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MC4F43 Managing Organisational Change Level 4

15 Pages 3725 Words 272 Downloads

Introduction

Manager of each company needs to manage changes at workplace as this helps them to survive at marketplace for maximum period of time. It aids them to accomplish needs and wants of people within limited period of time. In this manner, organisation will be able to obtain benefits from contenders in market (Gray and Wilkinson, 2017). This will assist them to improve brand image and profits in an effective and efficient manner. Manager needs to analyse environment in a significant manner; therefore, they will formulate strategies as well as policies for business proficiently. Proper guidance and motivation needs to be provided by employer to their staff members; hence, they will manage change at workplace effectually. If employees are highly motivated then, workers will complete their targets or work with maximum effectiveness as well as appropriateness. To motivate their many kinds of theories will be utilized by manager, like content theory. This will comprise many hypothesis into this, for instance, Maslow's hierarchy of needs, Theory X and Theory Y and Herzberg. It is must to understand cultural diversity in country; therefore, firm will easily run or regulate their business with maximum appropriateness.

According to Benn, Edwards and Williams (2014), in each type of organisation, it is required for manager to motivate their workforce; therefore, they will be able to accomplish their work with maximum effectiveness as well as appropriateness. This assists them to complete targets and objectives within requisite period of time. For above stated aim, content theory of motivation will be utilized by superior. In this manner, they will be able to encourage staff members towards working. Hypothesis which include into this, will render impact to overall business environment either in a direct or indirect manner. As per this, if employer wants to motivate their workers regarding work then, firstly it is required for them to determine their needs because if their desires get fulfilled then, it helps them to finish task more significantly (Jabri, 2017).

In this, primarily Maslow Hierarchy of needs will include and this consist almost five level. This theory was propounded by Abraham Maslow and almost five motivational needs are defined by them which will motivate employees towards work. These are stated as beneath:

Psychological needs: This will include basic requirement, such as water, food, air and in addition shelter. These all are considered as essential life amenities.

Safety needs: Each staff member requires security from their company regarding job, finance, family, health and so forth. If this needs get accomplished then, they will complete their work without any problem.

Social needs: According to this, every person wants to fulfil their social desires and this will include care, love, friendship, belongingness etc.

Esteem needs: After fulfilment of above needs, employee wants respect from manager of colleagues (Hornstein, 2015). This aids them to retain for maximum period of time at workplace. This will be classified into two parts, one is internal i.e. confidence, self – respect, freedom, achievement and another is external i.e. status, recognition, attention and so on.

Self actualization need: This has been analysed that every worker wants growth and success in their career. It will help them to encourage towards work in an effective manner. They always want some opportunities which assist them into their development. This will assist them to fulfil coveted goals with maximum effectiveness.

As indicated by Sikdar and Payyazhi (2014), if organisation fulfil needs and wants of employees properly then, this assists to motivate them significantly. From above description, it has been analysed that, if manager is able to accomplish desires of their staff members then, they will get encourage and will finish their task more effectively. For example: Tesco is operating their business in retail sector and to inspire their workforce it is required for them to fulfil their demands. In this manner, they will easily attain coveted targets and goals with maximum effectiveness. There are various advantages and limitations which are associated with this.

Fundamental benefit of utilization of this hypothesis is that, this helps to motivate workers highly. This will be understand by people easily and aid to comprehend behaviour of persons. Needs and wants of persons get alter as per level of stage (Aarons and et. al., 2015). Workers who are working in an enterprise has their own needs and wants. It is not easy for an employer to examine requirement of each employee. If any thing get skipped then this will affect their working as well. This hypothesis will not implement into every type of company.

Henceforth, it is required for manager to motivate their employees in an effective as well as efficient manner. So, they will easily complete their task at any kind of circumstances. It is required for company to examine needs and wants of customers. Their demands get modify as per time because of market trend. Thus, if employees are much motivated then, they will accept changes at workplace easily and in addition produce products and services for individuals properly. As a result, they will complete desires of individuals within requisite time span (Kaufman, 2017).

Herzberg's two factor motivational theory will aid to encourage workers who are working in company. This will be classify in two parts, one is known as hygiene factor and another is termed as motivational.

