The particular section is most important part of the thesis. This is referred to as literature review. It is considered as the most crucial section. In this part the opinions as well as views of analysts with respect to specific investigation are demonstrated. The data in the particular section is being collected by means of secondary sources which acts as basis with which further investigation is being conducted. Thus through the assistance of literature review gap is the researches by authors is past is being assessed. Apart from this the chapter critically makes evaluation of the views of researcher in brief manner. Therefore such acts as an aid in building stronger theoretical base for the subject matter in the investigation. In the present thesis review of literature would involves analysis of impact of reward system on the employee's performance. Further it involves the factors that affects the compensation of the employees. This further affects the productivity as well as efficiency of the business to a greater extent.
Explore the concept of reward system and its importance
Reward is regarded as the thing which is being given to any individual as he has made contribution to the business. In accordance with the views of Allen and Kilmann, (2001) rewards and incentives assist in contributing towards towards the implementation of the strategy through shaping of individual behavior within the business. It has been assessed that well designed system of reward is consistent with goals of the business, its vision and job performance. Reward that is being gained by the person is in form of pay. In managerial term reward is regarded as the total return that is being given by the employee to the personnel in order to render the services towards the objectives of the business. It is considered as the return from the work. As per the views of Armstrong and Stephens, (2005) it has been assessed that every individual desires towards gaining the return from the business before getting involved in any kind of activity that is related with the business. This is referred to as reward. It acts as an aid in attracting the attention of the worker and also inspires them in performing the task in an effective manner. Further a reward is pay off for the performance that is directly related with the motivation level as well as job satisfaction.
It has been assessed that reward management within the firm assist in motivating and retaining the personnel at workplace. It is important aspect of HRM as well designed reward system would result in increasing the productivity as well as satisfaction among the personnel. Further reward management is the procedure of creation, implementation as well as controlling an effective system of reward within the organization that assisting in maintaining as well as bringing improvement in the performance of the firm. In accordance with the views of Buller and McEvoy, (2012) it has been gained that reward management is considered critical aspect of human resource management that is revolving around designing as well as execution of suitable pay system. This system acts as an aid in enhancing the performance of business and increase the motivation level of the employees at work. Rewards management is regarded as the motivational practice which the organization use for rewarding the personnel in order attain success. The firm is engaged in setting goals as well as make establishment of the rules for its personnel in order to comply with so as to attain those targets. It ensure that personnel have clearly understanding of the goals, rules as well as rewards so that they can get higher performance. All the personnel complies with similar type of reward system.
In the present era people have the tendency that they do not remain in the job for longer period of time. Every time a new employee is being recruited the firm is spending greater amount in recruitment as well as training which can have spent in any other activity. By possessing good reward system assist in keeping the personnel happy, as well as loyal towards the organization. This has greater role in increasing the trust of the employees towards the business to a greater extent (Chang, 2016). The reward such as public recognition as well as additional pay provides greater motivation to the personnel in working harder. There is greater importance of reward system. This is comprised of retaining the personnel. Along with this it offers greater attraction for the new employees. Further the reward management has importance in avoiding the cost of hiring as well as training to the personnel.
In addition to this it has effectiveness in creation healthy working environment. Moreover it assist in encouraging positive attitude as well as behavior. Thus the work performance can be carried in an effective manner. In accordance with the views of Rees and Smith, (2014) it has been assessed that reward makes the personnel more likely to seek for the advancement. This has greater effectiveness in increasing the strength of the image of the organization. An important part of the procedure of the management is towards giving proper attention towards effective utilization of resources. Human resource management is one of the important part of management strategies as it has significant role in increasing the performance of the business. In the present era there is presence of wide number of methods that can assist in influencing and motivation the personnel in an effective manner.
Different types of reward system
Rewarding means valuing the employees hard work and offering them motivation in other ways. This should be done by every organization in turn of getting the good production. Its very important part of the business that should be done very month. If the employee is given proper direction towards the achieving the target it becomes easy to them. Company can also give employee of the month to encourage other employees and increase the productivity.
