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Construction of Project Management

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Introduction

1. Research Background

In this modern era, there are numerous types of business organisation, institutions, and industries, which lead to the growth of the economy of a country. In the perspective of González et al. (2013), the industry linked with construction is one such important industry, which works towards the developing the economy of a country. In the view of Sears et al. (2015), construction is a very important instrument or tool utilised by any country for the purpose of development of both the rural areas, as well as, the urban areas.

In the perspective of González et al. (2013), construction is a very necessary sector that can lead a country on the path of success and glory. However, in this modern and competitive era, there arise a huge number of competitions in the sector of construction, as there are huge numbers of construction industries competing with each other. Moreover, it is very necessary to note that the competition is not the only problem faced by the constructions industries. There exist even other problems.

In this chapter of the proposal, the researcher will analyse the importance of the construction industries in building up the economy of a country. Along with it, the researcher will also discuss the demerits caused due to the delays in the construction projects. Moreover, the very important topic of which the researcher will deal with this particular proposal is to derive the causes that linger behind the delay in the functioning of the construction project, as well as, the effect of this delay in the growth of the construction industry.

Moreover, the researcher will also describe various ways to minimize the delay in the field of the construction project. This chapter includes the problem statement on which the researcher will conduct further work. Furthermore, this chapter holds important research objectives, as well as, research questions that will be considered by the researcher in the work of research.

In the opinion of Owolabi (2014), the new and the advanced form of technologies are incorporated in the works of construction, this makes the process easy. However, the inclusion of modern and advanced technology in the functioning of the construction industry makes the process more sophisticated, as well as, complicated. In the opinion of Assaf & Hejji (2016), the complication faced due to the involvement of the modern technology causes in the delay of the activities performed by the construction industries.

In the perspective of Love & Irani (2014), construction is a very important instrument to measure the level of development of a country. Countries with enormous and picturesque construction are considered the most developed and economically prosperous country. However, delay in the functioning of the construction projects turns out to be a huge loss to the finance of the construction industry, as well as, it turns out to be a loss for the economy of a country.

There are many reasons for the cause of this delay some of them are multiple- participation, where numerous construction industries are competing with each other, as well as, use of complex technologies. Furthermore, the other problem faced in the sector of construction, which leads to delay is the financial issues and even the lack of proper instruments, which are required in the field of construction.

2. Problem Statement

In the opinion of Sambasivan & Soon (2016), construction is a very necessary and important sector, which is known for building the strong economy of a country. The economy of a country is dependent to some extent on the industries of construction. One major problem faced by the construction industries is the delay in the construction projects. These delays arise as a hurdle on the path of growth of not only the construction industry but also of the country.

In this particular proposal, the researcher will deal with the various problems that arise in the path of construction projects leading to the delay in the construction project. The delay in the construction project actually refers to the over run of the time, which was scheduled for the accomplishment of any construction activity.  
This delay caused in the project or the functioning of construction leads to many adverse effects, affecting the economy of a company, resisting the development of a country etc.

The problem projected in this particular research is intermingled with the delay in the construction project and the effect, which this delay reflects on the country, as well as, the company itself. A Huge amount of changes could occur due to the delay in the functioning of construction, such as the project will take longer time to be completed, there will be loss of productivity, the cost of the project may increase, as well as, the project may even be terminated.

In the opinion of Owolabi (2014), the delay in the construction project is a major issue in this modern era. With the passage of time, the world has turned extremely competitive. The various industries in this modern era tend to utilise the modern and the far more advance technologies in order to achieve competitive advantage over the other competitors in the field of construction business. The extreme competition leading to multiple- participation is an important factor for the increase in delay.

Moreover, other important causes tend to resist the functioning of the construction industries and thus force them to delay the project based on construction. Some of the causes of the construction delay can be categorised into various groups, such as the Project group, the Labourer group, Equipment and material group, External group, Design group, Contractor group, Construction group, Owner group etc. The functioning of all these groups is necessary for the fulfilment of the construction project; if these groups do not function properly, they may lead to the delay of the project of construction.

