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Management of A Successful Business Project

30 Pages 7468 Words 5134 Downloads

TASK 1 Project Plan

1. A brief explanation of the proposed topic and why you have chosen it

Globalisation is the procedure through which organisation sells their products and services at worldwide level. This assignment will discuss concept of globalisation and its impact on business activities (Beamish, 2013). John Lewis is taken in this project which is founded in 1864 and its founder is John Lewis. They are serving in United Kingdom and trying to expand business in Asia. Respective investigating project will going to focus on its aims and objectives for the case scenario of John Lewis.  Along with their, scope  which is gained by doing business expansion as well as limitations are facing by same organisation. Furthermore, there is requirement of several resources and cost for continuing research as well work breakdown and Gantt chart is implemented so that project will be managed in effective manner within required time period.

2. An aim and some objectives for your proposed research

Aims of the Project

  • To identify risk and benefits for joint venture while expanding business at global market. A case study on John Lewis.

Objectives

  • To  identify the concept of globalisation.
  • To  analyse the benefits of globalisation for John lewis.
  • To ascertain the major challenges of expanding business at global level.
  • To determine the ways through which John Lewis expand its business at global level.

3. A brief discussion of the scope and limitations of the project

Scope-  

John lewis is expanding its business globally in Asia  which provides many opportunities for them to expand the business and satisfy customers at a large. Project management plan helps the organisation in identifying the impact of globalisation on their business operations. Along with this, it analyses the impact the business will suffer because of the joint venture with other company and helps in proper development and improvement its business activities. Their is a great scope for the company when expanding internationally and earn heavy  revenue for the respective organisation (Boddewyn, 2015). It also helps the firm in determining appropriate methods and techniques which will help  respective organisation in providing efficient services to the customer and start expanding globally which enhances their image in market.

Limitations –

This project is related to John Lewis expansion in Asia, while expanding business in other nations company face various problem. Out of which major is data collection which is necessary for taking reviews of people about their business expansion.

4. Resources and cost considerations

Cost-

Before undertaking the project, cost is an important factor which should be considered by John lewis to expand globally in Asia (Brouthers, Nakos and Dimitratos, 2015). It is necessary to plan effective budgets which helps in managing the cost of the project and their operational requirements. By determining the cost of the project it also helps the organisation to allocate the resources and provide to the employees for the successful completion of project. Their are various types of cost associated such as labour cost, operation cost which needs to be estimated properly when expanding globally or making joint venture with other companies.

Resources-

In order to execute the research research in effective manner, it is very crucial for the manager to properly manage the resources for effective management of John lewis. It requires various types of resources such as human resources , financial resources as well as various tools and technologies are required for carrying business operations. Before undertaking the project resources should be properly analysed and examined to evaluate the impact of globalisation on respective organisation (Buckley and Ghauri, 2015). Resources should b properly used in the organisation so that it doesn't exceeds cost for the production and maintains high level of profit for the business.

5. A Gantt chart or work breakdown structure

Work breakdown structure is the framework in which overall project is divided in small parts so that things can be managed in easy manner. In other words, WBS divide project in easy as well as manageable tasks and most beneficial thing is that it is not restricted for a particular area when it comes to application. Thus, respective methodology can be utilised for any kind of project management. In the digram of work breakdown structure scope of project is graphically represented. Generally, the diagram starts with a graphic object or a box at the top, it express the overall project. Apart from this, there are sub-components below the box and these shows  deliverables of the project. As well Under each and every deliverable sub elements are also listed. Moreover, all these elements must be performed in order for accomplishing deliverables.  Although, mostly Work breakdown diagrams are framed on the basis of their deliveries but there are some which is created on the basis of project phases (Burns, 2016).

Gantt Chart is horizontal bar chart which is introduced with the motive of production control and it gives graphical presentation of schedule which assist in planning, coordination as well as also in tracking particular task within project.


 

 

6. A risk register covering the main risks with the proposed research

 Risk is an inevitable part of the business and when the new project is undertaken there are different types of risk associated with it. In present, business environment risk is directly involved with the result of the plan. While making project management plan manager should consider all types of risk related to finance, social, economic and political aspects to identify the impact on their functional activities (Chesbrough, Vanhaverbeke and West, 2014). In context to John lewis there is large aspect of risk associated with the business as it deals with home-ware, furniture and fashion products for women which needs to carefully addressed when expanding its business in countries like Asia. They have to properly analyse the socio-economic demands of the customers in Asia and supply products accordingly to avoid loss of  business. It also determines the challenges of globalisation as well as the ways through which John lewis is expanding business at the global level.

