourism means meeting the current needs and demands and making sure that future generation will also be able to meet the same demands in affective manner (Weaver, 2012). The current report will have a proper discussion on the stakeholders who are involved in sustainable tourism and effects on them, the steps involved in the planning of sustainable development of tourism will also be considered. Qatar is an Arabian country having a population of around 2.6 million and having a GDP of around $400 billion. The country is growing rapidly and so is the tourism sector of the country. The policies adopted by the government of Qatar have given various benefits to companies within it. The current report will also have a discussion regarding the opportunities available for Qatar going in the future. Qatar is one of the most prosperous Arabian countries with a per capita of around $128,000.
1.1 Benefits stakeholders can get from planning of tourism developments
There are various benefits that a country and its stakeholders can derive by focusing on planning of tourism development. Qatar is a country which well famous as a tourist destination. The tourism sector is on the main priority of the government, and therefore the policies framed by the government are usually pro tourism. A tourism arranging will include every one of these gatherings and make them to work in joint effort. The different partners engaged with tourism business are Government, Local Community, Tourism Industry, Tourists, International offices, different associations, and Educational foundations.
There is no uncertainty in the way that tourism gets a great deal of monetary advantages for the host nation. Tourism is rising as one of the quickest developing businesses and henceforth nations are increasingly intrigued and slanted towards it. Among different classifications of tourism, sustainable tourism is the one which is drawing consideration of the greater part of the nations. A reasonable tourism is the one in which somebody visits a place as a visitor and abandons some constructive impact on the earth, individuals and the economy. National and International occasions are one such sort of supportable tourism which is ending up exceptionally basic nowadays. Some of the international sports events that are going to take place in Qatar are 2022 FIFA world cup, which will derive a large number of tourists for the country, along with revenue for small and big business operating in the country. Games occasion are the most preferred occasions and have additionally got the ability to pull in greatest number of visitors alongside the media as well (Sörensson and von Friedrichs, 2013). This is the motivation behind why the greater part of nations approach and need to hosts occasions. So certainly the up and coming games occasion like The Qatar 2022 football world cup will help the stakeholders in a big way. This can be demonstrated from the past encounters. From the explores it is discovered that the London Olympics 2012 has upgraded the economy of UK by around 10 Billion pounds.
1.2 Advantages and Disadvantages of public/private sector tourism planning partnerships
Public as well as private partnership is mostly backed by the government, because of the fact that a sharing of knowledge and skills can take place, which will not only benefit the company but also the stakeholders and industry in general. There is also a competitive advantage which can be gained by tourist destinations by PPP Model.
The various advantage of PPP Model is the overall distribution of authority among all the partners on an equal basis, and there is a less chance of any kind of dictatorship or authoritative abuse. Every one of the partners included either open or private will have an immediate effect of any issue or henceforth they all will work all the more successfully settle a specific issue. This will bring more participation and cooperation among the individuals. Additionally the individuals will work with greater duty level. Involvement of more gatherings will get more information and core ability inside the business. There are various benefits that can be derived by effective public and private partnership in order to conduct big sports events. Public and private partnership is beneficial in the sense that it brings lot of development within the region and it leads to higher incomes in the treasury of government.
Asian Games were directed by Qatar government in a joint effort with the private players to ensure that the photo of the city will change in the given day and age. There will be long streets and extensions, decent rail tracks, improvement in the media transmission and remodel of the airplane terminal. With the assistance of these improvements and progressions, the goal is presently a universal traveller goal for a large number of the visitors. The advantages of this will definitely be harvested by both the private and public sectors in general areas. To put it plainly, the benefits of open private association divisions in tourism are taken a toll lessening as it is being shared by numerous accomplices, chance sharing again in light of the fact that it is being shared by numerous players, change in the administrations and better execution of the administrations (Nunkoo, 2015).
2.1 Features of tourism development planning at different levels
Tourism planning is a very essential aspect for development of Tourism industry, under this, planning is done to bring all the stakeholders involved together and let them work in collaboration. Three areas shall be considered for the purpose of making a tourism planning, these are discussed as follows:
- Economic: There is impact on the economy of Qatar; it is directly as well as indirectly. Directly would be in terms of increase in overall spending done by consumers in hotel as well as restaurants. The indirect impact will be on the wages as well as salaries of the employees who work in this particular industry.
- Environmental: it is vital to remember about the effect of tourism on condition which could be certain and in addition negative. The positive resemble dealing with landmarks and the social legacy, keeping up the parks, national stops and woods and so on. The negative effects are pit fires which can hurt the woods, jumping and different games movement harms the corals and so on (Ghaderi and Henderson, 2012).