There are many different systems of rewards which include:
Intrinsic versus extrinsic rewards
Financial and non-financial rewards
Performance based rewards
Team based reward
Employee of the month
In team based reward are the rewards which are given on the bases of the total performance by the team or the group done to achieve the goals in the uplifting of the business (Renwick, Redman and Maguire, 2013). The incentives and rewards are likely the yield of approaches to performance that can be more effective in reaching the shared success. When a organization keeps competition in the teams then the teams also start to work hard and achieve the goals according to the results.
This is the increment in the salary for the employees that makes them satisfied and valued in the organization. Its also increases the enthusiasm of the person by awarding them in different ways according to their needs. If organization will think about them then he employees will also think about the business production. Its a type of extra money given to the employees. If the person is working hard then their give the title of good faith as a bonus.
Employees are given cash as rewards which keeps them motivated and encouraged. Organization pays awards in cash so that the employees can use then according to their use. In case the personnel is being rewarded financially for their performance then this is referred to as financial reward. Such kind of reward related with enhancing the financial well being of the personnel. In accordance with the views of Rose, (2014) it acts as an aid in fulfilling the basic and other need of the personnel. Therefore it is regarded as most significant as well as effective tool for motivation. Financial reward includes profit sharing, paid leave, salary and wages, bonus, pension, gratuity, insurance facility, accommodation as well as participation in the share of the organization.
Non financial reward-
These are referred to as the reward that are not related with the financial matter. Such are referred to as non financial reward. It has been assessed that financial reward does not always offer greater motivation to the personnel. Such kind of reward are not relating with the economic well being. It is important for the business to make suitable combination of financial as well as non financial reward. Non financial reward is comprised of favorable work environment, attractive position, responsibility of choice, work autonomy as well as job security etc.
The rewards are associated with the internal satisfaction of the personnel in order to carry out best performance that is being perceived from their side which is referred to as intrinsic reward. Such kind of reward is experienced by the employee perceived from the result of their job performance (Jiang and et. al., 2012). This kind of reward is not related to what the business is offering to the personnel. This kind of reward is one that cannot be seen or touched. This kind of reward possess following which includes interesting job, challenging job, job rotation, job autonomy, career development opportunity, participation in the decision making, shorter working hour as well as flexible hours of working etc.
This is referred to as the kind of reward that is received by personnel from external source. Salary, wages, bonus, recognition, praise, promotion are being offered by the business for the job performance. Such reward possess physical appearance and can be touched, felt as well as seen by personnel. This kind of reward affects many employees, special attention needs to be offered when making development of provision in relation with the extrinsic motivation.
Analysis of the impact of reward on employee's performance
Rewards are the types of motivation given to the employees and make then encouraged so, that their can do the work effectively with the hard work. Employees feel valued by which their think that organizations is seriously take care of their development and career. So, only these rewarding system is done for them which also makes feel them satisfied in the workers level. Every employees have different needs of the rewards like some people consider cash, shopping coupons, incentives may include holidays, car, house. There are two rewards basis that are financial and non financial, used in utilizing positive performance of the employees. Job, promotion, commissions, bonus, gifts are some of the pay for performance of the employees that are included in financial rewards. Appreciations, social recognition, work kind conditions that are included in the non financial rewards. There are some non material rewards like- intrinsic and extrinsic are the impacts on the employees performance. Overall satisfaction on the job are the increased rewards (Adam and Epel, 2007).
Motivation is the most important word in every ones life, it plays a encouraging part. Every employee needs encouragement to be motivated and perform at the best level to meet the goals of the business. Rewards which the individuals receives on the best work done by them and its the part of understanding motivation. To retain the high performance in the organization the rewards system should be effective, according to the productive. Many searches are done on the relationship between employees motivation and rewards. Policies and procedures are make by the organization to improve performance of the employee by formulating reward system, that will increase the motivation and employees satisfaction.
