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Organisational Behaviour

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Introduction

Organisation behaviour assist to identify customer perception and their understanding which increase quality of products and services. It will make improvements in manager and employees skills which make effective functioning at workplace. It motivate to employees for achieve objectives for development within the enterprise.  (Burkov, Goubko and Novikov, 2013). Present study is based on Marriott hotel which is the largest international hotel industry operating in UK. They are providing various services through franchising as well as by online.

They are running their operations in more than 120 countries (About Marriott International - Find Your World, 2017). For gaining insight knowledge of cited firm, report covers different types of leadership theories and impact of managerial style on organization’s effectiveness. Furthermore, it includes analysis of theories which are relating to work relationship and interaction. Moreover, it covers the importance of organization culture theory which develops enterprise effectiveness of company. In addition to this, report evaluates effectiveness of team-working within enterprise. At last, it assesses the management approaches to risk and uncertainty within organization.

Activity 1

Evaluation of leadership theories

Numerous studies have been conducted for evaluating the leadership. It will assist to create  effective towards firm leaders within company. In this context, various theories persuade from time to time that influence to effectiveness of leaders within the enterprise (Heydari and Gholtash, 2014). Some of the leadership theories are stated as below:

  • Trait theory: This theory emphasizes on the innate qualities of leader which leads to their effectiveness within enterprise. In this context, traits quality help to leaders for becoming more effective for achieving goals of the company . For instance, confidence, knowledge, etc.(Dastyari and Shahabi, 2014).
  • Behavioural theory: According to this theory, organization identifies behaviour of leaders to make successful operations within the enterprise (Lyon, Mšllering and Saunders, 2015). Leaders can be task or people oriented to make decisions by using any leadership style such as democratic, autocratic and so on.  
  • Transnational leadership theory:This theory is based on reward and punishment system on the performance of leaders. When this style is used in the firm, transactional leaders are tasks and result oriented (Chakrabarti, 2017).
  • Transformational leadership theory: Transformational leaders are inspired with their followers due to their vision, ideas and perception (Burkov, Goubko and Novikov, 2013). It includes components such as intellectual simulation, consideration for individual, inspirational motivation and idealized influence.  Efficiency of every firm depends on the performance of job performed by each department and their success towards the business (Tang, Tang and Tsaur, 2016). Managerial style which influences the organization’s effectiveness includes the following elements:
  • Communication: Managerial style can affect communication and productivity in Marriott hotel. Bureaucratic leaders are very slow to take decisions because they check every time to make sure each message of company reach to every part of company. It affects the operations of cited firm because employees do not get proper instruction and information which they need to make effective results (Schneider, Ehrhart and Macey, 2013).  
  • Employee input: Employee input is term which creates more efficient works method to improving productivity of employees towards the business. With the help of democratic  style, management can increase the input given by employees. It will assist the manager in Marriott to get participation of their employees towards business performance. Another aspect that lead to major changes within firm is responsible for company operations. Thus, it is an important element which affects the managerial style (Babnik, Širca and Dermol, 2014).
  • Morale: Managerial style directly influences employee’s morality. Autocratic leaders of the organization create great impact because they are never got employees participation within the enterprise. This is because, they always take rules and regulations for operating functions at workplace (Dekas, Bauer and Sullivan, 2013). Manager follows this style to create morale and discipline among their members. Way in which motivational theory helps to motivate employees

Motivational theories can be determines in two categories which assist remain competitiveness at workplace (Burkov, Goubko and Novikov, 2013). Following theories are considered within Marriott for improving employee’s performance and to motivate them:

  • Maslow’s theory: This theory refers to motivating employees as per assessing different types of needs and fulfilling the same. In includes five kinds of needs, that is, physiological, safety, social, esteem and self-actualization (Lemmon and Wayne, 2015). According to this theory, every individual has different needs according to their income. An individual cannot be satisfied by fulfilling his/her higher level needs until their lower level needs are not intended. If manager gives self actualization needs to their employees, they should give them offer reward and promotion Towards the work performances. The theory proves to be highly effective in motivating employees for attaining the set objectives of organization. With satisfied needs, they become highly motivated and confident enough to perform with higher efficiency (Ng and Feldman, 2013).
  • Herzberg theory: Herzberg theory consists of two factors which help in motivating the employees towards attainment of business objectives effectually. First is hygiene factors which involve working conditions, pay, status, lifestyle and other benefits at workplace (Lyon, Mšllering and Saunders, 2015). In this context, manager need to provide  these benefits to their employees so that company can make sustainability of their employees towards the organization and they are make full support for achieve Marriott targets.Further, motivational factors include achievement, recognition, personal growth and investment for future growth within the firm. According to this theory, business needs to provide both kinds of factors to the employees for making them highly motivated and running operations in an effective and smooth manner by which ultimately the revenue can be increased (Alvesson, 2012). Theories relating towork relationship and interaction

Organization theory consists of systematic and scientific analysis of individuals, groups and business to understand, predict and improve performance of every employee. In this context, motivational theory helps to make the best results with keeping a string relationship and interaction with workers (Hopkin, 2012). With the help of suitable motivation theory, Marriott can gain the best results for development of organization. Maslow’s theory is the best suitable one for Marriott that can be used by cited it to make a strong work relationship and keep effective interaction in between employees of the organization. It makes effective functioning with taking participation of every employee at workplace. Beside this, when manager fulfil their employee needs they can take loyalty from them towards company.  with enhancing employee’s participation at workplace (Xenikou and Furnham, 2012).

