Organisation behaviour plays significant role within business because it includes the study of attitude and behaviour of individuals and group in the enterprise. Further, it involves skills improvement, understanding customers buying behaviour and goodwill of the organisation (Jurkiewicz 2015). With the help of these elements, company create a healthy, ethical and smooth environment in business. The present study is based on Toyota which is Japanese company engage in design, features, commercial vehicle and passenger cars, etc. Their corporation is leading in auto features and takes they place as the eighth largest company in the world. For gaining insight knowledge of cited firm, present report includes compare and contrast of organisation structure and culture of the enterprises. Furthermore, it covers organisational theory which underpins the practice of management in chosen company. Moreover, it consists usefulness of motivation theory for managers in relation with cited firm.
1.1 Compare and contrast of different organisational structure and culture of Toyota and Ford
Organisation structure includes several activities which demonstrate task allocation, cooperation and direction. It will assist to Toyota for accomplishing their desired outcomes at the workplace (Koning and Van Kleef, 2015). They involve every individual perception towards business operations. On the other hand, Ford Motor car company which offers new car models in luxury segment. Thus, their structure and culture is different from Toyota company.
Toyota Motor Corporation
Toyota Motor corporation's organisational culture refers as responses of employees to face challenges in the market. They are the global leader in the auto mobile industry so that they can follow functional structure within the enterprise (Landy and Conte, 2016). In this structure, they assign roles and responsibilities according to every individual's capability. Further, organisation report relationships which is based on speciality and functional areas which can be separate for each department such as marketing, accounting and engineering, etc. In this aspect, they are following role culture in the business for assign duties and responsibilities to their workers.
Ford Motor Car Company
As compare to Toyota structure and culture, Ford motor car company's organisational structure is based on enterprise needs in different market conditions around the world. They opt large geographic division in their organisational structure (Castille, Kuyumcu and Bennett, 2017). They are dividing their global marketplace into various regions according to continent and subcontinents such as Americas, Europe and Asia-Pacific. In this aspect, their task culture is the support to geographic division structure. This is because the company from group to achieve common goals at the workplace so that they have to take decisions regarding delegate responsibilities to every employee.
As contrasting of both organisational structure consist important role in enterprises, because it consists roles and responsibilities of each member within companies (Gibbons and Roberts, 2013). According to workers capabilities, Toyota assigns roles to their employees. On the other hand, in Ford in each division employer demonstrate responsibilities for every member.
1.2 Explains Relationship between structure and culture which create impact on Toyota performances
Organisational structure and culture run together because it creates the impact on business performances. This is because enterprise and their scope may change with time. Understanding of organisational culture and structure assist to take decisions which make right things at the workplace (Strom, Sears and Kelly, 2014). When Toyota follow functional structure, they assign the role to everyone according to workers qualifications. In above elements, the relationship of structure and culture create major impact:
Decision-making: Functional structure and role culture create an impact on decision-making. This is because Toyota demonstrates roles and responsibilities according to workers qualifications. Every employee cannot fulfil their task within given time frame so that decisions of the organisation delay (Moghimi, Kazemi and Samiie, 2013). It takes more timing for complete functions of the company.
Riskprocesses:When Toyota assign roles to their employees, there is not sure that everyone completes it in right manner. Thus, it is a risk to determine functions of the company according to business outcomes (Shin, Park and Lim, 2013). As results, it is the major risk for development of the of organisation performances. In addition to this, it also creates more cost for a company to enhance capabilities of workers performance. Cited firm need to take training for their employees.
Teamwork: Every employee has role according to their qualifications so that sometimes it creates an impact on the teamwork of organisation. This is because, the functional structure of Toyota company make smaller group according to workers specialities such as IT, marketing and other areas. In this aspect, every employee does work according to their interest area (Barrick, Mount and Li, 2013). Thus, roles of employees can be affected by company performances.