Organization must seriously pay attention to the performance of the employees and to keep them performing at the better level, they must introduces systems of rewarding that will also make them feel valued. If employees are motivated, monitored in performance, managed then that is also called as rewarding good performance. Employees attitudes and behavior are influenced positively by the strategies of rewards and recognition that are very meaningful.
Its very much necessary to every organization to keep the employees motivated and encouraged so that their will hard by they own efforts to reach the targeted goals. People should be motivated to do the task given to them (Di Chiara and Bassareo, 2007). If the employees are motivated by the rewards system then automatically the production will increase in the organization. Employees just needs appreciation for the hard work that keeps them engaged in achieving the targets for the success of business. To measure the the employees performance the company uses appraisals as the tools in order to achieve the goals.
This system helps to improve the performance in the organization as well as to full fill the objectives of the business. Objectives such as enhancement of employees performance to succeed in the levels of productivity and cost control of labours. To improve the employees performance the organization must organize different training sessions and then do the assessments according to the paying attentions. There is a very strong relationship between pay and the employees (Tsujino and Sakurai, 2009). If employees are motivated then the productive will increase and by that sales will go high of the product in the market. Every employee is measured on the bases of their performance and should be awarded accordingly and their must be given feedback also.
When the feedbacks are given to the employees their will try to improve the weak points and achieve the desired goal. Its very important for every person working in any business.
Rewards for the performance are as follows:
Increase in pay
Effective reward are the significant factors in the success of the organization. Motivated employees work at high level in the productivity and the business run more effectively and efficiently to reach at the targeted goals (Armstrong and Stephens, 2005). As a result of employees performance the rewards are the positive outcomes because the rewards are aligned with the organization goals. Rewarding means paying something good to the person over the performance and keep the motivation alive to work hard. Paying awards in return is called as rewards.
Factor influencing the employee compensation
The compensation can be monetary as well as non monetary that is being given to the personnel in return of the work that is being done by the firm. The compensation is in form of salaries as well as wages. There is presence of various internal as well as external factors that affects the compensation of the employees. There is presence of factors that affects the compensation among the personnel. It is comprised of internal as well as external factors. Such have been enumerated in the manner stated as under:
Ability to make payment:
Big companies can make payment of higher compensation in comparison with competing business. However small companies can make efforts to maintain their pay scale to the level of competing business or sometimes it is below the level of industry.
In accordance with the views of Allen and Kilmann, (2001) it has been gained that strategy of the business affects the compensation of the personnel. In situation when the organization needs skilled workers in order to get an edge over competitors. Thus in this regard they would make more payment in comparison with others. However in case the organization wants to go smooth and is able to manage with existing workers then it would offer lesser pay to what other are paying.
Job evaluation as well as performance appraisal: The evaluation of job assist in having satisfactory differential pay for the varied kind of jobs. The appraisal of performance assist the personnel in getting extra return based upon the their performance.External factors
Cost of living:
It has been assessed that cost of living index also affects the compensation of the personnel. This is in the manner that with the enhancement or fall in general price level the customer price index, the wage or salary also varies to a greater extent.
In accordance with the views of Tsujino and Sakurai, (2009) it has been examined that demand for and supply of labor affects the compensation of the personnel. The low wages is offered in case there is existence of lesser demand in comparison with labor supply. In contrast to this higher pay has been fixed in case the demand is greater as compared with the supply of labor.Labor laws: The labor union in power affects the plan of compensation of the business. The labor union are being developed in situation when the demand is greater and the supply of labor is less or engaged in the dangerous work. Therefore the require greater amount of money in order to carry out their life with greater ease.
There is increase in the compensation with the enhancement in the production. Thus for the sake of earning more the employees are required to work on their efficiences that can result in improving the ways of factors that is beyond the control. The introduction of the new technology, sound management tools are considered as some factors that can result in better employee performance.
