INTRODUCTION TO ORGANIZATION BEHAVIOR

Organizational behavior is the field that investigates impact of individuals, groups and structure of behavior within organization. It is the study and application of knowledge about act of people within the business. This is applied to the behavior of people in all types of work such as business, government, schools and services (Koontz, 2010). It applies to the knowledge gained from individuals, the effect of structure of behavior to make managerial work effective. In this report the researcher has explained about the structure, culture and leadership styles used by Apple Incorporation. Other than this, various managerial approaches, motivational theories and its importance for managers of Apple have also been discussed. This is followed by analyzing the group behavior and nature of teams with Apple Company.

L01 Organizational Structure of Apple Incorporation

All companies follow different kinds of organizational arrangement for their success. Apple Incorporation uses matrix structure for accomplishment of goals. In this type of composition staff is permanent and functional manager controls all the projects (Organisational culture and employee performance, 2013). There is regular communication between project manager and employees to get better results out of work. Management has all the rights of taking decisions.

Tesco follows hierarchical formation in business (Attitude, behavior and perception, 2014). A number of levels are present because there are several people who give information about business and then it is reaches theboss. Control of each stage is within one person’s hand. In this format the message is passed again and until it reaches from top to bottom level. There is close control of management on each worker.

Apple incorporation follows normative culture in their company (Organizational structure, culture and change, 2014). The staff is more focused towards their organizational mission, vision and goals. Employees of the association work ethically within business. They understand their responsibility towards firm and work with the same dedication as of owner.

Tesco follows the customer welfare culture in their firm. Their main motto is to satisfy clients. The management works for the benefit of consumers and provide them facilities so that they do not have to wait in a queue for a long time for purchasing their product. They also make the goods which are suitable for buyers and provide comfort to them.

Organizational structure and culture of any company affects the business. Dynamic firm makeup helps in recognizing the impact. Way of working followed by association helps in learning professional value like how to interact with staff, business associates and clients. Apple incorporations success point is an impact of culture and structure followed by it (Koontz, 2010). This makes them loyal towards the company and also makes them work with morals. Organizational structure and culture thus have an effective impact on business (Factors influencing leadership styles – Tesco, 2012).

The behavior of personnel who is working at Apple technology is influenced by many factors. The explanation of those is as follows:

Values – In Apple Incorporation every individual has his own values of life. At the working place they have to forget their moral duty towards society and work for betterment of organization. In a company the workload is very high but their values help them to stay loyal towards their job and stay dedicated towards their work.

Personality – The individuals of Apple Company have their own feelings, thoughts, and behavior pattern. While working in company they have to forget their social lives and concentrate only on their jobs. Some individuals have extraversion personality. They are specially hired for sales work. They make the effective relationship for business purpose.

Organizational policies – Organizational policies of firm impact the individual’s behavior at work. They are informal, conservative and a typical division of power is present which forms the negative image in employee’s mind for company. They create a wrong perception in them. Due to organizational policies they feel unsatisfied and their level of presentation decreases.

L02 Leadership Styles Affecting Different Organizations

2.1 Comparison of different leadership styles in various organizations

This is a comparison between various types of leadership styles affecting different organizations. Apple incorporation uses autocratic and participative type of leadership in their work field (Leadership Style at Apple. Inc, 2012). Autocratic style gives the company manager all rights of taking decisions. The authority within firm is with management and all others have to obey their orders. No one can challenge the leader’s judgment. The employees are allowed to complete their task on given time. Due to this the talent of employee does come forward and hence remains hidden. But in participative method, leaders share the problem to members when they have to find a solution in short period. Apple technology when asks its members, at that time they can share their views and give suggestions (Bonnici, 2011). This time other members can show their creativity. This makes employees feel that their opinion matters a lot and that they are a part of the corporation.

2.2 How organizational theory support practice of management

The Organizational theories support the practice of management of Apple Incorporation. Classical is implemented in knowing strength and weakness of their company staff. By doing SWOT analysis they can easily know about the opportunities and make them happen. This theory improves the productivity of employees (Greenstein, 2009). The method that Incorporation uses helps management in creating a significant competitive advantage by changing policies according to competitors. Company methods help in doing future succession planning and making their reputation in market. This makes members of association work towards a common goal. They make them focused towards important issues relevant to business. Organizational theories of Apple technology help in understanding their association and open innovative opportunities for them (Pollard, 2008). By using this firm can know about the hidden talent of employees. This makes management to handle barriers and roadblocks in front of them. Help them to originate new things in their work and built success on their failure. These strategies make their competitors customer convert towards them and help in earning respect.

2.3 Evaluation of various approaches used by management of Apple

Apple uses various approaches within incorporation. Within classical, they implement these three bureaucratic, administrative and scientific approaches. This was noted in firm that they concentrate on formal education and training for developing management skills in their employees. They use closed system organization within this incorporation so that competitor cannot know about their policies (Kano, 2012). Theoretical research is managed with practical experience. Means whatever they had learned from practical work, they try to relate it with book and hence this increases learning in staff. Apple uses administrative approach by proper division of work, making discipline and increasing team strength. To inspire members to work in a team, to make coordination (Talha, 2011), they provide them proper training while on job. Employees are given feedback on continues basis to improve their efforts. This makes them achieve the goals of the company easily. They use new tools and technology to make work easier and faster.

