INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION AND BEHAVIOUR
Organization behavior can be considered as study and application of different knowledge about how individual, people and groups act within an organization. It also interprets the relationship existing between people and organization and how these relationship help in achieving the company goals and objectives in the long run. In the following report, the Organization behavior in this report is being applied to City College which has incorporated into it the Abbey College.
The report stresses different types of organization structure and culture along with their interdependence. It also highlights the different behavior and theories which are prevalent in context of organization.
1.2 Relationship between organization structure and culture with its effect on the business
Organization structure and organizational culture have a mutual relationship with each other. For the city college to achieve its goals effectively it can adopt divisional structure. This will help in distributing different tasks among different groups and will ensure that, there is no duplication of work which will further give maximum output from the efforts. being College or university a part of service industry is led by people attitude, behaviors, perceptions and traits with difference in their individual aptitudes. The staff in colleges is confined to perform the task allotted to their department in order to reach a set objective by rendering their services in that particular field (Robbins, 2013). The divisional structure also makes it convenient for the College to adapt changes due to the integration of Abbey management into City College. Principle Mr. Adam Wakefield can divide the Abbey management team into different departments for ensuring a stable divisional structure within the Organization.
The interaction between the staff forms the organization cultures whether it may be knowingly or unknowingly done by them. Organization culture in some or the other way defines the company structures and hence they are inter-related. The communication system is enhanced in a divisional structure which leads to better communication. The task-culture is quite prominently seen in such organization as the departments are individually responsible in undertaking the decisions in a particular field.
The business performance is enhanced as the structure and culture followed by City College give a sense of self-freedom and encourage staff to take their decisions on their own. On the other hand, where employees are conflicting on different interests and have the tendency to speak against others could affect the organization and its performance.
1.3 Factors influencing individual behavior at work
Human behavior is a complicated phenomenon which cannot be defined in an absolute terms. An individual behavior may vary due to changes in either same environment or due to exposure to different environment (Gillespie and Mann, 2004). Here, because of incorporation of Abbey College into City College it has the possibility to affect the behavior of both people working within the City College and those that have been earlier a part of Abbey College.
The factors that can drive to influence their behavior are-
1.Perceptions- This can be referred to a psychological process to interpret the environment through own thought.. The individual perception about organization can play an important role in defining the work environment. If employee’s can look towards to it in a favorable way then it builds the chances of it to perform in more efficient way.
2.Abilities and skills- The physical capacity to perform something can be termed as ability. The skills on the other hand can be defined as the ability to act in a manner which helps individual in performing better. The individual behavior and its performance are highly influenced by one's ability and skills. The job requirement served by City College to the Abbey management team must match with their skills and abilities in order to extract better performances from them.
3.Demographic factors- The demographic factors are the different socioeconomic background, education, race etc Organizations prefer those people who possess good academic and effective communication skills to perform tasks better than the others. The study of different dynamics helps the firm in selecting a suitable candidate for a particular job (Bryson, 2001).
4.Personality- The personality can be considered as the study of characteristics and traits of an individual. The manner in which individual respond to a particular organizational environment. Personality can regarded as the most complex part of human beings which influences one's behavior in a great manner. The study of personality characteristics and traits provide an opportunity to understand the individuals. It can help in directing the company to put in effort and motivate them.
2.1 Comparing effectiveness of different leadership style
Leadership styles have a significant effect on a service organization like college or universities. These styles affect the organization performance to a great extent. The different types of leadership styles are-
Autocratic style of leadership- This type of leadership is also known as authoritarian leadership. The autocratic style of leadership makes clear divisions between leaders and workers. The leader undertakes all the decisions with little or no involvement of employees. The leaders retain all the power with them. This style is effective when fast decision-making is required (Mendes and Stander, 2011).
Democratic style of leadership- This type of leadership is also known as participative style of leadership where staff are involved in the decision-making. The leaders take the responsibility to undertake final decision encouraging feedback, suggestion and ideas for the employee's. This encourages employees to put more input thus encourages the creativity of human resource.
Lassize-faire style of leadership- This type of leadership is also known as delegative leadership. In this type of style, the manager pays no or little attention on employees, providing them with almost complete freedom to take their decision on their own. The line of authority and job description is often seen blurred in the organization following this type of leadership style (Shajahan, 2007).
Mr Adam Wakefield can follow democratic style of leadership as it offers the freedom to different department to undertake decisions on their own and at the same time hold the central power to make decisions for all. The democratic leadership style will also help in motivating the Abbey management team by providing them with the chance to undertake decisions on their own.