- Social: The social effect could be on culture, dress, and way of life and so on. Tourism arranging has now turned out to be a standout amongst the most essential element for the legislature of different nations. In the underlying days, travel and tourism arranging was generally in view of the economies as it was the most effortless technique to figure achievement. Be that as it may, now with the adjustment in the importance of tourism, there are different elements like social and ecological which should be taken care while arranging tourism. Government assumes the most vital part in tourism arranging yet it permits huge numbers of the private players for the improvement of tourism. For instance in the event of Asian games at Qatar itself, the activity was taken by Qatar Government yet then it took help of numerous private players with a specific end goal to ensure that all the required developments for the improvement in infrastructure of the nation are done on time (Bhuiyan, Siwar and Ismail, 2013).
2.2 The significance of interactive planning systems and processes in tourism development
In tourism, Interactive planning assumes a critical part as this sort of arranging puts stock in making a future by rolling out the required improvements in the present. In Interactive planning the organizers have faith in the way that their future will rely upon every one of the moves that they will make amongst today and what's to come. As specified before, amid the amusement occasions all the progression should be taken amongst today and the occasion date in order to make a decent tourism spot. Henceforth, Interactive planning is best for tourism arranging. It is additionally trusted that part of genuine effect on environment and economy could be maintained a strategic distance with the assistance of Interactive planning. Interactive planning basically states that all the arrangements regarding upcoming tourist events shall be made in the present in an effective manner so that future problems can be avoided and better services can be provided to visitors and tourists (Sharpley and Telfer, 2015).
2.3 Different methods available to measure tourist impact
There are various techniques which are being frequently used, in order to calculate as well as measure the tourist impact, these are mainly of three types and are as follows:
- Carrying Capacity: It is the measurement of as to the number of people which can be gathered and will not have a negative impact on environment and quality of services which are being provided. There are some points which shall be kept in mind while calculating the carrying capacity. These are average time of stay, features of tourists as well as hosts, geographical concentration of people who comes to visit the country, type of tourism activity etc. Hence these were some of the factors, with the help of which the overall impact of tourist on any destination can be measured effectively.
- Cambridge Economic Impact Model: With the assistance of Cambridge Economic Impact Model, the organizations can get a thought of monetary effect of tourism on a traveller goal. This model has fundamentally got two phases. At first stage it figures the volume and the estimation of the day and the guest and at second stage it computes the monetary effect of the guest on the neighbourhood economy. This model makes utilization of government reports as well as statics with a specific end goal to get the data on the guests.
- EIA: EIA is condition affect appraisal which could quantify the effect of specific advancements on environment. With the assistance of this procedure the different things are inspected like the ecological reviewing process, limitation to the natural resources, environment issues and the contentions that may emerge because of it and the conceivable harming impacts on individuals, soil, air water and so on. Since these are inspected on time with this strategy, it is simpler to reduce its unsafe impacts.
Hence, These were some of the methods which can be used by the government of Qatar and authorities to analyse as well as measure the impact of tourist on the country (Bramwell, 2012).
3.1 Justification of Introduction of the concept of sustainability in tourism development
Sustainable development can be regarded as meeting the needs of current generation without in any way sacrificing or compromising the ability of future generations for the purpose of meeting their needs. Under this, it is quite essential that certain rules shall be framed which can be imposed in order to make sure that that current and future needs can be met. So also the idea of maintainable tourism expresses that the necessities of the present visitors ought to be met yet not at the cost of the needs of future age. In the event that there will be unsustainable tourism there will be overcrowding, commercialization of industry, low nature of administrations, devastation of culture and condition etc.
A maintainable tourism is the one which will help in expanding the social and monetary advantages for the host nation, will limit the negative effects on nature, and get the best for the group, guests and nearby legacy (Alonso and Liu, 2012).
Qatar authorities shall make sure that right kind of sustainable development practices are being adopted within the region, which will not only help companies but also visitors as well as tourists. In general, it shall make sure that all the stakeholders get the benefits of sustainable tourism.
Economical tourism is the one in which least cost is required and the greatest advantage is given to the nearby social orders and the environment. The assets which are utilized can be utilized perpetually without making hurt them. There is no doubt about that tourism is one of the quickest developing enterprises in the present situation yet on other hand one can't disregard that numerous a times apart of regular living space, culture, and condition are harmed in creating tourism. Additionally, in the customary tourism style it is seen that the budgetary advantages don't reach to the Local groups and social orders. The sustainable tourism is uncommonly planned with the thought process to profit the Local groups and bunches from tourism that too without making any damage the regular living space and the earth (Lee, 2013). Subsequently the vast majority of the administrations alongside the private players are empowering Sustainable tourism within Qatar.