TASK 2 Research Report

Chapter 1 Introduction

In the complex dynamic business environment, there is a high level of competition which assist the companies to expand their business operations at the global level. So,in order to face such kinds of complex situations, respective company has expanded its business operations in Asia. This project discusses about the John lewis company which is going to expand its business operations across national borders. The present report discusses about the concept of globalisation. Along with this it also discusses the positive impact of globalisation in context to UK as well as discusses the benefits of expanding business globally.

Chapter 2.  Literature Review

Concept of globalisation

Globalisation is a process of interaction and integration among people, companies and government worldwide. It is an expansion of the business which integrates local and national economies into a global and unregulated economy. It is the process of transfer of knowledge, ideas and thoughts in different countries to increase the level of profitability and makes standard goodwill in the market.  Under this method company can sell its product and services across boundaries all over the globe (Cui and Jiang, 2012). This report is going to discuss about the concept of globalisation and its direct impact on business organisations which are expanding internationally and show the impact on the business functions. In this report, John lewis is the chosen organisation which is going to expand its business operations in Asia. It is a chain of high end department stores operating in  United kingdom which trends in home ware, furniture and fashionable clothes for women, headquartered in London, UK. The report will discus about the how the globalisation has impacted the business operations of the respective company. It also shows concept of research methodology and so that of interpretation in order to determine the actual results. It has been analysed that globalisation has made a significant impact on the business organisations which are expanding internationally.

It helps in doing trade of goods and services across the nation al boundaries (Dai, 2014). In context with John Lewis which is providing different product segments such as fashionable clothes for women, home and furniture products which are expanding its business in Asia and facing problems in delivering products and running their business at international level. Therefore, John lewis is focusing on enhancing its business operations and capture larger market share while considering the socio, economic, culture and ethical aspects of the respected country.

Positive impacts of globalisation in general to the businesses in UK.

Their are various positive impact of globalisation in UK which are described as follows-

  • Economic impact- It has increased its chances to adapt to new culture which determines its enhancement in the level of productivity and takes benefit of international trade by removing the trade barriers it has increased the level of profitability and revenue for the respective organisations and increased the economy of the native country.
  • Cultural  impact- When respective organisations are expanding globally and opened the chances of closely bringing the employees together for implementing the business activities in a proper manner. Along with this it also contributes in developing multi cultural working environment for the employees which gives them a sense of accomplishment and motivation in employees to perform the work effectively (Dunning, 2015).
  • Ethical impact- When business expands internationally it is important for the respective business organisations to understand the respective laws, rules and regulations of the respected country. When John Lewis performs its business operations according to the rules and regulations of the respective country in which they are expanding its operations they will be able to fulfil its laws and maintains long term relationship in the market.

Benefits of globalisation for John lewis.

Their are various benefits for the John lewis when expanding its business operations in Asia which are as follows-

  • Free trade-It is a process in which countries  exchange goods and resources with each other and provides wide variety of products to the consumers. In context to John lewis it removes all the trade barriers which helps the respective company to produce its products in Asia and earn huge level of profits. It also creates bigger market of exports for domestic manufactures and provides consumers with greater choice of goods. John lewis doesn't have to bear the cost of various taxes while expanding business and creates high revenue for the business (Eriksson and et.al., 2015).
  • Free movement of labour- Increase in the migration of labour gives benefit to both the workers and the country. In Asia where the respective organisation is going to expand its business operations will create high level of employment in Asia and can increase the scale of productivity in concerned country and able to capture large number of potential customers as well as attain bigger market share.
  • Learning and adapting to new culture- Getting information about the new country and place makes the respective organisation to adapt to the culture of people residing their. This also helps John lewis to produce products according to the culture and attitudes of the people prevailing their which helps them to grasp the new culture and  making the business highly adaptable. It also increases the level of productivity for the respective organisation and can meet high sales target. Respective company can learn and adapt to new culture of Asian countries whose demand in the product changes and the company should produce accordingly in order to satisfy customers.
  • Exposure to foreign investment opportunities- Expanding of business operations of John lewis in Asia helps them to take advantage of the investment opportunities in the expanding country. Their are various investment opportunities available for the business to grow their business as well as can diversify their business activities in order to meet the up the sales target and fulfil customer demands (Gabrielsson and Gabrielsson, 2013).
  • Enhancecompany's reputation- Expanding business globally also helps the business firms to enhance the company's reputation all over the globe. When the products of the domestic country starts making its presence in the global world it makes a good perception on the minds of the customer as well as enhances their market image. In context to John lewis it can start producing its products at the international level and satisfies customer needs over there and makes large presence in the market.