2.2 Organizational theories and practices of management
The organizational theories are a set of approaches to organizational analysis. The varied organizational theories are-
1.Scientific management theory- This theory is based on the concept of planning of work for achieving efficiency, specialization, simplification and standardization. The aim of this approach is to increase the productivity of the organization through mutual trust between the management and workers. The Frederick Taylor set forth four principles of scientific management which includes training of workers, scientific selection of worker, labor and management cooperation rather than creating conflicts etc.
2.Bureaucratic theory- Max Weber considers organization as a part of broader society. The organization is based on principles of specialization, structure, rationality etc. this approach is considered to possess characteristic like rigid, self-perpetuating and impersonal (Creese, 2003.).
3.Administrative theory- This theory is propounded by Henry Fayol and consists of various principles of management. In addition, it is also considered as a set of planning, training, coordinating, commanding and functions. There are 14 principle of management which includes principles such as authority and responsibility, unity of direction, unity of command, Esprit de corps, equity, order, centralization etc.
The organization theory is highly linked with the organization structure followed by the City College. It is important for the College to adopt administrative management theory as it will help in better managing of the staff in the organization. This theory will help in building a more effective organization by following its 14 principles and proper commencement of coordination and with the help of this, productivity of employees can be ensured.
2.3 Evaluating different approaches to management
The management concept has been developed through various studies and practices. The different approaches to management are-
1.Human Behavior Approach- the human behavior approach looks forward to leadership, human relations and behavioral science approach. The theory studies on human behavior and the various personality dynamics of individual in relations to organization culture. As management essence lies behind getting things done by people the managers must be capable enough to understand human behavior. The emphasize is done on increasing the productivity by using motivation and good human relations (Nelson and Cooper, 2007). The Pepsi company follows this approach to a great extent as knowledge of people can help in making people more productive and effective for the organization. The motivation, communication, group dynamics and leadership are core to this organization.
2.Social System Approach- Organization is essentially a cultural system which is composed of people who work in cooperation. In order to achieve organization goals effectively, a cooperative system of management can be developed only by developing understanding the different behavior of people in the groups. This help in building relationship among the external as well as internal environment of the organization. Tesco follows this type of approach as it helps in identifying the true demands of the society in which the organization (Hosie and Smith, 2009)
3.Decision Theory Approach- this approach is followed by management that key focuses on decision-making. The members of the organization can be treated as a various decision units. The aim is to improve quality of decision that affect the organizational effectiveness. Company like Enron which was occurring losses but with approach of decision theory of management helped it in identifying the various problems. The communication is enhanced by using this approach and diagnosis of problem can be done more easily.
The City college with the integration of its own management with Abbey management team will require Mr Adam Wakefield to adopt common towards the cumulative team of managements. The organization can follow Human Behavior Approach as it will help in enhancing people effectiveness in the organization. The organization is in a better state to align individual goals and aspirations.
3.1 The influence of leadership on motivation
The different leadership style that can be adopted by Mr Wakefield and its varied impacts on the motivation of employees is enumerated below-
1.Autocratic leadership style- As the decision is centralized here there are more chances of quick and effective decision-making. The autocratic leader can motivate employees by building the confidence in the managers of City as well as Abbey college to make more appropriate decisions.
2.Democratic leadership style- in this type of leadership style the employees are often involved and given chance to participate in decision-making. The leader can motivate managers by encouraging their ideas in the organization (Beck, 2003).
3.2 Motivational theories and its application
Mr Adam Wakefield can use the below two theories of motivation in its workplace-
The Maslows theory of motivation which is also called the Maslow's hierarchy of needs. This mode has five stages which depict the various needs of people. According to Maslow's, people require some motivation which is related to fulfillment of needs. The needs are-
- Physiological needs- this comprise of the basic needs that an individual required for his survival. These include the basic wage or salary that an individual expect for its survival.
- Security needs- these needs are related to safety and security of an individual. The job security and the work environment are the key factors that affect an individual. These are the most instinct needs.
- Social needs- these needs are related to belonging, love and affection. These needs motivate people to maintain healthy relationship at the workplace (Jones, 2010.).
- Esteem needs- these needs arise once the above needs have been fulfilled. For an employee these refer to needs for self recognition, ego and personal worthiness.
- Self-actualization needs- this is assumed to be highest level among all the various needs identified so far. The employees behavior here is motivated through promotions.
