Introduction to Modern Slavery

In the modern world of today's era, people are becoming more conscious about their human rights. Modern slavery is a concept in which there is an exploitation of the human and their rights. It can be done in any aspect. Although, it is basically related to employment but now a days, it is occurring In each and every field. In other words modern slavery is causing harm to the rights of citizens of country. It can also be more illustrated to long working hours complex work environment strict rules and regulations adopted by companies. In this modern world, there should be reduction of the exploitation and misuse of the rights of human rights. Furthermore, it can also be linked to child labour and its negative consequences. In this present report, modern slavery in the respect of business organizations have been discussed. The human rights and duties of employer as well as employee has been mentioned. It is also mentioned that the employees and workers should be provided with peaceful working environment in which they can become more work oriented and love working there. Also, in this report various consequences have been discussed in respect of modern slavery.

TASK

Human rights is a concept which can be termed as moral principles or norms which is helpful in describing the certain standards of the way in which human behaves. Under the provisions of municipal and international law , the human rights are protected. Irrespective of countries, it is given to each and very citizen of world. Modern slavery is just an another term for causing harm to the humans and their conferred rights. These are basically those rights which are conferred on him as they are human beings. They are applicable in each and every aspect with the sense of being universal. By the constitution of country they are conferred on each and every human and citizen of that country regardless of their caste, colour, race , sex etc. Also, various laws and legislations for the human rights have been prepared in the aspect to give them more legal and highlighted effect. In the context of employer and employee relationship, the employees should be provided with various rights so that they can raise their voice in case of any issues and problems being faced while working in the company.

As per the United Nations Universal Declaration, human rights can be defined as “ All human rights are born free and equal in respect of dignity and rights”. There are many rights which are categorised in different headings and parts. On the other hand, modern time slavery is an idea which can also be conceptualised as contemporary slavery, in which rights of employees have been diminished and they have become slaves in their employment. In the connection of this, slavery is a term in which the provisions of property law has been implied in which powerful people have an authority to sell and own other individuals and make them slaves. Further more, the slave is not able to with draw from their arrangement in which they are working that too with out remuneration. Slavery should not be adopted as it harm the rights and duties of human rights, being prohibited in law. It can be further analysed that the slave also refers to the situation in which the worker is forced to do a particular task. Employees or labour can be termed as unfree labour or forced labour.

On the other hand, it has been assessed that Modern Slavery devastate the society and injures people all over the world. Also, slavery continues in every country across the globe. Women are forced in prostitution. Many people are forced to work in agriculture and related activities for long hours and for little payment along with children are also employed in the domestic work and in factories too. They are also forced to get engaged in restaurants and sweetshops etc. In some cases ,the entire family is strained to work in unfavourable work conditions for no remuneration or very less payment which is not satisfactory and enough for their development. This is the real examples that can be used to define the modern slavery. The foremost reason of becoming slave is the poverty. It can be noted that mostly poor or financially unsound people are becoming slave by other individuals.

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After an analysis, it can be summarised that a person has become slave if he is compel to do work by an effect of coercion, mental or physical pressure. It can also includes by abusing or harming the rights of people. Also, if some one is owned or controlled by employer by threatening them and also harming their rights. More over if some one is engaged in the business of human trafficking and bought and sold people and treat them as property.

There are many types of Modern Slavery which can be explained as :

Forced labour

It includes any services in which the workers and people are forced to those tasks which they are not willing to do and that too with out less remuneration. It is done under the pressure of some sort of punishment.

Bonded labour

It is one of the highest and worldwide used form of slavery in which when people borrow money from others and they are not able to pay due to any reasons. Then the lender forces them to work under them till the debt has been paid off completely. Also, in some cases they lose their control over the conditions of both the debt and occupation.

Human trafficking

It is another form of slavery which hinders the development of human by selling them to others for making money. It involves transportation, recruitment and harbouring of people from one place to another place for exploitation by using violence and threats. It is ultimately equivalent to the misuse of human rights. Human trafficking results in the demotion of country and also development is hampered.

Descent based slavery

This is the form of slavery in which the people are born in the slaved family. It means that there ancestors were also captured and enslaved. They remain enslaved by descent orb by their ancestral generations.

