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Social environment or social context is defined as the physical or sociocultural settings in which people of different community resides. It consist of various cultures and education system in which a person lives in. It is also defined as the social interaction which help an individual to grow physically, mentally and socially. In the advanced generation the communication between people can be through any mode such as verbal, face to face or through one way anonymous communication. Social culture or context helps in enriching lives of people at individual level so that they are able to build trust within themselves. After living in a same community many people tend to change their way of living based on others thought so that they are able to adopt the same pattern of living.
The overall essay and report will be based on social context related to different issues prevailing in society. The main part of the report will focus on different types of social issues such as homelessness, poverty, unemployment, single parenthood, health inequalities, child labour and sexual orientation. It will also explore the sociological perspective of these issue in a particular borough and its impacts on population living there.
The measurement of household level after tax is termed as income but if the household income of a particular house less than 60% of the national median then that house is referred as poverty driven house. Camden, a London borough has been ranked as the highest rate of poverty with more than 62% of families and children surviving under low income or poverty driven families. The main reason behind increasing rates of poverty in Camden is neighbourhood support deprivation, high rates of juvenile crimes and poor quality of housing facilities available in the borough. In recent times poverty has been recognised as one of the most pressing social issue which is affecting the lifestyle of all the people living in Camden. The major impact of poverty is noticed on children present in the family. The earning members in a family cannot expect children to earn livings in order to live their life according to their standards. One of the major issue which has recently increased the rise in poverty is discrimination. The goals set by millennium development aims largely at implementation of human rights and non-discrimination acts so that all the individuals are treated equally in Camden. But these set goals were overlooked by the local authorities of London which further increased the rate of poverty in almost all the inner boroughs of London.
According to various research and studies conducted by social scientist it is clear that discrimination and inequalities are the main cause of poverty that is prevailing in Camden (Bogomolov and et.al, 2014). Even in the boroughs were the goals by millennium development are recognised and implemented, the presence of discrimination eliminate the significance of these goals. According to the perspective at common level it is noticed that it is very important to develop legal framework and laws which can alleviate the presence of poverty from different London boroughs. The sociological and common perspective on the issue of poverty has a great impact on cause and structure of poverty in Camden. The common sense perspective on poverty tends to broadly focus on the structural and organisational orientation of the society which is responsible for growing poverty in recent times. The term poverty and inequality are often linked together there is a bidirectional link between both the issues. The increase in inequalities gives rise to poverty in Camden. According to survey conducted in Camden in the year 2013-2024 it has been reported that the ratio of poverty recorded in past three years gradually increased by 27% as compared to poverty in the year 2010. The rate significantly depicts that most poverty driven areas of London are the inner London boroughs which has the higher percentage of poverty as compared to rest of the London and England. More than 22% of working families are counted in poverty driven families in Camden. Major impact and consequences are produced on children present in poverty affected families because they are ultimately deprived of all the materials which are necessary for living.
The sociological perspective on any social issue helps in understanding the problem in a more better way. According to the survey it has been estimated that nearly 27% of the total population living in Camden borough lives below the line of poverty. To understand the social problem of poverty many sociologists have adopted several theories which can provide a detailed overview of culture of poverty that is common in Camden. Two main theories evolved by sociologists reveal different perspectives of poverty which can help in understanding the concept in more simplified manner. The first theory states that middle class individual who are employed in private sectors shifts from sub urban areas to cities in search of jobs and adequate employment opportunities but due to the presence of inequalities and discrimination they are not able to compete with other individuals. The another theory stated that people who are poor or poverty driven would not receive better employment opportunities but they may acquire welfare payment by working in low income jobs such as maids, waiters and other jobs. This has probably increased the risk of racial attacks in recent times.