Communication: In this aspect, one group cannot communicate with another group of members. Thus, communication gap also creates major impact in organisation outcomes. In Toyota, their manager determines different roles in distinctive person group which create a lack of communication among them (Mushtaq, 2013).
1.3 Factors which influence to individual behaviour
There are various factors which influence to individual behaviour in Toyota, are as follows:
Work culture: Employees need to feel comfortable at the workplace, to make positive and happy regarding business objectives. Rules and regulations of Toyota are same for all members.
Job Responsibilities: Employers need to ask from their employees regarding job which they can perform the best. It will assist to reduce overburden from them at cited firm (Chang, 2014).
Effective communication: Managers of chosen organisation need to communicate effectively with their team members. It will highly influence to their team members towards objectives of the firm.
2.1 Compare The Effectiveness of Different Leadership Style Between Toyota and Ford
Leadership style is presented in enterprises with this aspect to deal with people at the workplace. In Toyota Motor Corporation autocratic leadership style follows in which company determines roles and responsibilities according to their own view (Wang and et.al., 2014). In this context, they are not taking the participation of their employees in decision-making. On the other hand, in Ford Motor company manager use democratic leadership style through they can take views and ideas of their employees regarding business objectives.
Autocratic leadership style is task oriented where Toyota can assign work to their employees. As compare to this, democratic style is based on relations orientation in which Ford take ideas and views from employees regarding business objectives (Whillans and Dunn, 2015). As results, they can build-up relations with their members who assist to gain positive results.
Further, Autocratic style is initiating structure, in which Toyota give guidance to their employees regarding goals attainment of the company. On the other hand, democratic style is consideration structure which shows concern and respect for followers.
In addition to this, autocratic style concern for production while democratic is a concern for people of the company (Autocratic versus Democratic leadership: Are you the right tool for the right job?,2017).
In Autocratic leadership style, Toyota directive to their members for an achievement of business goals in which they are never fails because company not includes employees to take decisions. However, Ford is supportive of taking participation through giving rewards to their employees.
2.2 How Organisational Theory Underpins To Practice Of Management In Toyota
In Toyota company, scientific management theory underpins to a practice of management which assists to analysis workflows. Their main objectives is to enhance economic efficiency and labour productivity of company through business can attain positive results at the workplace (Wajidi, Uddin and Iqbal, 2014). It will influence to cited firm practices such as planning, process designing, quality control and ergonomics, etc. According to this theory, manager of cited firm need to gather information, analysis it and reduce rules from the workplace. Thus, the business can work effectively with considering mathematical formulas.
Managers of Toyota need to select members scientifically and trains to them accordingly. In addition to this, they have to analysis capabilities and abilities of workers so they can match with company jobs (Jurkiewicz 2015). On the basis of capabilities, the firm should assign job role to their candidates. Further, the chosen enterprise need to monitor workers performances in which they can provide instructions and supervisor to ensure that they are using effective way for working. With the help of this system, the organisation can allocate work among managers and workers so that they can plan, give training and allowing the task to perform activities.
With the help of scientific management theory, Toyota makes cooperation among their workers through they can develop teamwork (Koning and Van Kleef, 2015). It introduces significant selection and training procedures which encourage to employees towards business goals. It is also known as modern management theory which deals in enhancing the productivity of employees regarding enterprise targets.
2.3 Different types of approaches to management which is used by Toyota and Ford
In Toyota, quality is the very important parameter in which they determine superiority and inferiority of company products and services. Quality can be determined by attributes which make it ahead of competitors. Total quality management (TQM) is referred to continue efforts through management and employees of the enterprise ensure long term customers loyalty and their satisfaction towards business products (Landy and Conte, 2016). It can be measured in term of durability, reliability, usage and many more things. TQM can be determined in four elements such as plan, do, check and act. In planning face, employees of the firm need to come up with problems which need to be addressed. After this, do phase come up in which employees of the organisation make solutions for problems. Strategies can be used in this phase to determine solutions. After this, check phase comes forward in which people compare work which they do. At last, acting phase come in which employees prepare themselves for other problems (Castille, Kuyumcu and Bennett, 2017).