According to Petrou, Demerouti and Schaufeli (2018), Hygiene components are considered as those elements which are must to be at workplace because this helps to motivate workers in an effective manner. It assists to provide more level of satisfaction to staff members for maximum time duration. If they are not their at premises then, this will lead to dissatisfaction amongst workers. There are numerous components which will comprise into this, such as pay, job security, fringe benefits, status and so on.

Pay structure needs to be specific as well as appropriate. It is must to give salaries to each workers equally who are working at similar domain. It is must for superior to formulate proper strategies and policies properly and this should be clear and fair (Al-Haddad and Kotnour, 2015). This will comprise many things, like flexible hours for working, breaks, dress code, vacation and so on. There are many kinds of benefits need to be cater by superior to their staff members, for instance health care, employee help programmes etc., it assists to provide motivation to subordinates. Working conditions need to be effective as well as well maintained. Status of worker at workplace need to be retained and in addition familiar. Manager has to render job security to each staff members as this works as a motivation for them.

As per (Magrum and Weber, 2018), there are some motivational components are there at workplace which help to encourage workers. It is must for employer to give recognition to employees as per their working performance. This will help them to retain at premises for maximum period of time. If people are much satisfied with their job then they will complete work within certain time duration. Manager needs to cater some growth as well as development chances to employees; in this manner, they will be able to complete task effectively and efficiently. Task which is given by superior to subordinates need to be challenging and interesting so that they will get motivated (Lockett and et. al., 2014).

Above described theory need to be implement at workplace as this enables to encourage towards work. For example: Manager of Tesco apply this hypothesis at premises which enables them to encourage them to attain coveted targets and goals in a significant manner. They will promote their staff members as this helps in improvisation of satisfaction level and growth.

As it is classify into two parts so people will understand it without facing any trouble. If job is not interesting then, manager will redesign it to make it more challenging (Smits and Bowden, 2015). This theory will not apply on every type of circumstances as it depends on the situation. It is not much reliable and bias as well. Basically, it concentrates on satisfaction of job, instead of motivate employees towards it. As indicated by Bolman and Deal (2017), hygiene factors will lead to dissatisfaction but, motivation elements will cater motivation to individuals who are working in organisation.

By applying it on association, superior will able to encourage subordinates towards job. If any change take place in firm then this helps to inspire people to accept it in a proficient manner. Manager will provide some guidance to staff members; in this manner, work will get accomplished within limited period of time. Needs and wants of clients will change timely; thus, it is required for employer to analyse then so they will be able to fulfil it within limited time span. This helps company to maintain their profits and along with market share (Doherty and King, 2015).

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To examine human behaviour, employer of company will implement Theory X and Theory Y at workplace. In which, Theory X is termed as negative and Theory Y is positive. According to Danylchuk, Snelgrove and Wood (2015), manager's perception is highly associated with individuals' nature and it is based on assumptions. There are some anticipation which will be generated through Theory X. There are some staff members at workplace who do not like their work and they always try to avoid work is there is possibility. Thus, they will get punished by superior because they are not basically not be able to attain coveted targets and objectives within limited time span. Some individuals want job security primarily and they do not have any ambitions as well. They never want to obtain any duties or responsibilities. Along with, changes in association will never be accept by them and they want guidance for each thing from superior.

As signify by Alvesson and Sveningsson (2015), several assumptions are associated with Theory Y. Employees are much energetic and complete their task with maximum effectiveness as well as appropriateness. They are very dedicated and self directed; thus, easily accomplish organisational targets and goals within limited time duration. If they are satisfied with their occupation and get rewarded by superior as per performance then, as a result, company will obtain their trust and loyalty. In addition to this, they do work by implementing new or latest ideas and resolve issues in a proper manner. Thus, this has been analysed that by using this hypothesis at premises workers are able to finish their work without any interference (Gray and Wilkinson, 2017).

For instance, Manager of Tesco will implement this theory into workplace as it aids to change negativity into positivity. This will help to motivate staff members because they will easily take responsibilities to do work. Along with, by applying new or creative idea into products and services they will easily attain coveted targets and goals within limited period of time. In this manner, company will able to improve their profits and brand image at marketplace.