Herberg theory of motivation is known as the two factor theory of motivation. These factors are known as the motivators. These are satisfiers and dissatisfiers.
Satisfier- refers to those motivational factors that create job satisfaction among employee's. These lead to actual motivation among employees. These include bonus, job promotions, job security etc.
Dissatisfier- refers to those factors which are related to hygiene factors. They not lead to motivation but they do cause dissatisfaction among employee's. The hygiene factor relates to maintenance factors.
3.3 Importance of theories to manager
It is important for Mr Wakefield to recognize the importance of motivation for its organization. The managers are responsible for the directing, planning and controlling of the staff. Apart from this it is also responsible for motivating the employees to a great extent. The managers must recognize the importance of motivational theories for the following reasons-
- Motivation is important for quick and efficient accomplishment of goals. This is because motivated employees work better and it improves the efficiency of the employees.
- The motivation should also be recognized as it assist in building friendly environment within the organization. This is possible because motivation creates satisfaction among employees (Fairholm 2004).
- The motivation help in turning negative attitude of employees into positive and affirmative one.
- The motivation ensure stability within the organization
- motivation of employees can help in reducing the employees resistance towards the changes taking place after incorporation Abbey college into City College.
4.1 and 4.2 Nature of groups and group behavior
Being a consultant, it is important to explain the nature of groups and group behavior to Mr. Wakefield so that they will be able to manage the staff of the college efficiently. Basically, the groups are being broadly classified into two types: Informal and formal groups. In formal groups the communication takes place only for some specific purpose or related to some work. While on the other hand, informal groups are being created out the social relations of the individual at workplace. The staff members of Abbey college are mostly intellectual in nature. Most of the time they spend with their books. Thus, the management of the City college will have to see to it that the behavior of the staff members of Abbey college matches with that of the City college (Northcraft, 2011).
Group behavior has a strong impact on the management of the organization's. City college can work properly only if it has a strong team of staff. The merger of Abbey College and City college can be affected in terms of the behavior of the staff members. The staff of Abbey college is totally book oriented while the staff of City college focuses on practical experiences. Thus, the management will have to take the combination of the work so that they can provide better knowledge to their students.
Factors leading to effective team work
As a consultant I would like to suggest the following points to Mr. Wakefield that will help them to lead their team of staff:
Communication: To make an effective team of staff the management will have to facilitate the proper communication between the members so that they can share their work and experiences that will help them to work efficiently in the college (Pivo, 2008).
Team building exercises: The management must try to organize some team building exercises so that all the staff members can try to do their work mutual understanding and cooperation.
Factors that would threaten team work
Mr. Wakefield will also have to consider all those factors that can hinder the success of team:
Conflicts: Conflicts between the staff members with regards to their work style will lead to conflicts among the college. Thus, it is important for Mr. Wakefield to take into considerations these conflicts so that the team work is not hindered.
Compensation: It may also happen that various staff members may have issues with respect to their compensation's. Thus, this may lead to ineffectiveness among the team work.
4.3 Impact of technology on team functioning
Technology is recognized as the prime requirement for any organization to maintain the competitiveness. The City College with it extended base due to incorporation of Abbey College has increased the resources and efficiency of the organization than before. Mr Wakefield in order to maintain this efficiency and grow it requires to include following facilitates like ERP, MIS computerized system of working, internet, installation of software etc .
The team functioning of management can be supported through ERP system. Where the process of multiple functioning is streamlined. The organization can open its own website and Blog to interact with all people working within the organization. It can also install MIS software as it will help in maintaining the huge database of the organization (Dweck, 2013).
From this report it can be concluded that the organization structure and cultures are interlinked and have an impact on performance of the business. The different organizational theories and management approaches are studied in the above report. The importance of motivation to managers and its effectiveness to City College is also discussed briefly in the report.
- Beck, C. R., 2003. Motivation: Theories And Principles. 4th ed. Pearson Education India.
- Da Veiga, A. and Eloff, J. H., 2010. A framework and assessment instrument for information security culture. Computers & Security. 29(2).
- Dweck, S. C., 2013. Self-theories: Their Role in Motivation, Personality, and Development. Psychology Press.
- Fairholm, M. R., 2004. Different perspectives on the practice of leadership. Public Administration Review.
- Gillespie, N. A and Mann, L., 2004. Transformational leadership and shared values: The building blocks of trust. Journal of Managerial Psychology.