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Introduction

Employees are an important factor of the organization. Workers help an enterprise in achieving their objectives so that they can get success in the market. Employee engagement is related to their emotional attachment that they have towards the goals of the company and their workplace. These kinds of workers are more loyal towards the firm and this will also help them in achieving the competitive advantage (Gruman and Saks, 2011). Along with this, this will lead towards the quality services, higher sales and higher customer satisfaction. Through this the enterprise can improve their growth and position with a good brand image. Through an effective leadership and motivation the employee engagement can be improved. The manager can also provide some rewards and incentives to their workers so that their overall motivational level can be increased. Through this, the employee engagement can be improved and their satisfaction towards their job can be increased. On the other hand, leaders can also motivate their team members by solving their issues that they faced at the workplace.

The present report is based on British Airways which perform their operations in United Kingdom. They have approx 183 destinations through the world and number of employees who are working in the industry are approx 143, 000. They all are responsible to offer quality services to their customers. The company is focus on the employee engagement in order to offer the quality services to the people. For this, the leaders of British Airways focuses on their workers so that their performance level will be enhanced. The below mentioned report explain the role of the leadership in improving the employee engagement. Further, what factors are their which are helping the organisation in improving the engagement of the people who are working at the workplace.

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Literature Review

Motivation and leadership effect on engagement

According to the Shuck, Reio Jr and Rocco, (2011) employee engagement is a term that refers to the extent to which an employee is get involved and committed towards the task and job in the organization. This is an approach that is used by the firm in order to increase the motivation among all the workers so that overall performance can be improved. It is directly related to the job satisfaction and the sense of belongingness of the worker with the enterprise. As per the view point of Welch (2011), he said that for the business organization it is related to their growth, profits, low turnover, high retention, productivity, their brand recognition and so on. They can improve their brand image at global level and along with this they will be able to achieve their competitive advantage in the market than any other market leader. Some authors believe that every staff member have their own attitude, behaviour and beliefs. On the basis of these their engagement can be measured in an efficient manner. Some are committed towards their work and some are focusing on their customers so that they will be able to get the quality services (What Is Employee Engagement?. 2016).

It has been argued by the Shuck, (2011) that leadership is the another factor that may affect the employee engagement and due to this disengagement of workers are get increased in the industry. It is the responsibility of the manager to retain their employees in the enterprise so that their motivation level get increased and they will be able to accomplish their specified goals. There are some issues that are related to the leadership in the firm such as trust, communication, transparency, team building, motivation and so on.

According to the report of CIPD it is stated that there are only 23% employees who are engaged with the organization (CIPD, 2017). The employee engagement is based on the salary, rewards, proper guidance from the leader and so on. According to the Brad Shuck, Rocco and Albornoz, (2011) in every organization there are different types of people such as engaged, not engaged and actively disengaged. Engaged workers are more highly involved or committed in the objectives of the firm and they don't want to leave their job. Not engaged employees are focusing on their tasks rather than overall objectives of the enterprise. On the other hand, actively disengaged workers are highly negative people in the entity and they increases the cost of the company due to their law quality work. Employee engagement is directly related to the productivity of the organization. If engagement is get increased than quality of work is also get increased. On the other side, if staff members are not highly involved then it will lead towards the low productivity and low revenue (Why Employee Engagement is Important. 2015).

Employee Engagement

Relationship among employment and productivity, 2017

The significance of employee engagement can be measured on the basis of their performance in the organization so that they can achieve their objectives. There is higher competition in the environment, so it is a challenge for the firm to get success in the country. Leadership styles are not only used to improve the growth of the company but it is also used to maintain the relations among a leader and their followers. If this relationship get improved than the trust and an effective communication can be build among the workers and their superior. When this communication gap get reduced then the level of satisfaction will get enhanced in the people who are working in the company. As per the view point of Anitha, (2014) he said that through the employee engagement the airline industry will be able to improve their quality services and they can offer these quality services to the customers so that their satisfaction level can be increased. Through the effective engagement, all workers will be able to improve their performance and through this their job satisfaction can be increased.

Mone and London, (2014) argues that transformational leadership is a type of style that is followed by the leaders of the airline industry. This is highly linked with the job satisfaction and motivation of the employees as well as it also increases the engagement of workers in the firm. In this type of leadership style, leaders works with their followers and increases their morale so that they feel satisfied while doing the work at the firm. As per the given case when management follow bureaucratic style in the airline industry then it will lead towards the poor relations among employees and their relations with their superiors. Through this, they will not be able to provide quality services to their customers so their brand image is also get decreased. Along with this, the enterprise will not be able to gain the competitive advantage on the basis of their cost cutting strategy because some of the cost cannot be controlled by the firm such as fuel and airport charges.