On the other hand in Ford company, human relation theory takes place which began in industrial revolution time. In this aspect, people are part of the supportive team which facilitate to development growth of the enterprise. Employees of the organisation receive special attention and encourage taking participation within the company. Mainly individual attention and recognition align with human relation theory which encompasses to support the motivational theory (Gibbons and Roberts, 2013).
3.1 Discuss impact of leadership style on motivation in Toyota Motor
Management style plays very important role in the organisation. Every manager must develop management style to make successful operations within the enterprise. In the autocratic style of Toyota, only one individual make decisions in the company (Strom, Sears and Kelly, 2014). This style creates major impact on task orientation motivation. This is because manager assign only tasks to their employees when they are used autocratic style. According to assign task, employees of cited firm need to do work. As results, the organisation can develop their operations without taking individual guidance.
On the other hand, when Toyota adopt the democratic style, they can motivate their employees towards meeting targets. In respect to this, every employee gives their full efforts and participation towards business goals (Moghimi, Kazemi and Samiie, 2013). To taking positive outcomes company have to develop their full support towards company goals. It will assist to develop every individual knowledge and skills for enterprise targets. When cited firm meets their targets, it creates the positive impact on business operations.
3.2 Compare two motivational theory within the organisation
Maslow's theory is based on hierarchical structure of in which company determine five set of human needs. On the other hand, Herzberg defines hygiene and motivating factors to satisfy human requirements (Shin, Park and Lim, 2013). Both theories have following comparison can be taken within an enterprise:
Maslow's theory is based on the concept of needs and their satisfaction level of human in the organisation.
Herzberg theory is based on a use of motivators factors which includes achievement, recognition and growth opportunity in the enterprise (Barrick, Mount and Li, 2013).
Basis of theory
The base of Maslow's theory consists human needs in which they are identifying five sets of human requirements.
As compare to Maslow's needs, Herzberg defines hygiene and motivating factors which assist in motivating subordinates.
Nature of Theory
Maslow's theory is very simple and descriptive to determine about human needs of Toyota employees (Mushtaq, 2013).
However, Herzberg theory is more prescriptive. It suggests motivating factors that can be used effectively incited firm.
Applicability of theory
Maslow's theory is very popular which widely applicable in chosen organisation. It is mainly used in developing countries where money create a great impact on human life (Akrani, 2016).
Applicability of Herzberg theory is narrow. It is only used in developed countries.
When Toyota take Maslow's theory, any need can be act as a motivator to human.
As compare to Maslow's theory, dual factors of Herzberg can motivate human on the basis of hygiene (lower level needs) and motivator (Achievement, recognition and challenging work) factors.
3.3 Evaluate usefulness of motivation theory for managers of Toyota
With the help of Maslow's motivational theory, Toyota can easily motivate their employees towards business objectives. This theory is referred as psychological processes which stimulate excitement and persistent of company actions which aimed to set goals (Chang, 2014). It is essential to the manager of cited firm to understand psychological processes involves in motivation so that they can motivate their employees effectively to achieve direct goals. This theory assists in encouraging staff improvements and lower levels employee turnover. Hence, they can attempt to identify internal factors that motivate to individual through unfulfilled needs. Physiological needs are those who required surviving human such as air, food, water, shelter and clothing (Wang and et.al., 2014).
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Manager of Toyota needs to provide physiological needs to their employees through offering them comfortable working conditions, reasonable work hours and necessary breaks. Safety needs include sense of security which can be provided personal security, financial security and protection from accidents at workplace. When manager concentrates on safety needs, turnover of a lower level can be reduced easily (The Needs Theory: Motivating Employees with Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs, 2017). In addition to this, social needs refer to feel a sense of belonging and acceptance. An employer can also define esteem needs which refer for self-esteem and respect to each other. At last, self-actualization needs describes in which manager need to reach towards their full potential.