Based n the perspectives of sociology it is revealed that explanation to solution which can eradicate poverty from Camden is not simple and justified. Although implementation of various theories related to poverty has significantly brought considerable changes but still there are more social issues which need to be addressed. The effects of poverty are very serious and long-lasting. People or children who develop in low income families are reported to suffer from more health problems as compared to other financially stable families. Major effects can also be seen on mental health of a child because he/she tries to develop themselves according to the poor conditions. Infants who are born in poor families tends to die at a very earl;y age due to improper and insufficient mental and physical growth. Many are born with considerably low weight which is due to malnutrition or undernourishment. The overall effect of poverty is noticed on developing children because they are deprived luxurious as well as basic commodities which are very necessary in daily life. Often they are not capable of taking primary and secondary education because of low income of the family. Even if they are admitted in schools they are not able to attend it regularly because of physical health. The also suffer from various mineral deficiencies, anaemia, impaired vision and hearing impairment at early or later stages of life.
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Sociologists also reveal that according to a health survey conducted in Camden in recent times it was depicted that many family members who are existing below the poverty line are reported to suffer from mental stress and depression which is directly linked to economic instability in life. Different sociological theories also suggest that low income, loss in employment opportunities and poverty also results in physical and mental abuse prevailing between the family members. Poor families are more likely to affect more severely in different aspects also as compared to middle class families. Besides the financially low background they also suffer from victimization of physical, mental and sexual abuse, loss of job, long term illness and sudden demise of family members due to different reasons.
The introduction of different types of social policies for poverty will help in dismantling the main causes behind the increasing poverty rates in Camden in recent times. The major cause of highest percentage of low income families in Camden is discrimination and inequalities that exist to a high order. Various laws, legal polices and framework has been established in order to eradicate the presence of poverty from London borough. It is very important to maintain certain social policies and legislations because the increasing rates of poverty is directly linked to many factors in sociological context. Poverty is associated with other social phenomena such as increase in crime rates, unemployment, exclusion from social groups in a community and improper and unmaintained physical and mental health of all the individuals staying in Camden. It is the major responsibility of government to develop effective strategies and policies which can significantly reduce the impact of poverty on individual's life. Government of London have formulated broad social policies, legislations and framework which can tackle poverty if they are implemented correctly. The increase in economic growth will automatically reduce the poverty percentage because enhancing the value of different commodities will help in distributional changes in the economic growth system of the country. The reduction in market failures is also one of the key factors that can reduce the rate of poverty. If the price of good or commodities is decided by mutual consent between buyer and seller then it will have a positive impact in lowering down the rate of poverty driven families in Camden.
Anti-poverty strategies are also implemented by the international jurisdiction which can assist in determining the root cause which is leading to increase the rate of poverty in recent times. Under the international jurisdiction, the government has set different types of millennium development goals which will basically focus on eradication of poverty so that lifestyles of all the individuals is enhanced. There are many effective strategies that can help in improving the living condition of people present in Camden. The primary motives of millennium development goals is to end hunger, provide elementary and secondary education, gender equality, child and maternal health and well being to fight with different infectious and non-infectious diseases and stability in environmental conditions. The government has universally announced that it elementary and secondary eduction should be compulsory to all the children because increase in education sectors automatically increases the employment in the country.
Gender inequalities present in different boroughs of London is also on of the most important reasons which has increase the rates of poverty and low income families in recent times. In order to eliminate poverty it is very essential to eradicate gender disparity so that all are treated equally. Gender discrimination is generally present in primary and secondary education system. With the proper implementation of different strategies the child and maternal health has been significantly improved. Due to this reason the infant mortality rate in recent times has been reduced to two third as compared to other ratio in past. With the integration of different environmental policies and sustainable programmes the stability of environment has also been enhanced which has increased the sustainability in more effective manner. On of the main strategy which has contributed in eliminating poverty is making the labour market inclusive so that financial debts and exclusion is not increased.