Child slavery

This form can some times misinterpreted with child labour. But it is not the same thing. It is the worst condition in which development and education of children is hindered and also they are forced to get engaged in the work only. It can also includes child slavery , child trafficking etc. the government of each and every country should aim to reduce and diminish the child trafficking.

From the above forms it has been analysed that the human rights are exploit8ing in many ways. In this aspect many laws and legislations have also been framed by the government of different countries. It can also be noted that various social groups are also taking initiative in the direction of reducing exploitation of humans and their rights. The people should not be enslaved and should let them work in an flexible environment. By analysing various reports of surveys conducted by different organizations, it has been assessed that 20.9 million people are in modern slavery across the world. Also, 14.2 million people across the world are exploited through economic activities. In addition to this, surprisingly, 1.5 million people are enslaved in developed countries around the globe. Various organizations have been formed in the context of protection and safeguarding of people from being enslaved in the modern world. They aim to protect the workers from their employers or owners in the aspect of modern slavery.

Now, In the aspect of modern slavery in business organizations, it must be noted that employees are also become slave of their employers (Weitzer, 2015). There are many companies which hinders their external and internal development of employees by imposing strict working conditions and allocation of more work irrespective of their capabilities and strengths. It must also be note that by these practices, the rights of humans are getting exploited day by day. Employers have framed strict policies and procedures by which they can have a control over their employees.

In modern time, the main aim and goal of companies is to make profit and become a leading one in their respective industry. Due to this reason, they make strategies and policies for hiring and recruiting people who are capable and skilful. For accomplishing their goals and objectives, they exploit their employees by extending working hours, inappropriate working conditions, less remuneration and victimizing them by pressuring mentally and physically. It can be noted that employees are helpful in these conditions as they have to earn money and fulfil the needs of their family. According to the human rights specified, employees have an authority to raise their voice against the wrong actions of employers and can claim for the damages too.

The employer can cause harm to rights of employees in following ways:

Working Conditions

Working condition generally it is a term in which all the factors included like working hours, legal responsibility, physical aspects and other responsibilities which affect an employee behaviour basically it is all about the internal and external environment where an employee perform their task or job. Simply working condition highlights an employee personal rights which is indispensable for every person who is performing a job and also shows an enterprise terms and conditions which is made for employees. For example SAMSUNG is a branded company but they have one of the worst working conditions due to their work pressure on their employees and because of that much of work load like extra working hours, absence of weekends, lots of work load etc. in fact sometime their employees commit suicide also which is a very harmful for the brand name. Just like that now a days employee conditions of working are becoming worst day by day due to the increment in the market competition so because of the availability of high level of competition a company should follow appropriate rules and regulation which should not harm anyone in any manner. A company have to take care of their employees by assigning at least one of its subordinates as a senior officer without considering any specific qualifications for the position who is going to take care of working environment of a company like heath care, regarding safety matters at the workplace. Like for an example, google premises are taking care of their employees by providing them lots of extra facilities and liberty while working hours to making them comfortable so that employees should continue their work effectively and efficiently through which a company can easily achieve their target and goals. Every employees must get an opportunity of growth and promotion so that they get motivated towards their work by maintaining friendly environment while working period to avoid stressful surrounding because it affect an employees internally and externally.

On the other hand employers must sure about that officer who is appointed to taking care of the employees must trained and knowledgable person so that they can take immediate action whenever it requires or act according to the situation because as every one knows that disaster will not “knock” you before arriving so an employees always prepare for sudden problems. Working condition differ from place to place like in factories conditions are not much better as compare to the MNC' s because in factories there is a absence of management, avoidance of proper procedure which resulted in a cruel environment, accidents, mismanagement, heath issues , child labour etc. so must of the company and multinational companies ensuring that their employees must surrounded with a safe and stressless environment by continuing their work properly without facing that much of obstacles while working period. An organization have to consider all the necessary terms and condition which required in the working environment because all the work and task is mainly based on the friendly environment of the enterprise. So, working conditions can impact a great on the working and behaviour of an employee. If they are working in the favourable conditions then it will create a positive impact on their minds on the other hand, if they are not working in a favourable conditions then they will not be able to work and will lead to non profitability.