4.1 Explains nature of group and group behaviour within the organisation
The group defines as two or more individuals who are interacting with each other to accomplish same goals. In Toyota, two types of groups form who give their full participation for achieving desired outcomes.
The formal group are to achieve specific objectives of enterprise which concern with co-ordination and work activities (Whillans and Dunn, 2015). People are brought together on the basis of goals which they want to achieve in business. In Toyota, goals are identified through management, certain rules and norms of behaviour which they established. Formal groups can take permanent for achieve future goals as well. It can be categories in several types of groups such as team, technological and task groups.
Within the formal structure of the company, in Toyota informal group also take part in their management. In the formal system, role relationship, rules and procedures can be determined. As compare to this, in informal group different types of members take place from the distinctive department (Wajidi, Uddin and Iqbal, 2014). In the informal system, people come for goals and when it achieves group can be breakdowns.
Firstly, Tuckman gives model of group development which determines in following steps:
Forming: In this step, team members are positive and polite to understand work which they were done. The leader of Toyota needs to play the very important role because they determine roles and responsibilities for each member of Enterprise (Jurkiewicz 2015).
Storming:After forming, the team moves towards storming phase. In this step, people start to put against boundaries which established in forming stage. In this step, many teams fail due to different working style from by a company.
Norming: When a team moves towards norming, people of Toyota start to resolve their differences and strengths as a leader. In this step, team members are known each other and socialise together to help each other (Koning and Van Kleef, 2015).
Performing: When a team reaches towards performing stage, structure and processes set up which support to cited firm. The leader of the organisation has to delegate their work to make concentrate on developing team members.
4.2 Factors which promote or inhibit development of effective teamwork
The effective team requires understanding better things and knowledge towards an organisation. There are several factors which promote to effective teamwork in Toyota, are as follows:
Skills and ability: Every individual has different skills and ability so that it assist in promoting the development of team effectiveness at Toyota.
Group size: When group size is large, it creates the positive impact on firm operations (Landy and Conte, 2016). This is because various member gives different idea towards same goals and objective cited organisation. Thus, it helpful to promote Toyota activities.
Group knowledge: Group knowledge is essential elements which consist important aspect within the enterprise. When all members have full knowledge, they can easily promote and develop effective functioning within organisation performances (Castille, Kuyumcu and Bennett, 2017).
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4.3 Evaluate impact of technology on team functioning in Toyota
Technology creates the great impact on team functioning because it considers following elements:
Global and cross-cultural teams: With the help of technology, team members can make their communication in a global market as well. It will assist to Toyota as they can make their effective functioning with their team members.
Training staffing: Another impact of technology is training need which requires making effective functions at a workplace for a development of cited firm (Gibbons and Roberts, 2013).
Team communication: When Toyota adopt an advanced technology, their communication level is so high which create positive outcomes at the workplace.
Organisation behaviour takes importance place within the enterprise which emphasises on business activities in great extent. In this context, the report demonstrates relationship between structure and culture of Toyota which creates an impact on their performances. It generates impact on decision-making, risk process and teamwork of the organisation. Furthermore, it was also identifying the impact of leadership styles on motivation on the firm. The company used autocratic and democratic leadership style during changes period. At last, the report demonstrated factors that promote to effective teamwork at Toyota in term of group size, group knowledge and skills and ability.
Barrick, M. R., Mount, M. K. and Li, N., 2013. The theory of purposeful work behavior: The role of personality, higher-order goals, and job characteristics. Academy of Management Review. 38(1). pp.132-153.
Castille, C. M., Kuyumcu, D. and Bennett, R. J., 2017. Prevailing to the peers' detriment: Organizational constraints motivate Machiavellians to undermine their peers. Personality and Individual Differences. 104. pp.29-36.
Chang, C. S., 2014. Moderating Effects of Nurses’ Organizational Justice Between Organizational Support and Organizational Citizenship Behaviors for Evidence‐Based Practice. Worldviews on Evidence‐Based Nursing. 11(5). pp.332-340.
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