Following the literature review section another part of thesis is research methodology. It is regarded as the manner in which the solution to particular issue under investigation can be determined. Under methodology several tools are being used in attaining evidence as well as making analysis for the sake of responding towards the research questions. In the present dissertation that intends at analyzing the impact of reward system on performance of employee the selection of methodology has been done in an appropriate manner. The fundamental methods which are utilized within the research have been presented. Along with this the reasons because of which they are being utilized is also involved within this section. The researcher has made utilization methods for gathering and analysis of the information that reflects the opinions of the personnel of organization.
The concept of research philosophy is referred as developing the research background, its nature as well as knowledge of the investigation. It includes the factors like several perception and beliefs that personnel possess in relation to reality. It is comprised of the manner in which the varied aspects are looked in different manner by several individuals. There is presence of two kinds of research philosophies (Guercini, 2014). This is comprised of positivism as well as interpretivism. For the present thesis on analysis of impact of reward system on the performance of employees positivism research philosophy has been employed. This is due to the reason that it has an objective of carrying out investigation on the employee's behavior in natural environment. Therefore through this philosophy is being utilized by the analyst as it lay emphasis on the objectivity rather than subjectivity of the issue under investigation.
Research approach is regarded as the way through which the investigator carry out the investigation in further direction. It is regarded as the plan that result in increasing the validity of the investigation. There is presence of two kind of research approach. Such is comprised of inductive as well as deductive approach. For the present thesis on impact of reward system on performance of employees deductive approach is being employed. This is due to the reason that the reason that it is concerned with deduction of the conclusion from the premises or propositions. Such approach is suitable for the particular investigation as it lay emphasis on reasoning from general to specific (Hill, 2007). There is greater suitability in using deductive approach under this as researcher explores known theory in relation to reward in this situation. Along with this validity of particular theory is being tested in order attain better knowledge regarding whether it demonstrates the purpose for which the present study is being carried out.
It is considered as important aspect of the investigation. It is regarded as the entire strategy which is being chosen for the sake of integrating the several components of research by the researcher in logical way (Purposes of Research: Exploratory, Descriptive & Explanatory, 2014). It ensures that issue in the investigation is addressed with greater effectiveness. Therefore the research design is considered as the blue print which is being utilized in order gather, interpret, analyze as well as measure the information. The varied types of research design involves descriptive, exploratory as well as explanatory. For the present thesis that aims at analyzing the impact of reward on employee performance descriptive research design has been employed (Hogg, 2008). This is due to the reason that it is being used towards offering description of characteristics of population which needs to be studied.
Therefore such is appropriate in order to determine the impact that reward system has on enhancing the performance of the personnel. Descriptive research is required to possess lower requirement for internal validity. Descriptive research design is being utilized in order to address the answers to question that includes who, how, where, what and when. It is regarded as statistical investigation. Such research design is considered highly accurate.
These play an important role in carrying out research in an effective manner. Research methods are for two types that is qualitative and quantitative. Qualitative research deals with exploration of issues as well as understanding of phenomenon. It offers answers to the questions by makes analysis and sense of unstructured data. Such type of research utilizes in depth studies. The results gained from qualitative research method is descriptive (Kuada, 2012). On the contrary quantitative research is defined as the systematic investigation of the social phenomenon with the assistance of mathematical as well as statistical techniques. The major objective of the investigation is to classify the features, count and construct the statistical models. Quantitative researches makes use of questionnaires, surveys for the purpose of collecting primary data.
The data collection method is critical stage that needs to be conducted in every investigation. It demonstrates that investigator has made utilization of gathered information which has resulted in attainment of aims as well as objectives of the investigation. Majorly there is existence of two tools with which collection of data can be done. Such is comprised of primary as well as secondary tool of data collection. For the present research on impact of reward system on performance of employees both the methods have been utilized. Primary method is one in which the data is collected in specific manner for the sake of carrying out investigation. In this collection of information is being done for the first time (What Is Primary Data in Marketing Research? - Definition, Sources & Collection, 2014). The methods of primary data collection involves surveys, focus group as well as interview. With this tool better knowledge can be gained regarding the opinions of the personnel. For the present thesis on impact of reward system primary data collection method is being used that includes survey. This has been done by the means of questionnaire technique.