According to the author Mone and London, (2014) he said that line managers have to play an important role in the firm so that their day to day activities and operations can be managed in an efficient manner. They have to make the strategies, set the targets, decision making and implementation of the policies so that overall goals can be accomplished. As per the view point of Fairlie (2011), all managers are actively involved in the team work of their department so that morale of group members can be enhanced and they get the right direction in order to accomplish the task. Line managers can also increase the satisfaction and commitment among the workers that will lead towards the success. Along with these, the manager have to face many challenges while working in a airline industry such as poor relations among all the co-workers.

Motivation and leadership affect on the company

According to Shuck and Herd (2012), trust is a factor that can build a strong relationship among all employees so that problems get reduced and overall performance can be improved. Trust is related to the beliefs, values and attitude of the workforce towards the company and their culture. Role of leadership is also important for the engagement of employees, leader should maintain a proper communication with employees, a good culture should be maintained. Proper coaching to the managers should be provided and good relationship must be maintained for the engagement of employees. Leaders should know their staff or followers that is key for employee engagement, there should be a clarity of goals and actions so that the workload will not hinder employees and they can get engaged in their work. In this way leadership can be helpful for employee engagement in an organisation that will increase productivity as well. Along with this, it is related to the intrinsic motivation of the members. So, the industry focuses on the trust factor in order to improve the relationship among all the people who are working as a team at the workplace.

If this type of environment is created then all staff members will feel comfortable for performing their work and they will be able to accomplish their pre specified goals. Mishra, Boynton and Mishra, (2014) suggest that workers engagement can be increases on the basis of proper and clear communication among all the employees. It is a kind of tool that is used by the enterprise so that all managers can communicate with their internal stakeholders. Some of the strategies are followed by the managers in the firm so that overall performance can be improved at the workplace and outside the business environment. Practices are conducted by the high authority are meetings, email, training, visual display and so on (Role of a Leader. 2017).

As per the given case of airline industry, they are also conducting some of the strategies in the firm in order to improve their overall growth and their position in UK market. They proposed a plan such as pulling people first that explains that if an employee feel comfortable with own in the airline industry then they can deal with the different kind of people. Through this, the firm will be able to offer quality services to their customers and along with this their satisfaction level is also increased. The manager of the entity also believes in the two way communication because this can provide an opportunity to the people to place their own ideas in front of the top management. Through this campaign, the company will be able to get the reviews of their customers and change the policies as per the need of the service users. Along with this, sense of belongingness can be enhanced among all the users of the company and due to the self esteem trust can be build that will remove all the communication gap.

Shuck and Reio Jr, (2011) stated that it is the responsibility of the leader to develop the core competencies of the employees so that they can achieve their own objectives. There are many employees who are leaving the job due to the lack of motivation. The airline industry provide training and development program to their workers so that they will be able to enhance their knowledge, experience and attitude towards the work. Mangers can motivate their staff so as to engage employees in work, they can increase pay, raise in pay increase 30% of performance, redesigning of job raise 17% performance, setting of goals raise 16% performance, participation of employees in setting goals improve 1% of performance. Along with the new employees, all existing staff members can also update their core competencies so that customers will be able to get the quality services. As per the view point of Bal, Kooij and De Jong, (2013) organization should provide an opportunity to their workforce so that they can develop their own learning abilities. Through self learning and self audit, they will be able to know about their strength and weaknesses. On the basis of these, they can enhance their knowledge and skills.

According to the view point of Sonenshein and Dholakia, (2012) the enterprise can use these models and theories in order to increase the motivation of the workers. Apart from theories and models, organizations can also conduct training and development in their business environment. Through this, all employees will be able to perform their tasks in an efficient manner so that their overall objectives can be improved. In this method, workers can ask for their queries and enhance their skills. Further, case studies can be given to the people and they have to solve these through their experience so that overall performance can be improved. In order to provide the training and development, the airline industry have to plan their budget so that they can generate more revenues.

Findings

Wollard and Shuck, (2011) says that leader should be their in the organization because they can lead an enterprise towards success. They can provide guidelines and directions to their followers so that they will be able to perform their task without any confusion. Along with this, manager has to provide a healthy and safe environment to their staff members then only they will feel comfortable while doing their work. Through this, overall commitment of the workers can be increased towards the British Airways so that they can improve their brand image.

As noted by James, McKechnie and Swanberg, (2011) a leader should focus on these issues then only they can increase the employee engagement in the firm. So, an effective employee relation and leadership styles can improve the overall performance of British Airways. The responsibility of these managers is to recruit the right employee for right job, provide them training so that new workers will be able to know about their work and existing staff members can enhance their core competencies. Feedback should be given to the people who are working in British Airways so that their performance can be improved and they will be able to get the positive reinforcement from their manager. Wang and Hsieh, (2013) says that British Airways can use this approach in order to increase the motivation among all the staff members by identifying their personal and professional demands.