As stated by Benn, Edwards and Williams (2014), fundamental advantage of Theory X is that job will be done fastly, but it caters less opportunities for success and growth. Whereas, Theory Y will help to promote growth of an individual but consumes maximum period of time. Henceforth, this has been examined that, if it is adopted by superior of company then, people who comes under Theory Y will easily accept modifications at workplace because they always want to obtain some responsibilities and duties. It aids an enterprise to take benefits from rivals in market as well.

To comprehend cultural dimensions, a theory is provided by Geert Hofstede. To understand it more accurately, they classify it into six parts. Therefore, each and everything will be comprehend in an effective and efficient manner (Jabri, 2017).

Power distance index defines inequality which is exist at workplace and individuals accept it with or without power. If it is high then, this shows maximum inequality and if it is low then this defines power is shared by people. According to Hornstein (2015), there are some characteristics of high PDI, like organisation is centralized, hierarchy of firm is much complex in nature and in addition there is maximum gap in authority, compensation as well as respect. Whereas, if PDI is less then this will be apply on flatter companies. Each people in affiliation are treated equally irrespective of their position.

Another dimension which is given by Hofstede is known as Individualism vs collectivism (IDV). It means persons will easily do work with others who belongs from distinctive community (Sikdar and Payyazhi, 2014). Therefore, if score of IDV is high then it represents that there is weak interpersonal interaction between those people who are not the part of family. In this, individuals take less responsibilities for results as well as actions of others. On the other hand, in the collectivist society persons are much loyal to their respective team and it is the duty of team to protect their interest. This has been analysed that team is basically large in number and each one need to take responsibility for health and safety of others (Hofstede's Cultural Dimensions, 2018).

As per Aarons and et. al. (2015), if there is high IDV then its main characteristics is to respect privacy of others. If any worker is performing their task with maximum effectiveness then, they need to be rewarded by manager. On the contrary to this, if there is less IDV then, persons basically do task to gain intrinsic kind of rewards. This is basically emphasis on developing abilities or skills.

Masculinity vs Femininity (MAS), it is basically divide roles amongst men as well as women. In the society of Masculinity, overlapping of roles of men and women is less and assertively behaviour is expecting from men as well. On the other hand, in Femininity society there is better relationship amongst people and they accomplish work with proper cooperation and in addition coordination of others. As signify by Kaufman (2017), if there is high MAS, then there will be strong ego and proper significance need to be provided to the status of people. Individuals who include into this, achievement and money is essential for them. But, if there is less MAS then, they need to be more concentrated towards life quality. To attain maximum success at workplace collaboration and negotiation is much in each type of level.

Uncertainty avoidance Index (UAI) helps to define that how any person will cope up from anxiety. If its score is much high then individuals want to make their life more controllable as well as predictable as much as possible (Petrou, Demerouti and Schaufeli, 2018). If they determine that, it is not easy to control life then, they will be stop try things. This has been analysed that those persons have high fate on god. But of there is less score in UAI then, nations are more open, relaxed and in addition inclusive. Uncertainty avoidance is not much essential like to avoid hazards. There will be numerous people who do not want to get fail.

According to Al-Haddad and Kotnour (2015), if there is high UAI, then there will be more conventions regarding society. Person will express more; thus, they will easily show their emotions or anger if essential. This type of society is considered as more energetic. Instead of this, if it is less then, there will be minimum urgency sense. People are much able to obtain judgement in an effective manner. They will impose change or creative things into products as well.

Pragmatic vs Normative (PRA), this is also called as long term orientation. This is strongly associated with nationalism as well as religiosity. It is added into dimensions in recent time; therefore, there is lack of data and information regarding this. Fundamental characteristic of Pragmatic is modesty (Magrum and Weber, 2018). There are two positive elements which will include into this, one is thrift and another is education. On the other hand Normative emphasises rights and along with value. Individuals are having strong convictions and they want to know “Why”.

This is considered as last dimension which include into Hofstede cultural dimensions model. Indulgence vs restraint (IVR), this is also new; this, it contains less information and data. If there is high score of IVR in nation then, this aids to motivate people to enjoy more and have fun into their life. But if it is less then, individuals need to implement more rules and norms to regulate their behaviour.