The construction industries face many problems during the functioning of their construction activities, which resists the process of construction delaying the construction activity. For example, in many cases, the clients cause the delay. There are many clients of the construction industries those who deliver the designs and other necessary instruction for the cause of construction at a much delayed period, which subsequently causes the delay of the construction project. Many other reasons involve the poor skills of the employees, as well as, the lack of proper planning by the construction industries.

Many problems resist the speed of the construction activities. Those reasons involve natural disaster. The natural disasters are completely unpredictable; they cause huge loss to the construction industry. Similarly, other major causes of delay that will be discussed in this proposal by the researcher are the political situation of a country. The political situation is a major concern for the construction industry, as the activities of construction will not be performed properly if the political environment of a country is violent.

Such violent political environment resists the construction activities leading to unpredictable delay in the activities of construction. Other cause of delay includes the shortage of instruments or the equipment, which are to be used for the process of construction.

3. Research Questions, Research Objectives, and Scope of the Research

Research Objectives

The research objectives of this proposal are as follows

1. To identify the most important causes for the delay in the construction project
2. To analyse the various effects of delay in the construction projects
3. To recommend various means of minimising the delay in the sector of construction project

Research Questions

The research questions are as follows

1. What are the most important causes for the delay in the construction project?
2. What are the various effects of delay in the construction projects?
3. What are the recommendations on minimising the delay in the sector of a construction project?

Scope of Study

This particular study will help the construction industry to visualise the causes, which leads to the delay in the construction activities. Moreover, by visualising the main reasons or causes behind the delay, the industry will be able to rectify the problems in order to improve the process of construction, by minimising the delay in the functioning of the construction projects.

Moreover, this particular proposal will be beneficial in driving necessary measures, which will help in resisting the delay and increasing the speed of construction activities, leading to building a strong economy of the construction industry, as well as, the respective country.

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Methodology

In the opining of Baskerville & Wood-Harper (2016), the research methodology determines the methods in which a research can be conducted. For conducting a research appropriately, the researcher needs to know what the methods can be used for the research to acquire the main objectives of the research. The research design or the approach will be mentioned in the concerned chapter. The data collection methods and techniques will also be demonstrated here. The researcher in this chapter will provide data analysis techniques. Thus, it can be said that this chapter will discuss the every method of the research.

1. Research Design

The research design determines the integrated methods of the research through which the entire research will be conducted. The research design is a plan in which the research will proceed for conducting the concerned research. In the opinion of Jackson (2015), the research design can be there types of descriptive research design, explanatory research design and exploratory research design.

A researcher can use any of this three-research design that will help the researcher to find out the answers to the research question and to successfully achieve research objectives. In the opinion of Silverman (2016), the research design demonstrates the variables with which the researches are being conducted. In this research design, the description of the research variables is being provided.  With the help of this research design, the researcher also builds a link of the variables.

In the exploratory design, the individual explores facts and theories. In the opining of Baskerville & Wood-Harper (2016), new theories are being introduced through the exploratory research design. In the explanatory research design, the researcher explains two variables individually. The variables with which the researcher is conducting the researcher are being explained in this type of research design. In the explanatory research design, the researcher does not establish any link between the variables of the research topic. The researcher for conduct the proposed research will take the descriptive research design. In the proposed research, the researcher will describe the variables proper from a different perspective and then establish the link among these variables.

On the other hand, before choosing the research design, the researcher has to decide the research philosophy and the research approach. In the opining of Baskerville & Wood-Harper (2016), the research philosophy determines the philosophy in which the research will analyses data. In the opinion of Jackson (2015), for conducting any research properly the research has to choose one of the research philosophies from interpretivism research philosophy, positivism research philosophy and realism research philosophy.