These are the several benefits of expanding the business internationally as it helps the business to gain the benefits of investment and satisfies customer demand which will enhance its market image (Grayson and Hodges, 2017).

Major challenges of expanding business at global level.

Business expansion at global level is good for organisation but along with this, there are several challenges also which faced by John Lewis. Below mention are some major problems through which respective company will go while expanding their business in Asia :-

  • Unfamiliar culture – Every nation have their own culture through which everyone is not familiar and it may be the biggest issue faced by John Lewis while expanding their business in Asia. Thus, it is not necessary that offering of respective organisation will be liked by population of Asian country. So John Lewis have to kept in mind culture, like, dislike, taste and preferences of their target market to overcome with the challenges of unfamiliar culture.
  • Tariffs and Export fees - Severalnations have some type of tariff or fee in monetary for which is charged by the government bodies to organisations while bringing products into their country. John Lewis's owner must have knowledge about all these tariffs so they will consider all these into their financial planning related to business expansion in Asia. Along with this there are some laws given by government and should have to be consider by John Lewis and there are several types of fees depending on the shipping and logistics laws in specific country.
  • Language barriers –Every nation have different language same as Asian countries also when John Lewis expanding their business language is the major challenge faced by them. To overcome with this they have to hire such employees who can communicate in different languages and satisfy present and potential customers(Iles and Martin, 2013). Apart from this, hiring such employees result in expensive for company also.
  • Legal issues – There are various legal frameworks which are required to be followed by the John Lewis in order to assure the smooth running of operations of the respective organisation. As the respective company is planning to expand its operations, there are certain laws such as employment law which is different in every country. Thus, it is important for the managers of John Lewis to assure that the employees are paid according to their standard wages rates. Similarly, there are certain trading regulations that restrict the growth or expansion of John Lewis. Thus, it is important for the company to work according to the regulations that are framed by different countries in order to have long term benefits. Another important legal factor is taxation (Johanson andMattsson, 2015). As every country have different taxation policies and rates which ultimately affects the price of product. Thus, the managers of John Lewis should practice affective price strategies by undertaking these factors in order to assure less costing and more profit share from the market.

Ways through which John Lewis expand its business at global level.

There are several ways through which John Lewis can expand their business in Asia. Explanation of these are as follows :-

  • Merger and Acquisitions – It is the general term which related to the consolidation of organisations assets with the assistance of several financial transactions. Thus, merger is the combination of two enterprises with the motive of forming one, whereas, in acquisition one association taken over by the another. This is also a way which can be used by John Lewis for expanding their business in Asia's market area.
  • Joint Venture -It is an business expansion technique in which two or more companies get agree to pool their resources with the motive of accomplishing particular task. The task may be related to any new project or other business activities. In Joint Venture each and every partner is responsible for profit, losses and cost incur while conducting their activities (Kerzner and Kerzner, 2017). In  JV (Joint Venture) John Lewis can combine a large and smaller organisations to take on one or many big as well as little projects or deals. The joint venture may also be aimed at getting resources which may be difficult in obtaining, such as technology, research and development,  intellectual property and so on.

Chapter 3.  Methodology

When the project  has been undertaken it is vital for the investigator to conduct the research in a proper manner. It will help in execution of business activities by properly interpreting the data. Investigator can get information from different types of sources but they find primary data as the best source to gather information.

Research methodology-  

It is the process used to collect information and data for the purpose of  making business decisions. The data can be collected by different ways such as publication research, interviews, surveys and other techniques which contains both present and past information. Research can be conducted in two ways Qualitative research and quantitative research.

Quantitative data-

It is a data that used to collect the information using conversional methods where participants are involved and ask open-ended questions. It is generally more exploitative type of research that is dependent on the collection of the verbal, behavioural and observation data that can be interpretive in a subjective manner. It is a structured way of collecting and analysing the data obtained from different sources that used to interpret the data found from different sources (Killing, 2013). It involves the use of computation, statistical and mathematical tools to derive the results.

Qualitative data- It is a process where data can approximates and characterizes. This type of is data not numerical in nature. This type of data is collected through method of observations, one-to -one interview, conducting in groups and in similar methods. Data can be arranged  on the basis of attributes and properties of the particular phenomena. Researcher can get real information about the John lewis  product such as of fashionable clothes and home and furniture products.

