Introduction to Child Abuse

Child abuse is also known as child maltreatment. It is the act or failure to act by the guardians those results in possible harm to a child. It includes all the forms of physical, sexual, psychological abuse or neglect occur in a child's home or institution or organisations. Child abuse is the major problem that carries the attention of whole country. Several enterprises follow the policies/legislation practices that govern the working efforts in health and social care for abusing activities which are held by the vulnerable people.

This report is centred on policies and legislations of healthcare and social care centre that follows to take away the child abuse from the environment. Along with this, study is focused on the impact of social and cultural factors on physical and emotional, psychological mind of the child and ways to protect the vulnerable groups in welfare society.

Impact of social and cultural element on physical, emotional psychological, neglect abuse on children

Child abuse is a kind of act which takes place by the parents or other adults due to various reasons such as due to poor financial condition. There are various impacts of social/cultural factors on the physical, emotional and psychological abuse on child.

These impacts are as follows

Physical

Physical abuse refers to the situation in which children sustains injury due to intentional use of physical forces. Parents or other adults abuse their children due to the disorder, disability or disease they have. They use various ways in physically abusing the children like kicking, beating, shaking, biting, burning, poisoning, hitting and many more. The reason behind abuse to the kids is social and cultural life of the parents or adults which makes them to do wrong and unlawful acts with their children. The thinking which works behind this action is to improve the habits of child and makes them to meet the expectations of parents. Impact of this abuse is very bad on the mentality and health of children. It results to minor or severe haemorrhage, broken bones, impaired brain development, shaken baby syndrome and many other problems. Sometimes parents take their stress out due to their improper social life, financial issues and poor living standard in the form of abuse to their children for taking out their frustrations. There are both short term and long term effects to the health and body of the child. On the other hand, violence and physical harassment by the adults with a child results to reduce his/her telomerase activity which directly affects the lifespan. Along with this, immediate adverse effects of physical abuse is on the health, as it results to ill health, development of cancer, suffering from asthma, high blood pressure and many other disease.

Emotional

Child abuse impacts negatively on the mentality, feelings and emotions of the children. Those children who continuously ignored, shamed, terrorized and humiliated by parents or adults due to hectic working life, improper management of their personal life, etc results to become emotionally weak. The reason behind such kind of child abuse by parents is lack of their development opportunities, job dissatisfaction, imbalanced personal and professional life, etc which makes them to take out irritation in such forms. All these activities lead to decrease in the self esteem and self confidence. As per the result, children do not have good and effective relations with their parents and they do not like to build new relations and friendships. Children facing child abuse have lack of social skills, communication and interpersonal skills, lack of development both physically and mentally.

Psychological

Children who face physical abuse by their parents due to various reasons are at risk of developing psychiatric problems. Parents hit, kick, etc their children by comparing them with the other ones. This comparison leads to affect psychology of the child. Along with this, adults also injure their child for not meeting their expectations. Parents have many desires and expectations with their children and when their child becomes unable to fulfil them, they are abused by the parents. Such kids suffer from various types of physical health issues such as chronic head, abdominal, pelvic and muscular pain. On the other hand, youngsters who are facing the issue of child abuse are having disorganised attachment which leads to cause various issues such as dissociative symptoms, depression, anxiety, acting out symptoms and many more. However, there are some children also who faces child abuse in their past but later able to manage their life unexpectedly well. Such people used to have high interest towards the welfare and treatment of kids facing child abuse.

Impact of social and cultural elements is as follows

Income

It helps in living a standard and high quality life. Those people who are financially weak used to use various kinds of abuses of neglects on their children due to frustration and irritation. Individuals also compare their lives and status of society with others which leads them to take stress. Generally, people physically or emotionally abuse their kids due to their daily life issues and problems.

Education

Low educated people do not get proper employment and due to this, they face different kinds of problems. This frustration leads them to abuse their children. Along with this, parents compare the marks of their child with other children and hit, kick or ignore them because of not meeting the expectations.

Imbalanced personal and professional life

Nowadays, employees are not able to manage their personal and professional lives properly. This creates conflicts or disputes between parents and it impacts negatively on children's mentality. Sometimes, mother or father abuse their kids due to disputes.

Cultural factor

In some undeveloped societies, parents send their children for labour work in industries. Higher authorities used to abuse kids due to their improper work instead of guiding or mentoring them properly. Child labour is quiet common in the nations like Bangladesh. Parents due to financial issue make their kids to work and earn money.

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Inform the professional’s involvement in protecting vulnerable groups in health and social care

There is various professionals’ involvement in protecting the vulnerable groups in health and social care are as follows

Local health board

This board have statuary responsibility to work together or in partnership with the local bodies, to make strategy for raising the health of the children. This organisation plans and pay attention to the hospital and family health service institute. This institute assure the services are appropriate and according to the policies and procedures in place to protect the vulnerable group of the child abuse.

Health providers

All the health care practises have responsibility to protect the vulnerable adults and children. Their participation supports the social services in preventing children from any kind of abuse or neglect. This occupational group must have to understand the guidelines from their social care bodies, defence society, and trusties to protect the vulnerable adults and the sharing of information. All those working in health field have basic awareness regarding the protection of vulnerable adults.