L03 Impact of motivational Theories within Organization

3.1 Impact of different leadership styles on motivation in organization in period of change

Different styles used by leaders of Apple Incorporation impacts the motivation of his staff. Within autocratic style, lower level workers are not allowed to interfere in decisions of management. As the time changes the conflict between members increase (Gitman and McDaniel, 2007). When subordinates are not allowed to participate in company decision then they feel demotivated due to non reorganization of their skills. This makes Incorporation members feel disappointed while working. The individuals cannot show their creativity in work and staff has to do the assignment in a given manner in a limited time period. Participation is used when firm has to take decision in a short time, then they call them to give suggestions (SAPRU, 2013). This is the time when they can show their knowledge and skills.This makes the employees of Apple Technology loyal towards the company and responsible towards completion of work.

3.2 Comparison of various motivation theories used within organization

It was found that this firm uses Maslow, Equity and Two factors theories (Huang and Hsu, 2009). In Maslow hierarchy, they focus on accomplishing five basic needs of employees; that is; self-actualization, esteem, belongingness, safety and physiological factors. Self-actualization is done by providing proper training, advancement, growth and creativity in work. Under study it was found that esteem can be fulfilled by giving them high status and responsibilities according to their capability. Belongingness, by making them work in team and giving them proper safety regarding work, health and job (Moody and Pesut, 2006). As according to equity theory, they are given proper rewards in form of motivation and in form of actual evaluation of their efforts in work. Two factors are used for hygienic and motivational factor within Apple Incorporation. Hygienic means proper salary according to work, insurance, family benefits, company policies not too strict, working condition and cleanness (Ather, Khan, and Hoque, 2011). Motivational means recognition of efforts, meaningful work, promotional and growth opportunities.

3.3 Importance of motivational theories for managers

Motivational theories are very useful for Apple Incorporation managers. These work as a psychological perspective for inspiring them for working (Eyal and Roth, 2011). They provide energy and maintain and control behavior. It was found that this results in goal directing to members of firm. This helps in making present and future value of company. The level of motivation cannot be measured but it can be seen in performance and productivity by management in form of output. Motivated employees generate high value and substantial level of achievements (Zhang, Lin and Foo, 2012). As two factor theory says salary can avoid dissatisfaction but it is not only way to motivate. With this, Apple concentrates on fulfilling their basic needs for their inspiration.

L04 Individual and Group Behavior

4.1 Explanation of nature and group behavior in organization

Nature and behavior of group affects the Apple Incorporation environment. As we know that when two or more individuals work together on common task, the dependence on each other for performance and completion of work is termed as group (Bhat and et.al. 2012). Groups always have a normative view. This means showing the correct way of doing something and consists of dynamic techniques. Groups are both formal and informal. Formal groups are made for specific task accomplishment within Apple Company. They are formally structurally and arranged for distribution of work. This type of group has some purpose of formation, loyalty, identity and leader for guidance. But Informal group are made by employees of organization. They are unstructured. Within incorporation groups help in understanding task easily (Randeree and Chaudhry, 2012). By this, the individual easily understands each other and resources available with help of leaders. Conflicts can be easily settled and new standards can be developed and achieved.

4.2 Factors that promote or inhibite the development of effective teamwork in organization

The factors which promote teamwork in Apple Incorporation are diversity, communication, leadership and team building activities (Men and Stacks, 2013). Diversity consists of culture, talent and personalities of persons in a team. This promotes creativity, innovation and awareness which support them. In lack of diversity it becomes difficult for them to solve problems and find innovative solutions. Effective communication helps them to promote teamwork, but in lack of it the challenges and conflict arises between them. If the leadership is correct then it increases confidence and capability otherwise it creates stress and the leves of energy godown (Bucic, Robinson and Ramburuth, 2010). Team building exercise helps to build relations andthe lack of it, disturbs the coordination between them.

4.3 impact of technology on teamwork functioning in organization

A huge impact is there on account of technology usage for carrying out a proper team work within Apple. The tools used in organization are project management software, telephone and video conferencing as well as cloud computing (Casimir, and Keith, 2010). Project management software helps in tracking and monitoring the project work. The software helps in estimating budgetand scheduling the progress of task. Telephones are used by company members to communicate with each other. They can discuss their work progress on conference calls. For face to face team meeting they can use method of videoconferencing. This helps them to present the video presentation with their team members (Clarke, 2012). Cloud computing helps incorporation team members to access and share their files. They all make the work easy and fast.

CONCLUSION

In the following report researcher has explained the organizational culture and structure of Apple Incorporation. There has also been a description about impact of values, personality and organizational policy pursued by the IT based firm. They follow the classical organizational theory which helps them to do SWOT analysis and find the strength and weakness of staff members. It was found that the firm uses Maslow, equity and two factor theories for motivation. Other than this, the management team also makes use of technology like project management software, videoconferencing, telephone as well as cloud computing for making work easier and faster.

REFERENCES.

  • Huang, S. and Hsu, C. H. C., 2009. Travel motivation: linking theory to practice. International Journal of Culture, Tourism and Hospitality Research.
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  • Stuart, E., 2013. Virtual Community Participation and Motivation: Cross-disciplinary Theories. Online Information Review.
  • Ather, M. S., Khan, A. M. and Hoque, N., 2011. Motivation as conceptualised in traditional and Islamic management. Humanomics.
  • Eyal, O. and Roth. G., 2011. Principals' leadership and teachers' motivation: Self-determination theory analysis. Journal of Educational Administration.
  • Zhang, Y., Lin, B.T. and Foo, F.S., 2012. Servant leadership: a preferred style of school leadership in Singapore. Chinese Management Studies.
  • Bhat, B.A. and et.al., 2012. Leadership style and team processes as predictors of organisational learning. Team Performance Management.
  • Randeree, K. and Chaudhry, G.A., 2012. Leadership – style, satisfaction and commitment: An exploration in the United Arab Emirates' construction sector. Engineering, Construction and Architectural Management.

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