Data collection- It is the process of gathering and measuring information from the respondents by using several techniques and methods such as primary and secondary sources. In this report investigator is going to use primary sources of data collection which they best for the purpose of undertaking the projec t(Lee and Lee, 2015).

Primary data collection method- Under this method research is conducted using direct methods of collection rather than depending on previously collected data. This method is generally used when depth analysis of the project is undertaken and specifically used for investigator's personal use. Data collected under this method is mainly done by postal surveys, telephone interviews and online surveys. This data is true and fair and doesn't contain any biased information.

Advantages of primary data

  • It provides basic and specific information about the subject on which data is collected
  • Data is more accurate as it is directly collected from population (Lientz and Rea, 2012)
  • Researchers get the most latest and up to date information about the product and the environment.
  • Information is also unbiased as it is directly collected from sample of population.

Disadvantages of primary data

  • Collecting data through primary sources may incur heavy expenditure and takes a lot of time for collection of data.
  • The outcome from the research may not always be feasible.

Secondary research methods- Under this method data is not primarily collected, it involves using of existing secondary data on the internet as well data published in magazines, newspaper and journals are used. It involves lest cost and time for carrying out the research compared to primary methods of data collection. It is the fastest method to analyse the facts and figures effectively. It suffers from few limitations such as data may be biased or irrelevant and sometimes the data collected is outdated which doesn't serve the purpose of investigation.

Questionnaire- It is a set of different questions prepared by the investigator for gaining understanding of the respondents in order to find true outcome of the research (Roll, 2015). In general, it is the research instrument consisting of series of questions for the purpose of gathering information  from respondents.

Sample size- It generally defines number of individuals from the population to know their responses against questionnaire. Investigator has decided to take 30 respondents for conducting the investigation so that proper information can be gathered within specific time frame.

Sampling Method- Under this report, investigator uses random sampling method to gather information within short period of time as well as every individual in the population has an equal chance of being selected in the sample.

Ethical considerations- Data collected under the primary research should be authentic and should follow ethical considerations such as when the investigator collects information about John lewis they should not share the data with the third party in order to make the information real and authentic and use information for proper decision-making by the researchers (Sadgrove, 2016).

 

QUESTIONNAIRE

NAME:

AGE:

ADD:

GENDER:

MAIL ID:

Q1) Are your aware about globalisation concept ?

· Yes

· No

Q2) Does globalisation help John Lewis in expanding business operations at international level ?

· Agree

· Disagree

Q3) Can globalisation assist in providing higher success and growth to John Lewis organisation ?

· Yes

· No

Q4) Elaborate various benefits of globalisation for John Lewis organisation ?

· Increasing income and profitability

· Enhancement in market share

· Acquire competitive benefits

Q5) Can globalisation impact on strategies and policies of John Lewis company ?

· Agree

· Disagree

Q6) What are the risks and challenges faced by firm while expanding joint venture in global market ?

· Political Intervention

· Economical Crises

· Conflicts occurs

Q7) What are different ways through which John Lewis can easily operate and regulate their business operations at international level ?

· Develop effective policies and strategies

· Concentrate on political laws

· Employment opportunities

Q8) Does joint venture can easily survive at global market area ?

· Yes  

· No

Q9) Are you satisfied with the facilities and services offered by John Lewis ?

· Agree

· Disagree

Q10). What are the main advantages of John Lewis for establishing joint venture at another country ?

· Getting better resources

· Access new market place

· Attract large number of customers

Q11). Can globalisation assist in increasing customer base of John Lewis organisation at the time of operating business ?

· Yes

· No

Q12). Is joint venture aid in enhancing business growth and development at global market ?

· Agree

· Disagree

Q13). What are various factors that will affect on joint venture while expanding business in international area ?

· Location

· Appropriate strategy

· External environment

Q14). Do you think expansion of joint venture influences business operations and functions of John Lewis ?

· Yes

· No

Q15). Do you have any suggestions regarding how to identify major risk and benefits for joint venture while expanding business at global market.

Chapter 4. Results Chapter

Theme 1:  Awareness about globalisation concept

Q1) Are your aware about globalisation concept ?

Frequency

· Yes

15

· No

15

Interpretation -

According to the above mentioned graph, it has been analysed that  some people are aware about the globalisation concept and other aspects relate to it and half of the population is not aware. As per the data collected out of 30 respondents  15 individuals have proper information regarding globalisation. On the other hand 15 respondents out of 30 believes that globalisation is not of much importance as it has no access to global reach.

