Sample of International Human Resource Management Approaches
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The human resource department of any organization serves as the hub which controls all the activities that take place in the institution. Many scholars in many parts of the world point out that an active and a fully functioning human resource department serves to safeguard the heritage and success of the institution. The human resource management department in many institutions has faced great strides in their developmental stages. It implies that most firms have embraced modern approaches on their view about the functions of the human resources. Additionally, the transformation has not experienced a uniform change in the global market. Based on various assessments, it is evident that some countries or organization have complex and well-managed human resource departments as compared to other firms which are still struggling with the incorporation of the modern human resource management system. Hence, this paper seeks to check on the various approaches to human resource management practiced in the west as compared to other parts of the world.
The existing human resource management has been mandated with various tasks that enable it to maintain the level of the institutions. The department has various tasks that it undertakes touching on the management, the employees as well as consumers. On the part of the employees, the human resource department in almost all institutions has the mandate of training, recruiting and recommending the specific type of employees to be employed in the institution. This implies that the human resource is in charge of the activities of the employees operating in any established firm. On the part of the management, the human resource management serves the advisory role to the practices that the firm should engage themselves in at all times. This implies that the human resource traditionally collects data from all corners of the institution and reports back to the management to ensure they carry out all the proposed implementations. On the part of the consumers, the department plays a huge role in determining the type of good that fully satisfies the consumer’s utility level. They also collect useful data on what the consumers think should be changed in the institution. All these are the defined roles of the human resource department as they are conventionally accepted.
Human resource management approaches summarized in many theories. Many scholars have subdivided the approaches into traditional approaches and the modern approaches which mainly focus on the various workplace activities. A common example is an approach proposed by Owen which stipulates the importance of maintaining a utopian workplace environment. This model of human resource management mainly focuses on the importance of providing a conducive environment for the workers by offering them optimum working conditions. Owen is remembered in the management field because as a sound manager who understands the needs of the employees then the institution is bound to make more progress and gain more success in the global market. The approach further seeks to reduce the suffering of the working class and a lot of burdens is imposed to the managers when ensuring that all the key elements of the firm adequately administered.
Owen’s approach mostly touches on the importance of improving the working conditions of the workers in a workstation. The successful Scottish businessperson was able to own a factory at the age of eighteen and thus offered him more time and experience to learn the approaches of improving the welfare of the workers. His first attempt in leadership championed for the abolishment of child labor. Robert perceived child labor as a vice which degraded the employees in the sense that the children have no voice to air their grievances when they are discriminated or treated wrongly in the workplace. From recent studies, it is evident that this approach is a common approach that the managers can employ in their workforce. The employment of persons who have exceeded a certain age limit and are comfortable addressing issues that affect their position in the institution serves to improve the output of any firm. This mode of western approach of human resource management has spread widely over many countries across the globe. For instance, Nigeria is one of the countries in the world that has initiated strict laws that warn against the employment and exploitation of minors. This type of human resource management approach tends to look directly into the welfare of the workers and how they are supposed to be treated just as Owen explains the concept.
Additionally, the approach also applicable to the hourly charges provided to the workers. The developer of the plan sought to address the issue of overtime and the hourly hours worked by the employees any institution. Additionally, the rate of work should also reflect on many wages that an individual pockets as the salary. The westerners believe on the aspect of translation of the work done to the amount of money that a person gets. The human resource management of any institution has the mandate of ensuring that the employees working in the firm provided with wages that reflect the amount of work done. Additionally, overtime hours and other side tasks offered to the individuals should also be put to book and all of the catered for without harassment. Robert Owen, the brainchild behind the approach, gives a detailed perspective of how the managers can precisely work to ensure there is a safe work environment between the staff and the management. The welfare of the stakeholders of the firm is an important subject matter which should be provided critical consideration. Just as the study shows, once all the duties rightfully delegated then the firm tends to impact positively in the global market. Hence through this, the business can easily align itself in the world market even when there is a stiff competition that other firms may fear.
Hugo Munsterberg also formulated an approach that can precisely describe the western arrangement of the human resource management. The scholar specifically concentrates his study in the area of industrial psychology which aims at studying the behavioral characteristics of individuals in a workplace setting and identifying ways that can be used to maximize their productivity. The human resource management, as he puts, works to point out the particular area which the organization can check and seeks ways to improve the workers’ productivity. He also goes ahead to impose an emphasis on the importance of industrial efficiency. He describes industrial efficiency as the scientific study of the human behavior and highlighting the key elements of human behavior that can be assessed thus increasing the overall productivity of the staff in the organization. Hugo suggests the use of psychological tests and measures to determine the extent of staff productivity and the importance of encouraging development and training among the staff members which consequently increases the ability of the team to be more innovative and productive. The aspect of psychology also points out on the importance of motivating the workers to be affectionate of the tasks which they have been delegated to carry out diligently. The study of the behavior and the type of motivation can be scientifically measured, and the results that bring out the highest percentage can be applied thus, in the long run, elevate the status of the company. This practice will help to determine the ability of each and every individual in the company, and thus the management can be able to identify the fields which every person can produce the optimum output.