General practitioners and primary health care staff

Gps (general practitioners) and other members of the primary health care team are placed to recognise the vulnerable adult. This place also recognises the adults have problems which affect the capacity to care their children. The GPS members of the healthcare team and all practitioners indicate about the abuse and know to make adult protection to social service. This practiser also aware the network which leads health professionals for advising parents about the child neglect. These practitioners are the important part of the society in all stages of the vulnerable adult protection. They must prepare the information which needs to be shared to the social service centre.

NHS trust and secondary health care providers

NHS Trusts are liable for providing the alternative and ordinary care in patients, outpatients, day care and health service community. All the hospital and community staff has basic awareness in respect of vulnerable adult protection and be alert to the possibility of neglecting the children. The staff members also document and share the information for the protection of vulnerable adult in the social care organisations.

National public health service

This national public health service is an integral part of the NPHS trust and work. This guide the policies and procedure which have responsibility for discharge of the statutory functions. It also provides guidance and advice to the partner agencies such as local health boards to discharge their duties. The discriminate adult team with the NPHS is responsible for the policies and procedure which develops for the following area of group: learning disability, mental health, older people, and substance misuse. It doesn't involve in the direct contact with the service users. The NPHS supply an extent of public health service for vulnerable people which includes public protection, health need assessment, health promotion and guidance as well as procedure development.

The key strategies followed by NPHS

  • Identification of the threats to public health and providing the data for the design, delivery, observation and assessment of system and services to address them.
  • Health protection and health improvement through developing the high quality evidence.
  • Cut down inequity and promote equity by improving the health of disadvantage group and people.
  • To realize and sensitive check of the professional for the public health requirement.
  • Public protection also addresses the different threats of the public health care.

Examine the strengths and weakness of current legislation/policies relating to abuse of vulnerable

According to the CDC (centres for disease control and prevention), child abuse includes both acts of commission and omission by the parents that cause harm to a child. The department of education is responsible for child safeguarding. It sets the procedure and code of practice for policies and legislation system ensure the effective work for child safety. As per the scenario, the use of current policies and legislations in healthcare organisations is as follows:

Children Act 2004

Children act is designed for supporting the healthy life and care of the child. It allows children to remain safe in the healthcare set up and assist them for their quest and making helpful for contribution to the country. It also helps to achieve the economic stability. This act deals with children's trust that have been equipped independently of health and social care services. It also made provision funds; this investment trust is designed to carry off the poverty and financial hardship felt by underclass children's. This fund also reduces risk of crime carried out by the children's. The limitation of this act is that the court cases for the child labour are heard by the private bodies so there is no public investigation in procedures.

Safeguarding vulnerable groups Act 2006

SFGA's is pass to restrict contact between the children and the vulnerable adults and those people might do them harm. This act also places a statutory duty on all those working with the vulnerable groups. The health care organisation needs to register and receive an advanced vetting operation apply to the criminal warrant for non-compliances. Once the people get registered, future health care professionals are able to check online status and free of charge. Under this act the care workers control to abuse or vulnerable activity for the children's. The safeguarding vulnerable group’s act 2006 provides the legislative framework for the new vetting and bearing scheme. The scheme makes sure that the known present risk to the children or vulnerable adults cannot enter the relevant work place.

Children and young person’s act 2008

This act makes a provision about the local authority social work or services for children's and young persons. The local authority establishes a care standards in relation to the agencies connected with the children. This healthcare agencies provide professional who listen, relies upon to be there for children's and young people. In order to improve the process in agencies, they make strong network to provide ongoing practical help and emotional support to the kids after leaving care home. Social care accesses better quality and appropriate housing for the welfare of children. The authority makes sure the establishment of act prevents social care organisations in abusing or neglecting the children. In this act, lack of contact causes significant emotional upset for the children which decrease their sense of belonging.

Children act 1989

It aims to alter practices and legal processes for the welfare of child. The act follow the principle that are primary responsible to up bring the child rest with families. This act also deals with disputes between the parents and the state regarding the security of child and upbringing of the children. This act also makes provisions for statuary recognition to the wish of older children to have an independent say on the issues affecting them. It also set out the general principles that are applied in any health organisation for prevention of abuse to the children.

CONCLUSION

For day to day security and well state of some child to the country are vulnerable by child abuse and neglect. Kid abuse doing harm to child intentionally or not provide the essential needs. The government conduct the events to acknowledge the parents about the punishment given to the vulnerable people for child abusing. Government also introduce the scheme to the abusing child for prevention of the unhealthier environment in the country. Therefore, this has somehow supported in development of the entire nation.

REFERENCES

  • Annansingh, F. and Veli, T., 2016. An investigation into risks awareness and e-safety needs of children on the internet: a study of Devon, UK. Interactive Technology and Smart Education.
  • Getaz, L. and et.al., 2016. Hepatitis A immunity and region-of-origin in a Swiss prison. International Journal of Prisoner Health.
  • Lutzker, R. J., 2013. Handbook of Child Abuse Research and Treatment. Springer Science & Business Media.
  • McCoy, L. M. and Keen, M. S., 2013. Child Abuse and Neglect: Second Edition. Psychology Press.
  • Mešić, N., 2016. Paradoxes of European free movement in times of austerity: The role of social movement actors in framing the plight of Roma berry pickers in Sweden.
  • Moreau, F. D. and et. al., 2016. Varicella zoster virus transmission in youth during incarceration. International Journal of Prisoner Health.
  • Newton, S. and Gerrits, J., 2011. Child Abuse. Crabtree Publishing Company.

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