Theme 2: Globalisation help John Lewis in expanding business operations at international level

Q2) Does globalisation help John Lewis in expanding business operations at international level ?

Frequency

· Agree

20

· Disagree

10

Interpretation -

According to the above mentioned graph it has been evaluated that because of globalisation business organisations are able to expand their business operations. From the data collected out of 30 respondents, 20 individuals believes that globalisation helps in expanding business operations and on the other hand 10 respondents are not in favour of globalisation. They see such process a very complex and dynamic in nature and also needs lot of time and for expanding internationally.

Theme 3: Globalisation assist in providing higher success and growth to John Lewis organisation

Q3 Can globalisation assist in providing higher success and growth to John Lewis organisation ?

Frequency

· Yes

25

· No

5

Interpretation -

According to the above interpreted graph out of 30 respondents, 25 individuals are in favour for John lewis company that when it will expand internationally it will be able to attain high growth and success because of meeting large and satisfied consumer demands. But on the other hand 5 respondents out of 30 doesn't believe globalisation as a factor for high growth and development of respective company. They believe respective company can succeed by fulfilling  customer demands.

Theme 4: Benefits of globalisation for John Lewis organisation

Q4) Elaborate various benefits of globalisation for John Lewis organisation ?

Frequency

· Increasing income and profitability

15

· Enhancement in market share

10

· Acquire competitive benefits

5

Interpretation -

According to the above mentioned graphs it has been evaluated that out of 30 respondents , 15 individuals believe that when respective company expands globally its helps them to earn more income and profitability for the business as well as 10 out of 30 believe that globalisation enhances the market share of the respective companies and the remaining 5 respondents believe that it helps to get competitive advantage when expanding business internationally. All the respondents believe that there are different perspective of expanding globally.

Theme 5: Globalisation impact on strategies and policies of John Lewis company

Q5) Can globalisation impact on strategies and policies of John Lewis company ?

Frequency

· Agree

25

· Disagree

5

Interpretation

As per the above graphical representation it has been identified that globalisation process is giving impact on the strategies and policies of John Lewis because out of 30 respondents 25 are in the favour of this. Whereas, remaining 5 are saying that no this don't give impact.

 Theme 6: Risks and challenges faced by firm while expanding joint venture in global market

Q6) What are the risks and challenges faced by firm while expanding joint venture in global market ?

Frequency

· Political Intervention

15

· Economical Crises

10

· Conflicts occurs

5

Interpretation

According to the graphical presentation it has been determined that political intervention is the major risk faced by Joint venture while business expansion. At second level economic cries because out of 30 there are 10 people in the favour of this. But remaining 5 says conflict is the major problem.

Theme 7: Ways through which John Lewis can easily operate and regulate their business operations at international level

Q7) What are different ways through which John Lewis can easily operate and regulate their business operations at international level ?

Frequency

· Develop effective policies and strategies

15

· Concentrate on political laws

10

· Employment opportunities

5

 

Interpretation

According to the above graph it has been identified that effective policies and strategies help John Lewis in operating at international level because out of 30, 15 are in the favour of this. Whereas, 10 are saying that they have to concentrate on political factor and remaining 5 are in favour of employment opportunities.Theme 8: Joint venture can easily survive at global market area

Q8) Does joint venture can easily survive at global market area ?

Frequency

· Yes  

25

· No

5

Interpretation – 

After analysing above graph, it has been analysed that joint venture can easily survive in global market area because 25 people are in the favour of this and remaining 5 are not.

Theme 9: Satisfied with the facilities and services offered by John Lewis

Q9) Are you satisfied with the facilities and services offered by John Lewis ?

Frequency

· Agree

20

· Disagree 

10

Interpretation

According to the above graph it has been determined that maximum people are satisfied with the services of John Lewis because 20 respondents are agree with it. Whereas, remaining 10 are not in the favour.

Theme 10: Main advantages of John Lewis for establishing joint venture at another country

Q10). What are the main advantages of John Lewis for establishing joint venture at another country ?

Frequency

· Getting better resources

5

· Access new market place

15

· Attract large number of customers

10

Interpretation - 

From the above graph it has been stated that 5 respondents are towards getting resources in joint venture. Moreover, 15 respondents are responding that  John lewis will beneficial in getting a new market place in developing their business. Hence 10 respondents are having positive attitude that an organisation will able to attract large number of customer in joint venture.