Working for long hours

It means that there the human are exploited on the basis of many ways. One of the way is to let them work for longer period of time. It means that the companies for more profit ad productivity engage their employees on the longer period of time. It means that there are many reasons for which the employer can let them retain for longer period of time. It is clearly an exploitation of human rights of companies which make them feel demoralised and demotivated. It must be noted that it is a clear indication of modern slavery that Employees are getting slaved. For an example, in the premises of Tesco, the management of the company retain its employees for a longer period of time. The manager is of the opinion that if it their employees will remain for a longer period of time then they will have more profits as well as they will not have to face any issues. According to the employees welfare act, no employer can retain an employee for more than 10 hours of working. Also, it creates a negative impact on the minds of employee as it will affect their health. It has been analysed that engaging employees for a longer period of time is very much risky not only because they are being concentrated in dangerous and hazardous activities but also it results in work injury. So, the companies should aim to focus more on the strategies which are useful in preventing work injuries by proper scheduling of practices , redesigning of jobs and tart over various health protection programmes.

Also, staying them for longer period of time is an another definition of slavery. The employees are ultimately getting enslaved as employers are getting control over them. In many western countries like UK and USA, people are working for more than a standard time of working. This does not create a good image on the minds of employees, as they are getting suffered from occupational injuries and illness. In Europe and Asia, the it has been analysed that most of the employees are slaved by staying for the longer period of time and also the it increases the chances of mental depression and other work related injuries.

Little Payment

It is one another type used by employers to slave the employees of the company. Providing little payment to them by retaining the and make them working for long hours is causing harm to their rights. According to the employment act, it is clearly mentioned that the employees should be paid according to their work and reasonably. For an example, if a company will provide less for relatively high amount work then it will create a negative image on their mind and also it will leads to decline in the productivity. Many big companies like Samsung , Sony Sainsbury's Apple provides competitively less payment to their employees by assigning them, more work to do. It is not favourable according to the provisions. The companies should adopt a standard policies of wages as lid in the act. The business organizations should also focus to implement the strategies and techniques to increase the morale and motivation so that they can devote more to the profitability of the company. On the other hand there are some other companies like Google incorporation and Facebook provides its workers a good payment in respect of their work done. Their working environment is flexible and friendly. In the context of employment Human rights is all about getting appropriate and reasonable payment regarding their work.

Health and Safety

Health and safety is a combination of two words-health which means the condition of an employee or a person body weather its physically or mentally and the other word is safety which means security of an individual while performing their task or job so simply health and safety means to create a safety and healthy environment for an employee but there is a lots of issues are coming about health and safety of employees like mental pressure, workload, unhygienic, unfriendly colleagues etc. Now-a-days employees are facing lots of health and safety issues at workplace which resulted in a demotivated and underestimated due to which many persons are switching job through which an organization also get affected because of that many more reforms are required in every organization which is very important and necessary part of this topic. It is very mandatory to take a major steps or actions towards this sparking issue instead of wasting time and money on unskilful matters as it affects the organization and employees both in a external and internal way because this problem is one of the universal matter.

In other words employees has to go through from hectic schedule due to which they are enable to perform their best at their particular workplace which leads to the loss of their health and create problems like confidence level, headache ,illness , any major diseases through which their life get disturbed personally and professionally both and they cant able to build their confidence or morale so it is mandatory to take some fluent action in response to this major and common problems of health and safety for the betterment of employees and organization both because they are inter dependent with each other as every one knows labour (human resource) is a very indispensable part for every enterprise. They are the only one who can handle all the other resources to maximize an organization profit.

Modern slavery is the concept in which the companies misuses the rights and duties of the employees and hampers them by pressurising them with extra work load that too for less remuneration. It should not be practised. In order to be more successful and profitable, the business organizations should realise that the employees are valuable resource of the companies and they should not be abused and exploited. Various benefits and incentives should also be provided to them for any kind of injuries and indemnities. Employers of different countries, just for fulfilling their needs and wants by hiring and recruiting the employees for fewer payment and earnings and salary. It is clearly a complete violation of human rights.