The westernized form of human resource has affected a lot of functioning bodies around the world. Many firms around the world try to emulate the specific practices practiced in America which includes the renegotiation of power in the sense that the employees and the management have almost equal say to the major decisions made about the company’s future. This venture has been successful with most firms in America, and thus other businesses in China have started adopting this form of administration. The major goal of this idea is to include inclusive in the activities of the firm thus making each member of the group feel part of the entire process of administration. By embracing this mode of administration, there has been a significant improvement in the manufacturing sector in most Chinese companies. A solid example is the electrical assembling industry in China which has invested hugely in the innovativeness of the employees to ensure employees. The effort has been successful through the constant training given to the workers thus ultimately elevating the
Furthermore, the knowledge gathered in the psychological analysis can be used in other fields in the company by the management. This approach of the human resource is termed as a modern approach as all the abilities of the staff are assessed thus reducing the cases of outsourcing (Boxall, 2003, pg.56). The approach by the human resource management works in agreement with the interests of the administration with an aim to produce the best out of the little resources that are at the disposal of the management. Large firms in the Western regions choose this approach in assessing the human power they have, nurture their talent and make them understand the philosophy of the firm. In such instances, the staff also gets motivation bearing in mind that the firm recognizes them as an important hub that dictates the development of the activities in the institution (Boxall, 2003, pg.45). The level of motivations can also be increased by the incorporation of other measures in the management fraternity. Motivation among the staff can be increased through the provision of handouts as well as rewarding the highest performing team members. A frequent motivation of the workers serves to ensure the staff will remain loyal to the operations of the firm and thus reducing the number of workers being outsourced by other firms. Large companies like Price water House Coopers is an example of a business that has a reputable success as a result of their fully functioning and operational human resource management. The mode of operation has been emulated by other leading firms in the world, for instance, the Michellin Company whose workers are viewed as one of the best-paid workers in the world.
Another approach to the human resource management was developed by Mary Parker Follet who specifically concentrated on the area of management. The scholar viewed the management of any organized institution as an individual oriented or as a group setting depending on the behavior they choose to partake. Being a social philosopher, Mary Parker Follett was able to view the orientation of management beyond the scientific view. She views the human resource management as a very important cornerstone in the development of the ideas and agendas of the firm. This implies that the human resource department acts as a hub that propels or channels all the efforts of the firm towards the optimum success of the activity they involve themselves. She argues that individual effort remains individual effort up to a point it is applied in a group and its magnitude harnessed to improve the functionality of the institution. The theory suggests that the human resource department works as a single unit but the overall decisions are arrived at as a single entity. This argument translates to the fact that the manager acts as a unit whose work is to harmonize the activities of the group but the decisions are made ultimately through agreements with the individual ideas presented. She goes further to explain the success of the institution to be guaranteed then the managers and the staff should view themselves as partners and thus nobody is superior over the other in the typical setting. This will provide room for regular interaction, and thus there will be a swift exchange of information and ideas targeted to increase the productivity of the firm.
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Follet points out that the managers have the sole responsibility of ensuring they can coordinate the operations of the firm. The manager should make sure he or she can bring to task both parties constituting both the management and the staff (Bryson, 2003, pg.87). It can help to ease the flow of information in the workplace, and either party can easily access the channels of communications. These humanistic ideas tend to reflect on the aspect of superiority or inferiority that the members in a workplace setting may experience. The western companies have adopted all these elements. All these workplace ethics also provide a conducive environment where the employees can feel comfortable to while carrying out their duties. The approach has also spread to other parts of the globe, and other companies have adopted the same criteria in the administration of their activities.