Theme 11:  Globalisation assist in increasing customer base of John Lewis organisation at the time of operating business

Q11). Can globalisation assist in increasing customer base of John Lewis organisation at the time of operating business ?

Frequency

· Yes

20

· No 

10

Interpretation –  

From the above graphical presentation it has been analysed that, globalisation assist John Lewis in enhancing their customer base and 20 respondents are in the favour of this. Whereas, reaming 10 are saying it will not increase customer base.

Theme 12:  Joint venture aid in enhancing business growth and development at global market

Q12). Is joint venture aid in enhancing business growth and development at global market ?

Frequency

· Agree

25

· Disagree

5

 

Interpretation - From the above stated graph it has been analysed that 25 respondents out of 30 believes that joint venture of John Lewis with other companies helps to aid growth of business and other 5 respondents doesn't favour joint venture.

Theme 13: Factors that will affect on joint venture while expanding business in international area

Q13). What are various factors that will affect on joint venture while expanding business in international area ?

Frequency

· Location

10

· Appropriate strategy

5

· External environment

15

InterpretationsAs per the above graph, it has been analysed that out of 30 respondents 15 are in the favour of external environment which means it is impacting more John Lewis while business expansion. Whereas, 10 are in the favour of location and remaining 5 are saying appropriate strategy is effecting.

Theme 14: Expansion of joint venture influences business operations and functions of John Lewis

Q14). Do you think expansion of joint venture influences business operations and functions of John Lewis ?

Frequency

· Yes

20

· No 

10

Interpretation- From the above stated graph it has been examined that 20 respondents are showing positive response that expansion leads to influence business operations and functions as it become difficult in joint venture. Moreover 10 respondents are showing negative response that expansion will not effect in business operations and function while expansion.

Chapter 5. Conclusions and Recommendations

Conclusion

From the above prepared report, it can be concluded that it is very essential for the respective company to expand their business globally in order to earn high level of profits and revenue. It also provides an opportunity to the enterprise for providing goods and services at the international level thereby improving the efficiency and effectiveness of performing business operations. It also aids an competitive advantage to the respective company to supply its products at the international level and improve the efficiency of different functions. When the business expands its activities at the international level they identifies the need of supplying goods across national borders taking in consideration the cost, risk and the time factors required for expansion of business. This will help in adapting to socio-economic cultural of different countries and improves the overall performance of the company.

Recommendations

From this research it is highly recommended that the management of the John Lewis should properly make a business plan stating the current objectives and plans in order to achieve the desired goals of the organisation. Organisation should determine the level of requirements of funds, time and resources for completing the business activities in a proper manner. John lewis can also expand its business by making joint venture with same segment company in order to make more attractive and branded products for the customers  which also helps in expanding the business operations at the international level. By properly making plans for achieving the desired objectives respective organisation should hire enlightened and skilled work force which has the capacity to take the organisation of heights by generating huge profits.

Chapter 6.  Reflections

On the basis of above described report it is properly analysed that I have made the use of primary as well as the secondary method in collecting the data related to the research topic. The data collected helped me to gain a proper understanding of the concerned topic and enhanced my knowledge. In addition to this, I have used questionnaire method in collecting information about the respondents and helps to provide greater insight towards company products in a proper manner. Along with this research methodology helps in selecting proper research methods and research designs in completing the research project successfully.

References

  • Beamish, P., 2013. Multinational joint ventures in developing countries (RLE international business). Routledge.
  • Boddewyn, J.J., 2015. Political aspects of MNE theory. In The Eclectic Paradigm (pp. 85-110). Palgrave Macmillan, London.
  • Brouthers, K.D., Nakos, G. and Dimitratos, P., 2015. SME entrepreneurial orientation, international performance, and the moderating role of strategic alliances. Entrepreneurship Theory and Practice. 39(5).  pp.1161-1187.
  • Buckley, P. and Ghauri, P., 2015. The internalisation theory of the multinational enterprise: A review of the progress of a research agenda after 30 years. In International Business Strategy (pp. 99-121). Routledge.
  • Burns, P., 2016. Entrepreneurship and small business. Palgrave Macmillan Limited.
  • Chesbrough, H., Vanhaverbeke, W. and West, J. eds., 2014. New frontiers in open innovation. Oup Oxford.
  • Cui, L. and Jiang, F., 2012. State ownership effect on firms' FDI ownership decisions under institutional pressure: A study of Chinese outward-investing firms. Journal of International Business Studies. 43(3). pp.264-284.
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