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Violation of human rights depicts infraction of rights of people by employers. Violation can be done in various parts ,like academic harassment, sexual and power harassment. It includes that the employer or any other powerful person takes undue advantage of its employees by misusing their positions and and status to control over them. In the context of employment, iy has been concluded that there are many form which violated the human rights of employees. It can be in the form of providing more work to subordinates with holding of information etc. it should not be practised, according to the provisions.

On the other hand, it has been concluded that most of the violations have been done on the part of western countries across the world. According to various research it has been shown that the US and its following countries mostly violates the human rights of people and citizens. West countries implies double standards in context of such issues and conflicts as human rights and terrorism. Brazil on the other hand is seen as the major violators of human rights of its citizens. It is said as because in Brazil, every year there are more than thousand killings take place by police. In accordance with the provisions of the human rights violations rules, extra judicial killings are prohibited under law. It means that the government and police is not abiding by the rules and also it continues to harm people. It is also analysed that 1.6 billion people are being enslaved in Latin America.

According to the report and analysis of United Nations, it has been assessed that Universal Declaration of human rights has been signed by many countries over the word. It as been assessed that it is the concept which reduces the violation of human rights. But the condition is getting worst day by day. In some countries the rate of violation and torture of human rights is increasing day by day. Terrorism is yet another a big factor which impacts the human rights in a negative manner. Killing innocent people with out their fault is a misdemeanour of human rights. There are also so many examples of violation in different countries , business corporations and other institutions violating human rights. Some countries try to stamp down the human rights in other countries and few countries aim to ignore the predicament of people in other countries and also economic and political interests has denied their rights.

In the context of employment , there are many expatriates that lives outside their native country for an employment. The business organizations misuses and exploits their rights by keeping their passports with them and issues only according to their will and terms or conditions. Also, In some companies maternal and paternal leaves are also not provided to the employees, which is one of the factor which humiliates them and results in the violation of human rights. Also, some times they call their employees for working on Sundays too. Employer should be careful while framing of policies and strategies employee should also be abide by all the rules and regulations but that should be acceptable and in the nature of human rights.

Modern slavery is the term which tells about the restrictions which was made for the workers it means they are owned by any individual to control them and make live their life according to them only. Simply slavery is the word contains all the matters regarding workers who are control by the owner to pursue their work. Present slavery is also known as modern slavery that continues to available in present day also in fact most of the countries are trying to reform the idea of modern slavery by bringing new and creative ideas to make slaves like they want to cope up with victims by identifying them so that they can overcome with the trauma and re-establish their way of living by taking major initiatives towards the elimination of this modern slavery. Due to the advancement of world various changes occur under modern slavery because in today's running world no one wants to be a part of slavery as everyone needs their individual personality to live according to their wish only but reforms are taking place in some extent only because its not easy to change all the things simultaneously so the main aim of new ideas in modern slavery is to change the society.

CONCLUSION

From the above report it has been comprehend that in modern world, the concept of Modern slavery is highlighted as it causes harm to the human rights of the citizens. The modern slavery is the concept in which the employers of the company is violating the rights of employees by imposing various unfavourable conditions on them . It can be further analysed that working for long hours for little and less payment of salary results in work injuries. The employers should adopt various techniques to increase their morale and motivates them for effective working. Also, the working conditions should also be appropriate In which they feel like working.

REFERENCES

  • Albin, E. and Mantouvalou, V., 2012. The ILO convention on domestic workers: From the shadows to the light.Industrial law journal.
  • Androff, D.K., 2011. The problem of contemporary slavery: An international human rights challenge for social work.International Social Work.
  • Bales, K. and Soodalter, R., 2010.The slave next door: Human trafficking and slavery in America today. Univ of California Press.
  • Bernstein, E., 2010. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: The politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society.
  • Bernstein, E., 2010. Militarized humanitarianism meets carceral feminism: The politics of sex, rights, and freedom in contemporary antitrafficking campaigns.Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society.
  • Caffentzis, G., 2014. Workers against debt slavery and torture: An ancient tale with a modern moral.

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