The data collected by a research for conducting any research will be analysed with the logical facts determined by the positivism philosophy. The analysis of the collected data is being done from a rational point of view. In the positivism research philosophy, there are no chances of analysing the collected data with human perception. The positivism research philosophy determines a researcher will achieve indentify the appropriate conclusion. In the realism philosophy, a research uses real facts and theories to develop the research process.

In the opinion of Jackson (2015), the interpretivism research philosophy determines that a research collects data and interprets the objective of the research with the help of human perception. In this research philosophy, there are chances of human error. As the researcher will choose the descriptive research design for concerned proposed research, positivism research philosophy will be appropriate for the same.  The inductive research approach and deductive research approach are the types of research.

According to the deductive approach, the researcher introduces new theories by collected data. While using the deductive approach, the research uses the existing facts for developing a research. To conduct the proposed research deductive research approach will be undertaken by the concerned researcher where the researcher will use the existing theories and models to achieve the research objectives.

The justification for choosing descriptive research design

For conducting the proposed research on causes, effects and minimization of delay in construction projects the research will undertake the descriptive research design.  Two variables of the research are the cause of delay and effect of delay and the construction projects. The researcher to indentify the answers of the research question of the proposed research and to achieve the research objectives will take the descriptive research design. Delay is the major issues in the construction projects and in the proposed research, the research will describe the cause of the delay in the construction project and the effect of the same.

The ways of minimising the delay in the construction project will also be described by the research in the proposed research. For this reason, the researcher has chosen the descriptive research design, as the cause, effects the ways minimization of the delay in the construction project is already and existing issues, the research will not explore anything new. For this reason, the researcher will not choose the exploratory research design. As these cause and effect of delay in the construction project have link between, the effects of the delay in the construction the researcher cannot determine n project without knowing the cause of the same.

Even the research cannot provide the recommended ways to minimising the delay in a construction project. As in the explanatory research design, the researcher cannot describe the link between these variables the researcher will undertake the explanatory research design. In the proposed research, the researcher will use the philosophy of positivism as the logical facts will be used in the proposed research for analysing data. The researcher as will use deductive research approach in order to conduct a research on the cause, effect and minimization of delay on construction projects introduction of new theories will have fewer scopes. Thus, for this reason, inductive research approach will not be chosen by the researcher in the in the proposed research.

Discussing the study setting

For conducting the research a researcher can use secondary or primary data or both. In the opinion of Marshall Rossman (2014), the data acquired through the fieldwork by a research is known as primary data. This needs to be collected by the fieldwork. A researcher can conduct survey process or interview session for collecting data for conducting a research properly. Data can be quantitative data and qualitative data. The data, which are express in a descriptive way, is known as qualitative data.

In the opinion of Coiro et al. (2014), the data, which are being collected through the interview session, has to describe the data in a descriptive way. In the opinion of Coiro et al. (2014), this type of data is n basically known as the qualitative data. The quantitative data are being represented with the help of the graph, charts and tables. The data, which are being collected through survey session, is being represented through the graphs, charts and tables.

The secondary data can be collected from the existing literature. These existing literatures are books, journals articles, magazines and business reports.  For conducting the proposed researcher on the cause, effect and the minimising the delay in the construction projects the researcher will use the interview session and survey session. The researcher will also use the existing literature for conducting the proposed research.

4. Data Collection   

Data collection procedure

For conducting the proposed research, the researcher will use the interview session and the survey session. As the proposed research is of the cause, effect and minimising delay in the construction project the research will conduct an interview session with the construction engineer of a renowned construction company. The research will conduct this interview session in order to acquire n formation regarding the major cause of the delay and its exact effects on the construction projects.

Through the interview session, the research will acquire ample of authentic data of the managerial faults on the same issues. The researcher will construct the survey session the worker of the same construction company in order to acquire data regarding the workers level faults in the same. As the researcher will use the secondary data for conducting the proposed research the researcher will use the existing literature like recent journals on the same topic or the other research paper on the construction projects to gather data to achieve the objectives of the proposed research.

