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Item of Perception Theories

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Introduction to Item of Perception Theories

Perception is a process through which people interprets outside information form environment and make views about it. The information is selected and interpreted by individual. This meaningful content is then used to make decisions. Sensory impressions are organized by individual in order to get meaning of that. Present report describes about various theories related to perception. Moreover, comparison of these theories and contrast has been illustrated in the report. Theory of naïve realism and theory of representationalism is described in the report. Similarities and differences between bot the theories have been illustrated.

Perception :In the simple words' perception refers to the level of understanding towards the external Businessenvironment (Bruwer, 2014). In the psychology, it refers to the process of the recognizing and interpreting sensory stimuli. Broadly there are two types of perception that are internal and external (Gibb and Gray, 2016).Internal perception refers to the awareness of mental act present in the human bodies and on the other than external perception refers to the sense organ and inner. There are different types of theories which are involved perception (Gould and Taylor, 2017). Some of them are given below. The information is selected and interpreted by individual. This meaningful information is then used to make decisions. Sensory impressions are organized by individual in order to get meaning of that.

Naive Realism :This theory is related to the social psychology. As according to this theory, it is human see world on the basis of the objectively and those people who are disagreed must be irrational or biased (Jacobsen Hvitved and Andersen, 2014). This theory is also called theory of direct realism. There are different types of assumption which followed by this theory. The first assumption of this theory is that human see the world objectively. They expect that other will also come with similar conclusion and the person, who do not follow the similar view must be ignorant, irrational or biased (Nadel, 2013). Naive realism followed social psychology in the modern world. Naive realism gives a base for various cognitive biases which generally includes mistakes and errors in decision making activity. Errors includes impact of false statement, blind spot bias and error and fundamental attribution. The theory is based on following beliefs:

  • World is full of materialistic things and objects.
  • Statements regarding these objects are can be true by using sense experience.
  • These objects persist in exits in both perceiving and non-perceiving conditions. Perception object are independent of perception (Shaw and et.al 2013.).
  • Person uses sense for perceiving the world directly. Main aim of perceiving is to justify things as they are.
  • Individual derives the meaning form senses. Sometimes it is also called face value.
  • Same thing may be different for different people. Meaning of one object sometime differs for one person at different times (Visser and et.al 2014).
  • For example, apple look red in day but at bight seems to be tint of grey. If naïve realism theory is considered then colour of apple changes consistently and it totally depends upon light around it. It concludes that apple are as they used to be and colour of it depends on perception of person.

Importance of Naive Realism

One of the psychology's fundamental lessons is that perception is a subjective construction in the world. So, it is considered that people's beliefs and perceptions both are a function of the objective properties of the world and psychological processes that. Psychological fundamental of the naive theory is that view of individual regarding things is matter of subjective construction. Beliefs and views of people are function of both materialistic things and psychological processes. These features are used in translating meaning of objects. For example, if parents judge their children's marks on the basis of their perception. Whereas the same marks are judged in school on the basis of their grade system (Vos and Baumeister, eds., 2016). This is because parent love their children and their point of view is different form the school teachers. Each individual see things distinctly form others. On specific thing views of person does not match. If perception of the perception of the people do not match they sometimes get biased. Sometime these perceptions are the causes of dispute among people. In condition of dispute both the parties think that other side is biased and illogical. Person who have different perceptions for others are called uniformed. Sometimes ration persons have same point of view. For instance, when some people see chair is in front of them, others see they are ion the front of chair.

Representative theory of perception

This theory of perception is also known as indirect realism. Representative theory of perception is position of philosophical which states that world seen by people is not the actual universe itself. It is simply a copy of universe in a form of internal representation. People only know their ideas and interpretation in the world full of objects. This theory describes that what people is sometime not true and just replica of the real one. It explains ideas of people comes according to their metal state. This state represents the attribute of world which is perceived. Sometimes the view attracts but problem is that these mental states are only on which can be accessed by person. Comparison of these features cannot be done with the features of world. This comparison would be like comparing a picture with human being. Indirect realism is generally characterized as Locke which describes ideas of person as primary quality of body. Charge on which the theory is base is scepticism regrading outside world.

Perception philosophy is involving difficulties with ideas of representative mental situation. Unlike naive realism representational theory says that ideas in mind of person comes from sensing data or though mental images (Brewer,2014). When person sees image of real and outside world perception about that is made. This theory also argues epidemiological fact that it is not possible to gain experience without sensory surface. Dreams, illusion and comprehensiveness indicate that world seen by person is not the same things as universe itself. Representative theory of perception is position of philosophical which states that world seen by people is not the actual universe itself. It is simply a copy of universe in a form of internal representation. Indirect realism also look to give responses to disputations by common sense. Representative theory denies the fact of first-hand knowledge which is seen and understood by person. Indirect realism is same as point of view in natural science. It illustrates that thing seen by person are not the real objects itself (Gould and Taylor, 2017).