Activity 2

Covered in PowerPoint PresentationWay in which organization can facilitate innovation and creativity

With the help of innovation and creativity, Marriott can facilitate their effective functions to attract potential customers towards organization. In order to make innovation and creativity in the cited firm, following elements can be used:

  • Foster an open, creative work environment: To foster creativity at workplace, some organizations offer refreshment and other benefits to employees for maintaining their sustainability at workplace (Tang, Tang and Tsaur, 2016). Positive attitude is helpful to make working environment healthy at workplace. In this aspect, open and creative environment need to be taken y Marriott.
  • Motivate team: Positive reinforcement assists in motivating the team members (Schneider, Ehrhart and Macey, 2013). With the help of rewards, incentives and other benefits, Marriott motivates their employees which ultimately result in bringing  innovation and lead creativity in the firm.
  • Encourage diversity: Wide range of working styles, processes and other aspects help to lead innovation and creativity at workplace (Dekas, Bauer and Sullivan, 2013). It is essential for having growth and maintaining revenue for business.

Importance of learning in organizations

With the help of learning at workplace,   manager of organisation can relate various things for manage their functions (Lyon, Mšllering and Saunders, 2015). Learning assists in creating a positive work environment through implementing plan. It also gives opportunity to enhance capability and efficiency of workers at workplace. As a result, business can achieve their targets in a systematic manner. Another importance of learning is that cited firm can take decisions on the behalf of past data. In this aspect, they can make positive results for ascertain high revenue and employee participation as well. Learning is the best method for deliver effective and flexible transaction at workplace regarding business outcomes to overcome organizational problems (Burkov, Goubko and Novikov, 2013).

Evaluation of effectiveness of team working

Team working helps in rendering positive outcomes with shared ideas and views with various organizational members. Following effectiveness can be considers of team working within Marriott:

  • Unified commitment to a goal: Team is creating for accomplish desire outcomes for develop the business objectives (Ng and Feldman, 2013). Effective team is committed to achieve positive outcomes. Presented team working attracts every customer with making loyalty at workplace.
  • Participation: In order to make a team effective, every employee needs to give his/her participation for attaining the positive outcomes. Each member of team of Marriott is essential for making success within the firm. In this context, put their efforts for achieve potential customers and fulfill their demand (Xenikou and Furnham, 2012).
  • Open communication: Team is able to communicate effectively at workplace, to create open communication with each other. In this aspect, all members of Marriott can take competitive advantages through communicate with each other. When, they are working in team, every employee can share their views towards business objectives so that company will achieve high profits easily (Northouse, 2012).
  • Decision making: Team is hierarchical position which assists to take decision at workplace. In this respect, Marriott involves participation of every member in making decisions regarding interest of business. It will assist to take effective decisions at the workplace. All situations of the company take quickly which make high revenue at workplace. In addition to this, team working resolves conflicts through interacting with each other through formulate plan of business (Hopkin, 2012).Effectiveness of change in organization

With the help of change management, Marriott can bring creativity at workplace by making employees learn new things for achieving the business objectives. It will lead to successful operations at workplace which creates positive results as well (Alvesson, 2012). Change management entitles to develop organizational functions which make planning and implementation program to achieve targets of company. Sometimes, doing repetitive tasks become monotonous at workplace for every employee and thus, they do not give their effective participation for achievement of objectives. Therefore, change management is effective for innovating things and attracting potential customers as well. Change is a realistic system which includes achievable and measurable program for development of company. It is also related with program which makes effective results at the workplace (Ng and Feldman, 2013).

Activity 3

Culture and structure of Marriott and impact of their effectiveness

Marriott follows all rules and regulations closely to make effective results within enterprise. Their job description closely defines as little flexibility for developing business outcomes (Lemmon and Wayne, 2015). Thus, they are follow hierarchy structure to change and meet with the demand of customers. . Organizational structure of Marriott takes orders from manager for doing business functions. On the other hand, chosen enterprise follows power culture in which they can assign duties and responsibilities to each member for achieving the business goals.  Main aim of the company is to fulfil every individual demand which need to be taken at workplace for maintain growth of company (Burkov, Goubko and Novikov, 2013).