The manager of British Airways using some of the models and theories such as Herzberg, vroom expectancy and Maslows hierarchy. Through this the motivation level of the employees will get increased so their productivity also get enhanced. Saks and Gruman, (2014) suggest that British Airways should develop their plans or programs so that they can identify their future leaders who will lead the firm towards success. Leadership and motivation is very necessary in British Airways so as to increase the employee engagement in a company. Leader of the company should clearly define objectives and goals so that employees should have clear image regarding their description of job, that will eventually engage them in their work if the job description will be clear. Leader should communicate well with their employees to increase trust between them and to discuss their problems. Employees of the British Airways should also be given motivation so that they can work effectively and efficiently. Time to time training programs, performance appraisal, involvement of employees in decision making should be their, so that the employees get motivated and can engage in their work, employees can also be motivated when benefits are given to them that may include medical, home etc. By this way leadership and motivation can be used in organisation to increase employee engagement.

British Airways can use some of the methods in order to trained the workers like they can appoint a trainer who will guide the trainees through presentations. Along with this, they can also give the practical demonstration to their employees as this is an effective method through this they can increases their knowledge and experience.

Theory and practice

According to the view point of Mirvis, (2012) there are many models and theories that are used by the organization so that employees motivation level can be increased. Some of the theories are vroom expectancy theory, Herzberg two factor theory, Maslows motivational theory and so on.

The vroom theory is based on to maximise the profits and minimize the issues that employees have in the firm. This theory also stated that the performance of an employee is based on some factors such as knowledge, experience, skills and so on. This is based on three elements such as valance, expectancy and instrumentality. Valence is related to the emotional needs of the worker such as rewards and incentives. The manager should identify these needs and wants of their staff members so that their motivation level can be increased. It is critically argued by Abraham, (2012) that this theory will take time as they are individually focused on the motivational factors. It is not beneficial for those who have to make long term patterns in order to identify the need of the people who are working in the company.

Another theory is Herzberg two factor motivational theory that is based on the two elements such as motivator and hygiene. Hygiene factors are important for increasing the motivation among all the employees. If these factors are not present in the firm then it will lead towards the dissatisfaction among all the employees. Some of these factors are job security, policies, salary, fringe benefits and relationship among all the co-workers. On the other hand, motivators are related to the rewards, recognition, promotion at workplace and so on. Through these positive satisfaction can be increased among all the staff members. It has been argued by Wang and Hsieh, (2013) that this theory doesn't focus on the situational factors and the blue collar workers.

The theory of maslow is proposed by the Abraham Maslow (1943) who explains the need of the human being at five levels. He stated that these needs are divided into five stages such as physiological, safety, belongingness, self esteem and self actualization. Physiological needs are the basic needs of the employee that can be related to the salary and safety needs are related to the job security, medical insurance in the enterprise. Belongingness are based on the trust and acceptance among all the co-workers. Self esteem is related to the self respect, independence and so on. Self actualization is related to the potential of the employees that can improve the growth of an individual.

It is stated in the case study of British Airways that company is sharing their profits with their staff members in order to motivate them so they will be able to offer quality services to their employees. Along with this, the airline industry also provide an opportunity to their workers that they can place their creative and innovative ideas in front of the management. The enterprise can implement these ideas in order to increase the morale of the people. Robertson, Jansen Birch and Cooper, (2012) stated that rewards and incentives can be given to the employees so the satisfaction among them can be increased. The manager can provide the reward to the workers for their ideas that they are given to the top management and their performance. Along with this, incentives can be given to the people who do overtime or work hard than any other employees in the organisation. Through these, the entity can ensure their quality work and productivity as well as they will be able to sustain their competitive advantage at the marketplace.

According to the view point of Shuck and Reio Jr (2011), he said that if motivation level is get increased of the employees then through this turnover and absenteeism can be decreased. They can improve their growth in the market and they can retain their excellent workers in the enterprise. Further, they can increase the employee engagement in the company.

Conclusion

From the above mentioned report it has been concluded that employees engagement can be measured through their performance. Shuck and Reio Jr, (2011) says that employee engagement is related to the involvement and commitment of the workers towards the companies goals. Engaged staff members can help the enterprise in accomplish their objectives and disengaged people are less productive. As per the view point of Wollard and Shuck, (2011) leadership play an important factor in increasing the motivation among all the workforce. Leaders are the one who can lead the company towards success and they have to adopt a style as per their capability so overall performance of British Airways can be improved.

On the basis of the finding it can be concluded that some of the theories such as Malow, Herzberg are used by the organization so that their overall motivation level can be increased. Along with this, rewards and incentives should be given to the workers by British Airways so that turnover and absenteeism can be decreased in the firm. Through this, the manager can retain their employees in the firm so that they can sustain their competitive advantage. The motivation and leadership affect the engagement of the employees in the organisation. British Airways provide focuses on the leadership styles so that all employees satisfaction can be enhanced and that will lead towards the success.

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