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Human resource is a department in an organisation which manages the process of recruitment, administration and training the employees of any firm. It has some rules and regulations which they follow to manage their business operations. This report will be dealing with different activities of the HRM to promote the functions in a firm. Human resource management depends upon business environment and responses of the organisation. Analysis of the work is done and according to that job profile is created. This process is important because department get to know their functions.
Environment of HRM refers to all the conditions, events and influences that affects the working of human resource management. It can be divided into two types i.e., internal and external.
There are various types of internal forces which exists within the organisation and affects the activities of the firm. Factors like company's structure, conflicts, culture, unions and professional bodies are some. Culture of the organisation includes art, knowledge of any thing, moral, customs, laws and habits. Unions in the firm make sure that workers of that organisation does not face any discrimination and help them in maintaining a industrial relation with members of the company.
Economic, political, technological and demographic are the factors clubbed in external environment. Per capital income, capital markets, money makes the economic area and have influence on wages. Political bodies who are responsible for making policies, rules and regulations have a wider impact on HRM management. Technological elements make work more easy as they can perform many tasks in a minute of seconds. Demographic area include sex, age, literacy.
Job analysis is the task in which a critical evaluation is done so that the manager could get information about the jobs. Before designing it, a examination of raw inputs, equipments and human resource are done so that a clear insight can be extracted. It is important to analysis a job because through it HR manager can carry out their function like job evaluation, designing, knowing the competition, benefits, analysing the scope of training and opportunities so that personal development can be done. Working conditions & environment changes frequently, it becomes compulsory to review the description and specification of job. There are different approaches attached to it and are designed for factors like mental capacity, which include filtering of information and issuing of the instructions. Job designing is done for motivation so that teamwork and flexibility can be encouraged. Safety and work efficiency are the two things which are kept in mind while highlighting the job design.
Workforce planning is the process which are used to define the needs and priorities of the organisation with the workforce. Through this they can meet their goals and objectives which they aimed for. We could say that a company identify the factors which they need so that they could meet the requirement. It can be in terms of size, type and quality of workforce. A sequence is decided before a business operation which brief that these tasks will be done at this time and certain knowledge, experience is required. Forecasts of the labour demand, supply, setting goals and implementation factors are included in planning process. For a proper workforce planning a clear HR strategy need to be maintained which ensures that company hire or recruit those labours who has certain skills and knowledge which would be beneficial to them. Each and every process which are involved in the manufacturing process should be counted and a research should be done which gives details about every bit of progress. This makes them clear that these things are to be investigated.
Selection of the candidates is the function of human resource department. It is considered as vital function because the selected people will contribute in the progress of the company through performing task or role which is given by company. They have to research and use that data of that for the recruitment drive (Haufler, 2010). A lots of candidates apply for the job but a selected number of people get selected because every organisation wants a specific type of staff who can work more efficiently. The HR team should design a job strategy which defines what kind of skills and knowledge they want in a candidates describing job specification. Certain grounds are selected which makes it compulsory that for the recruiting process these are essential qualities which employee should have. The next step is to advertise in the media about the vacation and asking the job seekers to send their curriculum vitae on the written email id. After receiving CV they go through each & every document and check the background, experience of the candidate. Whose who are shortlisted are called for face to face aptitude test and personal interview. This is a important part of the selection process because those who will be selected will be given the duty to lead the company.
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When the new candidate comes in the organisation he might be totally unaware about the working environment. Company has selected that particular employee because they thought that this candidate is the person who have skills and knowledge about the operation which they are performing. HR manager work does not end after the selection but instead he has to look at the training process in which the selected candidate will be trained for different situations. In whole training period all the important task will be carried out in which employee will get to know each and every thing about the organisation. It is not important that training process will only for the newly recruited employees but in a company training top the existing workers are also given. Need of training is evaluated on various grounds like if a firm has started new operation with new technology but the employees don't know about that technology so they will be trained for that. Coach, trainer and mentor are hired for this purpose.