Comparison of naiveand representative theory of realism

Naive realism is an idea that object of perception is independent from their attributes. Whereas indirect realism or representative’s realism is dependent on properties of object. It considers perception of person depends upon mind and senses of person (Nadel, 2013). Naïve realism is often termed as direct realism whereas representative realism is termed as indirect realism. Naive realism is generally as philosophy of mind of person that asserts that senses of person gives direct awareness. Universe derived from perception sense is termed s face value. Objects which are existing in the world have attributes which appears for a person to have. Naive realism has various issues like argument generated from illusion, argument of time lag, hallucination argument and argument from variation in perception (Vohs and Baumeister eds., 2016). Naive realism gives a base for various cognitive biases which generally includes mistakes and errors in decision making process. Errors includes impact of false statement, blind spot bias and error and fundamental attribution.

Objects which are existing in the world have attributes which appears for a person to have. Naive realism has various issues like argument generated from illusion, argument of time lag, hallucination argument and argument from variation in perception (Vohs and Baumeister eds., 2016). Naive realism gives a base for various cognitive biases which generally includes mistakes and errors in decision making process. Errors includes impact of false statement, blind spot bias and error and fundamental attribution.

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On the other hand, representative realism is exactly opposite to naïve realism. Direct object that person sees are the object that are dependent on mind. Objects are originated by and symbolizes object which are independent of mind. Indirect realism deviates the fact that sense data represents object which are physical. It argues the fact that senses of person are processed mentally. Sense are not processed exactly what is in the outside world. Indirect or representative realism contradicts scepticism regarding creation of universe ((Zito and et.al 2015).). It further describes is world exist really. It leads to agnosticism regarding nature of outside world. Problems arises from the perspective that object which are mind independent are generated by brain independent object.

However, there are some similarities in both theories that is base of both the theories are objects present in the world. Both indirect and direct realism works on senses of person's mind. Both the theories take the real-world object to describe the perception of a person. Immediate object is taken to describe the perception of person regarding things. Hallucination is the common factor between naïve and representative theories. Argument of perception generates conflicts and cause biasing (Gibb and Gray, 2016). Perception philosophy is involving difficulties with ideas of representative mental situation. Unlike naïve realism representational theory says that ideas in mind of person comes from sensing data or though images (Jacobsen Hvitved and Andersen, 2014).

From the above discussion, it can be concluded that representative theory of perception is best because it describes relation of object through representation of pictures. It uses mind dependent object as the basis of it. Primary qualities are considered to explain about perception of person. It further describes is world exist really. It leads to agnosticism regarding nature of outer world. This theory also contradicts the existence of world.

CONCLUSION

From the above report, it could be articulated that perception theory is very useful aspect that assist to meet with positive outcomes of the business. Perception helps in making decision in daily life of individual. Perception philosophy is involving difficulties with ideas of representative mental situation. In this aspect, report summarized about different theory that helpful to analyse teams for ascertained effective results within the market. Present report is discussed about different theories such as Naive realism and representative’s theory of perception. In these regards, analyse is based on outcomes that frame to conduct environment assessment for overall growth in person. Furthermore, it concluded about advantages and disadvantages regarding business outcomes in perspective of theory that is relevant to assess the perception. There are various similarities and differences between direct and indirect realism. Perception describes the pint of view of person regarding object in the world. On the same thing, there can be difference in perception of people.

REFERENCES

  • Bruwer, J., 2014. Service quality perception and satisfaction: buying behaviour prediction in an Australian festivalscape. International Journal of Tourism Research. 16(1).pp.76-86.
  • Gibb, R. and Gray, R., 2016. Aviation visual perception: Research, misperception and mishaps. Routledge.
  • Gould, N. and Taylor, I., 2017. Reflective learning for social work: research, theory and practice. Routledge.
  • Jacobsen, C.B., Hvitved, J. and Andersen, L.B., 2014. Command and motivation: How the perception of external interventions relates to intrinsic motivation and public service motivation. Public Administration. 92(4). pp.790-806.
  • Nadel, S.F., 2013. The theory of social structure. Routledge.
  • Shaw, J. and et.al 2013. Coping with newly diagnosed upper gastrointestinal cancer: a longitudinal qualitative study of family caregivers’ role perception and supportive care needs. Supportive care in cancer. pp.1-8.
  • Visser, T.A. and et.al 2014. Temporal cues and the attentional blink: A further examination of the role of expectancy in sequential object perception. Attention, Perception and Psychophysics. 76(8). p.2212.
  • Vohs, K.D. and Baumeister, R.F. eds., 2016. Handbook of self-regulation: Research, theory, and applications. Guilford Publications.
  • Zito, S. and et.al 2015. Cat ownership perception and caretaking explored in an internet survey of people associated with cats. PloS one. 10(7). p.e0133293.
 
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