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Effective performances of organization depends on its culture and structure.  Procedures and policies are needed to be followed by the firm to develop functions in each activity so that they can motivate their employees towards business outcomes. In addition to this, culture of the firm also affects company for developing organizational outcomes at workplace. When cited firm uses power culture, it has to deliver all essential resources to their employees to fulfil customers’ requirements (Heydari and Gholtash, 2014).

Activity 4

Different approaches to organizational decision-making

There are different approaches that help in gaining insight knowledge regarding business to get decisions. It includes the following approaches:

  • The rational approach: Rational approach consists of systematic and step by step process to make decisions. It includes state of situation goals, identifying the problems, determining decisions different type with choosing one alternative from various available elements (Anand, 2013). After choosing the best suitable alternative, Marriott implements their plan and takes decision for their business.  
  • The behavioural approach:According to this approach, decision makers of cited firm take perfect rational problem which solve company problems. In this approach, procedures and thumb rule are taken to reduce uncertainty to take decisions. For example, training session to enhance skills and capabilities of workers (Tang, Tang and Tsaur, 2016).  
  • The practical approach:This approach combines various steps of rational approach into practical program. Rather than generating various types of alternatives, Marriott hotel provide analytic framework to make decisions at the workplace (Wei, 2013).
  • The personal approach:This approach deals with various features within enterprise. It includes, deals with only important decisions regarding organisation and its important outcomes at workplace (Iwasaki, 2014). Another feature include, provides to self reactions to employees in term of making alternatives for developing Marriott hotels outcomes.

Managerial approach to risk and uncertainty in decision making

Managing uncertainty in decision making relies on identifying, quantifying and analysing factors that affect the business outcomes (Schneider, Ehrhart and Macey, 2013). This assists manager to identify risk factor and their potential impact on the operations of Marriott. There are different types of risks which are stated as below:

  • Strategic risk: This risk occurs due to investment taken by cited firm to accomplish their objectives and mission. It includes macroeconomic risk which aligns with buyers and sellers with supply and demand functions. It consists of transaction and investor relation risk.
  • Financial risk: These types of risks are related with potential economy losses which create adverse impact on business (Babnik, Širca and Dermol, 2014). Due to poor allocation of resources, changes in interest rates affect to Marriott results which make difficulties reading business outcomes .

Above risks can create major impact on the business of cited firm so that they have to take managerial approaches at workplace to solve problems in systematic manner. For gaining the best results, below are managerial approaches used within enterprise:

  • Empirical approach:This approach consists close study of past managerial experience of management cases (Dekas, Bauer and Sullivan, 2013).
  • Human behavior approach: This approach suggests ideas to increase knowledge of employees of firm. Thus, cited firm can make more effective results within enterprise and eliminate risk from the workplace.  

Evaluation of the effectiveness of organizational decisions

With the help of organization decision, I found that business can seem to require wisdom beyond capabilities. It will give better chances to me within Marriott to bring positive results. It will assist to pinpoint company’s issue to make the best results. It determines solutions to overcome the organization’s risk so that cited firm can take decisions effectively (Lyon, Mšllering and Saunders, 2015). It will lead to management of company in which I take participation to perform online survey to ask questions from customers regarding their queries and implement plan at workplace. In this process, decision making includes data, employees and process to overcome the issues at workplace.   

Conclusion

From the above report, it can be concluded that organizational behaviour is an important element for operating business functions. In this respect, every employee of the firm needs to give his/her highest level of efforts and attention towards business objectives. Furthermore, it concludes that different types of leadership styles can be used by the firm to make their profits and revenue high at workplace. Moreover, report articulated that each managerial style creates a great impact on the business operations in terms of communication, morale and employee input towards business operations. In addition to this, it includes effectiveness of team working for measuring organizational performance of Marriott. Management change plays a significant role in leading innovation at workplace. It also leads to bring creativity for the development of firm as well as for gaining effective results.

References

  • Alvesson, M., 2012. Understanding Organisational Culture 2nd Edition. Sage Publications Ltd.
  • Anand, V., 2013. ORGANIZATIONAL BEHAVIOR: A CONCEPTUAL STUDY REQUIRED FOR ORGANIZATION PERFORMANCE & EXISTENCE. International Journal of Organizational Behaviour & Management Perspectives. 2(4). p.629.
  • Babnik, K., Širca, N. T. and Dermol, V., 2014. Individuals learning in work teams: Support to knowledge management initiatives and an important source of organizational learning. Procedia-social and behavioral sciences. 124. pp.178-185.
  • Burkov, V. N., Goubko, M. V. and Novikov, D. A., 2013. Mechanisms of Organizational Behavior Control: A Survey. Advances in Systems Science and Application. 13(1). pp.1-20.
  • Dekas, K. H., Bauer, T. N. and Sullivan, S., 2013. Organizational citizenship behavior, version 2.0: a review and qualitative investigation of OCBs for knowledge workers at Google and beyond. The Academy of Management Perspectives. 27(3). pp.219-237.
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