Organization's success is totally dependent on how well every employee performs and mainly many organisation struggle in maximizing employees performs and also keeping their moral high. There are several steps involved in performance management process and it is seen that through performance management process they can get competitive advantage. In the initial step performance outcomes of the company is defined, after employment goals and behaviours are developed which have to be achieved as outcomes. The company should provide support and review on going performance and after evaluation look at the loopholes. In the final step provide consequences for performance results. Different criteria should be set for performance management like validity, feedback and reliability. Performance of the employees can be measured through the objectives of the organisation and the task. Firm should apply the strategy of performance appraisal that means appreciating a employees who are constantly working well. Through this the moral of that individual will go high and after that he will also work more efficiently because he knew that his hard work is valued in the organisation. colleagues who are working with that person will also get motivate and a sense of competition will rise.
Separation of the employees is the process in which a employee is terminated on voluntary and involuntary. Voluntary termination include resignation or retirement and involuntary can include discharge, lay-off, plant closure, disability or death. Both the separation is a sensitive issue for any organisation. In both the cases a replacement has be done because the vacant position need to be filled, which may create a headache for the company. Before a person who was aware about every aspects of the company like the surrounding, working culture, skills for handling different task will not be the part of organisation any more. Company should try to avoid the need for involuntary turnover and especially among top performers. In the process of recruiting new employee with be a expensive and time consuming procedure. The newly appointed worker has to be trained from the beginning so that he could be familiar with the working style of the organisation. Retaining of the useful employees and termination of the other person on the legal bases which is a complicated task and can be resolved through adopting different methods. Justice for both is must so the company should be ready with their stand that why they have terminated the employee. Any dispute arising in can be solved through mediation and arbitration process. Mediation is a non- binding process in which a third party hears the case and come out with a solution. In arbitration which is a binding process in which a professional lawyer or judge solve the conflict between both the parties.
It is the study of the formal and informal rules that regulate the employment relationship and the social processes that create and enforce these rules. Relation can be between the employees and their unions, government and the industrial tribunals are some of them. Relation between any of the above mentioned can be mentioned and any conflict can be resolved through conciliation, arbitration, union, agreements, awards and bargaining. In conciliation a third person who act as conciliator solve a issue through discussion. Unions are group of employees who solve any issue or put forward their opinion related to employees. Collective agreements over wages and conditions covering groups or categories of employment.
Wages play a important role in the employee relation so the company should decided what should they pay to their employees. Pay policies of the government should be followed so that they could free themselves from any law suit on this matter. If there is much competition in a particular market so setting a constant price becomes difficult. It also depends upon the size of the company as more the size and less the number of labour so the wages will be good and pay policies can be improved if the company has a command in the market. If any employees thinks that they are given leas pay so they can put less effort or they might withdraw. Initiatives should also be given on the basis of performance.
Legal environment comprises of those things which determines different things like how a company should work, what are the working hours, what should be the minimum pay scale for an employees etc. are some things which are briefed in the legal environment. Other than this human resource department should also make sure that every law or legislation should be taken care of off. Generally, government frequently changes the laws so they should make note of every law related to their business. HR team make sure that they doesn't refuse to recruit any candidate on the basis of caste, creed, colour, gender and nationality. Company should provide paid leave for a specific days in a year.
This can be defined as the physical, physiological and psychosocial conditions of an firm's workforce related to their work. Organisation should make a note that safety and health of the employees working for them comes first so they should take care of the operations they are carrying out. Firms have to use technology which is not harmful for employees health and regular counselling session should be conducted so that their stress can be released. Through development of the organisation which supports health and safety may enhance the productivity.
This is to conclude that very organisation has HR practices so that the company can increase the profits. Both the internal and external environment should not be ignored as they both corporate equally in the organisational success. Recruitment and selection process need to be managed properly and just after selection, they should start training process as company is facing lack of labours. Other HR principles related to legislation, workforce design, employment relation and role of health & safety of the employee are described.
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