It is vital to note the traditional approaches to the human resource management are rarely in use in the current generation. This is due to the fact the conventional methods were mostly one-sided and tended to infringe the rights of the common employees. It implies that the managers were provided with the longer arm while carrying out the operations of the firm. Additionally, it is vital to note that the human resource department has had massive reforms up to the current generation (Bryson, 2004, pg.98). This implies that the human resource management plays the overall role of overseeing all the activities in the institution. One of the modern approaches carried out by the human resource is the recruitment of workers. The human resource has the mandate of carrying a critical and background check on all employees to be hired in a firm. It implies that the human resource management has to check on the merits and the qualifications that a potential employee has to own. Many companies in the Western areas tend to take into account all the essential requirements of an individual so as to ensure they employ a competent individual. Quality employees ensure that the status of the company will be elevated to the required level. It also became a common trend in most firms around the world, and all these activities carried out by this department. The standard approach has been emulated by many companies in various parts of the world for instance in Brazil, Nigeria among other states.
As Hahn (2009) puts it, various case studies have proved that economically independent states like China and the UK make use of diverse human resource strategies with the aim of improving the status of the companies. The manufacturing factories in China have embraced the Western approach to human resource, and furthermore, the firms have also outsourced other measures from other states not located on the Western sides. By checking of the worker’s payroll, the working hours and the awarding of hardworking employees are part of the initiated measures mainly concentrated on the well-being of the firm as the priority. A similar case is also experienced in firms in the UK where the aspect of managerial superiority given priority (Hahn, 2009). Though the management is considered superior, the employees’ welfare is also put into consideration in the long run.
The human resource department also acts as risk regulation channel as one of the practices. Thus when it comes to risk assessment, it will mean that the human resource management should ensure it has enough funds that can act as security when the need arises. Any institution or company should not let its employees under the bus by exposing them to conditions that are severe knowing well they might be unable to stand on their own. The patients, as well as the staff, consume meals made from the hospital. As a result, the chef should be conversant with the guidelines set up within the kitchen on the means of meal preparation and all the minor details that are to be observed to the letter. The concept of risk assessment is important as it is might also be a disadvantage as professions might be too safe on their job lines that they avoid risks which might be of benefit too. For instance, it’s believed that prominent persons can remain calm and excel in the face of stress and impossible conditions. Most prominent individuals are believed to be able to improvise in the face of adversity and succeed in their endeavors (Hahn, 2009). All these factors are guided by a normal functioning human resource department.
The human resource management also has the responsibility of marketing the activities of the institution. It implies that the human resource department of any firm serves as the selling point of the firm in the sense that it advertises its existence to the entire world. The department has to ensure that it comes up with an added advantage that ensures they can convince the public to work with them. Additionally, it is also wise for the department to improvise mechanisms that will promote good relations between the firm and the society by ensuring the positive externalities outweigh the negative externalities. The voice of the employees is protected by the approach that the firm chooses to engage in, with the aim of improving the welfare of the individuals. The human resource department is also perceived as the body that maintains sanity and a sense of balance amongst the people in any institution setting. The department protects the well-being of the workers but does not give them superiority over the managers of the firm.
In comparison to other thriving economies, the American economy is ranked as the most advanced state, and all the credit attributed to the good operational human resource management. They are the core reason as to why the economy is flourishing thus surpassing other states like China and the UK. Therefore, it is advisable that other states in the world should adapt the Western methods of human resource management in an attempt to improve their economies (Bryson, 2004). The methods used by the western countries are applicable and are specific when applied to the goals and aims of the companies. The Chinese firms specifically can benefit from the use of such prospects to run their activities thus ensuring they succeed in the long run.
In conclusion, the different human resource approaches all aim to improve the workability and the efficiency of operations in the firm. It implies that the department serves to promote the level of services that the firm can carry out effectively. The incorporation of both the traditional and the modern forms of human management will automatically dictate the overall success of the institution. The approaches tend to provide the human resource practices the ability to elevate the status of any company easily. The conventional approaches entail both the traditional and the modern methods mixed carefully to ensure the best output is derived out of the two approaches. Therefore managers have the mandate of gathering knowledge from every source and in the long run determining the most suitable channels to adapt with the aim of favoring all the parties which are contained in the institution.
Boxall, P. F., & Purcell, J. (2003). Strategy and human resource management. Basingstoke: Palgrave MacMillan.
Butler, P. (2005). Non-union employee representation: exploring the efficacy of the voice process. Employee Relations.
Bryson, A. (2004). Managerial Responsiveness to Union and Nonunion Worker Voice in Britain. Industrial Relations.
Dundon, T., Wilkinson, A., Marchington, M., & Ackers, P. (2004). The meanings and purpose of employee voice. International Journal of Human Resource Management.
Garcia-Alonso, M., &Raybould, A. (December 01, 2014). Protection goals in environmental risk assessment: a practical approach to human resource management. Transgenic Research : Associated with the International Society for Transgenic Technologies (istt).
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