3.2 Factors that may prevent/hinder Sustainable Tourism Development
There are various factors that do affect the overall sustainable tourism development in a country. Qatar is a country of Arab and therefore does posses certain cultural heritage. People do visit these countries to have a view of those architecture and monuments. The most common issue which affect is the proper renovation of these heritage buildings. With a specific end goal to keep up their authencity, very little changes should be possible in them. Additionally, if a section or side is harmed, it is extremely hard to fabricate it in an indistinguishable manner from the craftsmen and works currently are not sufficiently fit to modify the things. The other issue is that with a specific end goal to make the place plausible for tourism, there are numerous different issues like contamination, clog, increment in the cost of things and so forth happens. These issues make problems to the nearby individuals (Tanguay, Rajaonson and Therrien, 2013).
Some other factors which hinder the sustainable development is the blindfolded infrastructural development that takes place, it is due to continuous facilitation of tourist that arrives there. Various types of Hotels, roads and restaurants are being constructed in heritage places to meet the demand of tourist, but this has affected the heritage value of those buildings and monuments. This has also lead to an increment in the overall cost of land, and local people were compelled to sell their lands and shift elsewhere.
3.3 Analysis of different stages in planning for sustainability
A successful sustainable tourism plan would require planning, following stesps needs to be followed in order to achieve a successful tourism plan:
- Study Recognition: In this stage, the included partners should be chosen. It is vital to have an earlier rundown of individuals will's identity engaged with the planning and furthermore the time when they will be presented with the arrangement. The partners could be tourism association, Local individuals, social legacy offices and so forth.
- Setting of objectives: The objectives that should be achieved by the tourism plan, is defined at this stage. The short term as well as long term goals should be set. As the 2022 world cup of football is about to come, officials in Qatar should define objective that they want to achieve from the event. These objectives can be as follows:
- Quality and effective tourism at least possible cost.
- Equal distribution of the benefits
- Maximum gains of foreign exchange for the country etc.
- Survey of existing data: At this stage one must endeavour to gather all the related data about the place that has been selected. Every one of the points of interest as for culture, legacy, nearby individuals and so on ought to be examined in detail. One must think about the claim to fame of the place which is chosen. This will help in showcasing and publicizing about the place. The strength ought to be featured and advertised in a way with the goal that it draws in most extreme visitors (Wan and Li, 2013).
- Implementation on new surveys: New survey shall be conducted in order to collect new information, which will help authorities in planning and forming strategies in an effective manner.
- Resource Analysis: There are different elements which have either positive or the negative effect on the area. Each one of those variables must be distinguished and investigated appropriately. These assets which should be broke down could be fundamentally sorted in 4 sections: the first is resources assessment which helps to think about the present position of assets accessible like streets, airplane terminals and so forth. These aides in figuring the measure of investment required. The second one is showcase examination which focuses on the objective vacationers and tries to think about them. The third one is improvement arranging and the fourth is affect investigation.
- Policy and plan formulation: Proper policies shall be formulated, so that the same can be implemented in an effective manner and sustainable tourism can be achieved.
- Recommendation: The authorities and as well as development team of Qatar must work in tandem and should give feedbacks as well as recommendations to each other.
4.1 Evaluation of various methods for resolving a conflict of interests to ensure the future wellbeing of a developing tourism destination
It is quite obvious that various stakeholders like, landlords, industries, societies as well as visitors themselves do have conflicting of interest with each other. The existing government and authorities in Qatar makes necessary plans as well as procedure in order to reduce and eliminate these conflicts completely. However, it is useful for the Tourist Destinations official to envelop a proficient model that aides in characterizing the worries that must be handled and the ruptures in condition that require to be stacked.
Another procedure is group substitution strategy which can exploit open doors for individual support in the tourism industry. It is huge to comprehend that the finest choices are accomplished when the whole group constituents are possessed in building the choices. The diverse stakeholders to tourism area of Qatar can change parts or accept the obligations towards green-tourism in order to have an economical domain set up (Coccossis, 2017).
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4.2 Analysis of the implications of balancing supply and demand
The authorities and government of Qatar is continuously working towards creation of a balance between demand of tourists within tourism sector and the supply offered by the various suppliers, like hotels, restaurants, shops etc. They make necessary strategies and policies to over company any gap in between the same. If there will be a proper balance between the two, higher growth and full potential of the tourism industry can be achieved in an effective as well as cost efficient way. The authorities make sure that over capacities in the off peak period are managed in an effective way, so that there will be no reduction in the number of suppliers during the period.
The request and supply adjusting makes a supplementary liquid commercial center for understandings in potential deals that would approve labourers to go around request uncertainty and keep hold of additional income effectively (Padin, 2012).