As per Lockett and et. al. (2014), if there is high indulgence then people are much optimistic and they provide freedom of speech. Their main concentration is on their own happiness as well. But, if there is high restraint then, individuals are much pessimistic and their behaviour is much rigid as well as controlled. These kind of people basically express negativity in relation to world in the formal kind of meetings.

Foremost weakness of Hofstede model is that this is basically based on inconclusive research. It is related with answers from single organisation which will develop size of sample small and in addition bias. In this manner, it is less reliable and accurate. It will create miscommunication, complexity and in addition confusion amongst individuals. Main advantage of using this is to it helps to understand each culture in an effective and efficient manner. This assists to improve flexibility as well as problem solving abilities. If there is any type of changes take place in firm then, by implementing this model at workplace they will maintain modifications in an effective and efficient manner (Smits and Bowden, 2015).

It is must for manager of every association to motivate their workforce regarding work so that they will be able to complete their work with maximum effectiveness as well as appropriateness. Being a manager, I need to encourage staff members so that they will complete their work within specific period of time. For this, I have to analyse their needs and wants to accomplish them effectually. For above stated aim, I will implement Maslow's Hierarchy theory as this aids to analyse strengths and weaknesses of employees. By examining their desires, manager will fulfil them. It is must for employer to considered it because this will provide impact to interest of workers while taking decision for firm. If judgement caters impact on their wants then this will discourage them and as a result, they will not be able to finish their task within provide time span.

As I am a manager in firm so I will apply Herzberg's theory in association as well because it assists to render them motivation in an effective manner. There are two kinds of factors which will include into this, one is hygiene and another is motivational. Being a manager it is must for me to give salary to each worker as per their working without any discrimination. Therefore, they will maintain their standard of living in an effective way. Each staff member needs job security from their superior which help them to encourage them to accomplishment of work within certain time duration. Along with, they will never resist to change. Some employees want monetary benefits or some want non monetary motivation from manager. Therefore, it is required for me to analyse it so that I will be able to fulfil their demands timely.

There are two kinds of human who will be available at workplace, one is positive and another is negative. As I am manager, so I analysed that, if workers is of positive nature then, they never get afraid of change and accept it easily. They always want to get new responsibilities and duties. This will provide hike to their career and they will easily implement innovative methods into items. On the other hand, there will be some people who possess negativity. They always try to escape things and never accomplish work within given deadline. This will hamper overall working procedure of an enterprise either in a direct or indirect manner. They are less motivated and being a manager, it is required for me to formulate some strategies so that I will motivate them towards work. In this manner, they will finish work in an effective and efficient manner.

I have to analyse cultural dimensions in nation because each individual is having their own culture which is following by them. This will help to encourage people with every type of people i.e. who are having distinctive cultures. There are six dimensions will comprise into this. I examined that Hofstede's model will easily apply on the life of each person.

From above assignment this has been understood that change needs to be manage in organisation in an effective and efficient manner. This will assist them to accomplish targets and objectives within limited period of time. They need to develop products and services as per desires and demands of individuals. Henceforth, firm will be able to maintain customer base effectually. It is must to keep up culture at nation; thus, work will get completed with maximum effectiveness. If there is any kind of issues are confronting by staff members then, this needs to be get resolved within certain time duration. In this manner, coveted goals will be attained without any delay.

References

  • Aarons, G. A. and et. al., 2015. Leadership and organizational change for implementation (LOCI): a randomized mixed method pilot study of a leadership and organization development intervention for evidence-based practice implementation.Implementation Science. 10(1). p.11.
  • Al-Haddad, S. and Kotnour, T., 2015. Integrating the organizational change literature: a model for successful change.Journal of Organizational Change Management. 28(2). pp.234-262.
  • Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2015.Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress. Routledge.
  • Benn, S., Edwards, M. and Williams, T., 2014.Organizational change for corporate sustainability. Routledge.
  • Bolman, L. G. and Deal, T. E., 2017.Reframing organizations: Artistry, choice, and leadership. John Wiley & Sons.
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