Sampling procedure

In the opinion of Wright et al. (2016), sampling is a process in which researcher samples the data in order to gather the relevant data. By choosing proper sampling techniques, a researcher tries to reduce the number of the unnecessary data which are not required for conducting the research. Sampling is a process in which the data are being specified and helps a researcher to conduct a research in a proper way.

In the opinion of Creswell (2013), non-probability sampling techniques and probability sampling techniques are the two kinds of the sampling type or techniques. In the probability sampling techniques, a researcher collects data which have chances of being non-convenient. In the non-probability sampling techniques, a researcher sets the criteria for collecting data. However, in the probability sampling techniques, no criteria are being set before collecting data.

Data collection tools

In the opinion of Acharya et al. (2013), a researcher needs to select the data collection tools for collecting the data properly. Data collection tool are ways in which a researcher can collect data for the conducting research. For developing any research, the researcher can use open-ended questionnaire or close-ended questionnaire. By using, these tools the data will be collected which will help the researcher to indentify the proper objectives.  As the researcher in the proposed research will conduct the interview session in order to collect data the data collection tool will be the open –ended questionnaires.

In the open-ended questionnaires, the respondents are able to express their view in descriptive ways.  In the proposed research for conducting the survey session, the researcher will use the close-ended questionnaires. In the close-ended questionnaires, the respondents have to answer the questions by choosing one of the options provided by the researcher.

5. Data Analysis

The analysis of the data collected will be done by comparing the data that is collected from the other case studies and observations. The effectiveness of the data collected by the researcher can be evaluated if the by maintaining a bench mark to collect the data. The inputs from the engineers are to be evaluated and analysed on the basis of the current situations. The more the data collected are based on the specific demands of the research the higher will be the effectiveness of the data collected. Here it can also be mentioned that the researcher can take the help of the other case studies and research work done by the other researcher on the same topic.

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This idea will allow the researcher to realise how the data and the facts has to be used by the researcher. The input given by the workers in many cases are not up to the mark and valid. The workers tend to change their opinion and views frequently. Thus the researcher has to make sure that the data that are collected are valid and applicable in the current scenario. The researcher has to crosscheck and analysed the data that is collected from the workers. The authenticity of the data collected in most of the cases determines the success of the research. The most important task of the researcher has to evaluate the practicality of the data collected.

The more applicable the data will be higher will be the rate of meeting the desired objectives of the research. Here it can also be pointed out that the data collected from the researcher has to modified and changed according to the specific objectives and questions of the research. To enhance the effectiveness of the data collected it is important to make sure the data are properly used in the research. The effective analysis of the data further requires that the researcher has a proper knowledge of the research that has to be done as well as the objectives of the research. The knowledge of the researcher also includes the knowledge of the effectiveness of the selected data.

Reference

  • Acharya, A. S., Prakash, A., Saxena, P., & Nigam, A. (2013). Sampling: Why and how of it. Indian Journal of Medical Specialties.
  • Agrawal, A. N. (2015). EXAMINING IMPACT OF STRATEGIC LEADERSHIP ON EFFECTIVENESS OF BUSINESS ORGANISATION. NHRD Network Journal.
  • Arantes, A., da Silva, P. F., & Ferreira, L. M. D. (2015). Delays in construction projects-causes and impacts. In Industrial Engineering and Systems Management (IESM), 2015 International Conference on. IEEE.
  • Assaf, S. A., & Al-Hejji, S. (2006). Causes of delay in large construction projects. International journal of project management.
  • Assaf, S. A., & Al-Hejji, S. (2016). Causes of delay in large construction projects. International journal of project management.
  • Baskerville, R. L., & Wood-Harper, A. T. (2016). A critical perspective on action research as a method for information systems research. In Enacting Research Methods in Information Systems: Volume 2. Springer International Publishing.
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