On the other hand the data is also done by means of secondary sources. It is considered as form of primary data which has been collected by any other. This is reused by the investigator in carrying out the investigation. In the present investigation on impact of reward system collection of data has been done through secondary sources as it is less expensive and easier to be collected. It is considered as second hand tool (Kothari, 2011). Under this the scholar makes use of published data. Books as well as published articles of various scholars have been used in order to find accurate result from the investigation. The secondary data is gathered by the researcher through means of government reports, blogs, censuses, journals as well as online. Such is being utilized by the researcher as through this scholar is able to gain exact data that was looked for when making collection of information through secondary sources (Secondary Research – Advantages, 2014). The manger's view in relation to impact of reward system has been attained with effectiveness.
It is regarded as the procedure in which selection of sample is being done in order to assess and test. Sample is considered as small group which is selected from the population in order to collect primary data (Panneerselvam, 2004). For the present thesis on employee performance systematic random sampling method has been employed. This is due to the reason that in this every personnel in firm possess equal chance of being selected. It is regarded suitable as it is simple for use and also is less time consuming as well as involve lesser cost. Biasness is avoided when making selection of sample by means of systematic random sampling tool. The sample size is 10 manager of Asda. These are part of research from whom the data has been collected.
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Following the data collection, analysis of information gathered is necessary. This is for the sake reaching at final outcome. It is considered as another part of thesis in which logical as well as statistical tool are being employed in order to make evaluation as well as interpretation of the data. Analysis of data is categorized into two parts. This is comprised of qualitative as well as quantitative methods (Sobh and Perry, 2006). For the present thesis that aims at analyzing impact of reward system on the performance of employee analysis of the data is being carried out by means of qualitative tool. In this context thematic technique has been applied. With this themes are developed based upon the patterns that are determined across the information. Such has acted as an aid in offering description in relation to the phenomenon. The data collected from the employees is effectively assessed by means of thematic technique as it offers clear understanding regarding the manner in which individual behave as well as the factors that affects the compensation of personnel.
When carrying out the investigation, ethical consideration are crucial aspect that are being taken into account by the researcher. For the present thesis on impact of reward system the emphasis of the researcher is on several important as well as ethical norms:
Approval on prior basis:
For the present thesis approval has been taken on prior basis from the respondents who are working in Asda. This is for the purpose of making sure that none of the employee has been included in the research forcefully. Proper care has been taken in terms that research purpose is explained to all the respondents.
It is important in maintaining the confidentiality of the data. For the present thesis on reward system ethical consideration factor that includes confidentiality is ensured. The respondents were offered with surety that huge privacy of the data has been maintained in relation to the data that has been offered by them.
Proper citation of work: The research work of several authors who carried out investigation in past has been taken in the present investigation. This is for the purpose of gaining better understanding regarding the particular phenomenon under subject matter. The work has been cited in an appropriate manner by researcher. Further the scholar has paid attention regarding the aspect that none of the content has been copied as such instead rephrasing has been done in own words.
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Adam, T. C. and Epel, E. S., 2007. Stress, eating and the reward system.Physiology & behavior. 91(4). pp.449-458.
Allen, R. S. and Kilmann, R. H., 2001. The role of the reward system for a total quality management based strategy. Journal of Organizational Change Management. 14(2). pp.110-131.
Armstrong, M. and Stephens, T., 2005. A handbook of employee reward management and practice. Kogan Page Publishers.
Buller, P. F. and McEvoy, G. M., 2012. Strategy, human resource management and performance: Sharpening line of sight. Human resource management review. 22(1). pp.43-56.
Chang, J.F., 2016. Business process management systems: strategy and implementation. CRC Press.
Di Chiara, G. and Bassareo, V., 2007. Reward system and addiction: what dopamine does and doesn’t do. Current opinion in pharmacology. 7(1). pp.69-76.
Chapter 1: Introduction
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