4.3 Evaluation of the moral and ethical issues of enclave tourism
There occur various issues when there is a arrival of tourists in the country. These issues may be lack of proper knowledge to tourists and visitors regarding the law of host country and hence, they end up making breaches to these laws and regulations. Throwing waste and garbage on roads and various other places is also a very serious issue, which raises question on ethical and moral responsibility of people who visit Qatar. It is necessary to make certain stringent rules to overcome these issues but at the same time it is equally important that all the stakeholders in between shall keep their moral as well as ethical values high and should not indulge in unnecessary things which harms the country and its tourism (Dorobantu and Nistoreanu, 2012).
5.1 Comparison of current issues associated with tourism development in a developing country and an emerging destination where the impacts of tourism are different.
There are various issues that are being faced in promoting and maintain tourism, and this is the case with every country be it an emerging one or an already established country in the field of tourism. The developing destination that has been taken for the purpose of comparison is Mauritius and emerging destination is Qatar, The comparison chart of both is as follows:
With the improvement of the tourism, the nations are confronting ecological issues. With regards to Thailand, the expanded level of contamination, deforestation, soil disintegration is the primary issues. The dying in the coral reefs harmed the living spaces and furthermore making the eco framework powerless.
Qatar is a country who do keep an eye on its ecological environment in order to make sure that there is no harm that is being done to environment. But due to some international events in the recent past, there has been a negative impact on the environment and it has degraded, the authorities are making necessary improvements in the policies to overcome the same.
The development in the tourism additionally makes negative effect on the social or social standards of Mauritius. The associations working in the cordiality portion will attempt to coordinate the way of life of the outside traveller in Mauritius with a specific end goal to fulfil them and fundamentally it will harms the nearby culture of the general population of Mauritius (Giaoutzi, 2017).
The authorities of Qatar is making necessary policies to overcome the issues of negative socio cultural effects of tourism. Companies and service providers are advised not to harm or temper any current cultural heritage of the country in order to promote tourism or to make quick money.
Mauritius has become a favourite destination for people to travel and has resulted in various economic benefits like, higher employment, higher foreign exchange etc.
Qatar is enjoying the same experience in terms of benefits that has been derived because of expanded tourism. The country has got world recognition in organising international events and thus more economic benefits are available for the country.
5.2 Evaluation, with recommendations, the future development of tourism in these chosen destinations.
Both countries are making sure that more and more tourist as well as visitors will come to these countries, and for this purpose authorities of both nations are working towards enriching the tourism experience of individuals within the country. It is expected that Mauritius will be among the top 10 most visited destinations for the purpose of tourism till 2030 and Qatar will going to be the priority destination for conducting major international events. This will ultimately help country in getting more revenue and employment generations. It is recommended that the adverse effects of excessive tourism like Environmental degradation and civil crimes shall be reduced by both of these countries by making effective and efficient policies in this regard (Pham, 2012).
Thus, from the above discussion it can be said that for the purpose of sustainable tourism development, A country should make sure that right kind of policies and procedures are being developed, which would ensure that Necessary opportunity are available for the concerned stakeholders in the industry and also make sure that tourists and travellers will get the best value for money for their bucks. Organization is essential for the tourism and has got bunches of preferences like the accomplices are more associated with the work, there is majority rules system i.e. no single power rules everything and so forth. So also there are detriments excessively like the capable area really loses the control, the accomplices as of now have recognition about each other and so on. Countries should keep travel and tourism sector on their priorities as it do have a role to play in the economy and in some of the countries, it is the primary source of revenue generator for the treasuries of government. Effective Use of various tools and technologies for making tourism a desirable sector to do business is also a key task that needs to be performed by the business players involved in this sector.
- Weaver, D.B., 2012. Organic, incremental and induced paths to sustainable mass tourism convergence. Tourism Management. 33(5). pp.1030-1037.
- Sörensson, A. and von Friedrichs, Y., 2013. An importance–performance analysis of sustainable tourism: A comparison between international and national tourists. Journal of Destination Marketing & Management. 2(1). pp.14-21.
- Nunkoo, R., 2015. Tourism development and trust in local government. Tourism Management. 46. pp.623-634.
- Bhuiyan, M.A.H., Siwar, C. and Ismail, S.M., 2013. Tourism development in Malaysia from the perspective of development plans. Asian Social Science. 9(9). p.11.
- Sharpley, R. and Telfer, D.J., 2015. Tourism and development in the developing world. Routledge.
- Bramwell, B., 2012. 21 Interventions and policy instruments for sustainable tourism. Edited by William F. Theobald, p.406.