According to the research and various studies it has been explained that there are basically three types of poverty that exist in world. Extreme, moderate and relative poverty condition which have various affects on mental and physical health of a person. Extreme poverty is a condition in which a person is severely deprived of all the basic need such as food, clothes and other facilities. Based on report generated by world bank it was reported that 32% of overall population in Camden were suffering from extreme poverty conditions in the year 2010. There are long term affects and results of extreme poverty on various individuals. There are various inferences and suggestions which can be drawn which can ultimately help in eradicating the issues of poverty from Camden. The complexity of poverty is generally noticed in group which are more vulnerable to different social issues. They can be youth, children, women, single parent, migrants, homeless individuals and disabled individuals. Various suggestions and recommendations have been applied so that the problem of poverty is completely eradicated from Camden. The major change in reducing the rates of poverty can be brought by the involvement of individuals, social groups, families, and population. The execution and implementation of various types of projects and plans can assist in regaining self confidence which have been destroyed because of prevalence of poverty. In recent times the role and concern of all the social care workers have significantly increased which has proved to be successful in eradicating the issue of low income and poverty among Camden individuals. Different ethical and legal considerations have also been taken into account so that they emphasize on improving the living condition of community people in London boroughs.
Single parenthood is defined as the individuals who have have been separated from their partners due to mutual incompatibility or different issues. After reviewing different studies I have noticed that a person who is handling children single handedly have to understand all the major and minor responsibilities without any support. There are many reasons for single parenthood such as sudden death of the partner, divorce or separation or unplanned pregnancies. The sociological context adopted by western countries is that if a couple wish to separate due to various reasons then initially then custody of child is handed over to primary caregiver whereas the secondary caregiver is directed to pay all the expenses of the child. Here primary caregiver is the mother of the child whereas secondary care giver is the father. I families which are governed by single parents tends to be more poor than the families which is run by both the parents. The financial benefit to a person with two earning members in a family is more than the family which is supported by only one member. Also a major impact of single parenthood is noticed is noticed on upbringing of a child. The families in which mother is responsible for upbringing child is likely to furnish poor development due to low household income. This will automatically have an negative impact on education life of a child. As I have also lived under a single parenthood I have noticed major consequences of single parent on mental and emotional level.
Discrimination is generally faced by children and single parent specially mothers in all sectors due to various reasons. As single mother is not able to provide necessary development growth and luxuries to their children they generally experience poverty and low income. This can have a stressful emotional impact on both parent and child. When a child id being discriminated due to separation of their parents or loss of on of the parents the anger and frustration gradually increases in them. This however lower down the self-esteem of a person. Besides living with the loss of one parent or financial instability there are many other factors that can be the results of discrimination individual part. It can be feeling of loneliness, sadness, difficulty in interacting with people, social exclusion, abandonment and consequences of unshared feelings.
It is very necessary to implement anti-discriminatory frameworks so that children and single parents are always protected from different types of discrimination at various places. Many individual workers often develop fear of working with single parents because of different reasons. According to the children act 1989 it basically stress the immediate needs of working in partnership with parents so that they are not discriminated on individual grounds. The care standards act enacted in the year 2000 also focuses providing full support and care to all the parents so that they can establish effective relationship with their children at later stages of life. All those anti-discriminatory laws also helps in developing positive impacts on the relationship of child and parents so that they are able to exhibit their skills, roles and responsibilities in an effective manner.
The module has affected me in both negative and positive ways. As I have been safeguarded under the custody of my mother I have learnt to face the hardships which are face din raising children by a single parent. The module has influenced me to maintain my financial expenses as my mother works for long hours to fulfil the daily expenses of our home. Through module I have learnt to build stronger bond so that the role of any of the parent is not diminished. Sharing responsibilities has also been the most important part of single parenthood which can help in raising and recognising the needs of all parents and child in effective manner.
Homelessness in Tower Hamlet has been consistently increasing in recent years sue to various reasons. Although it is the highest paid borough in London but is reported to have be the second highest unemployment rate after Barking and Dagenham. Is the area with dense population and the number of people living in the borough increases exponentially with time. According to survey the social issue of homelessness is increasing in Tower Hamlet because more than 3500 families approached council for homelessness services as they had the danger of becoming homeless in upcoming years. Out of them majority of individuals were pregnant women residing in family and more than 38% were living single in the borough. The main causes of homelessness was reported to be high rents and mortgage to be paid by family members, physical and mental abuse unemployed people were some of the main reason which caused homelessness. The overall impact of homelessness increased the risk of child poverty, discrimination,unemployment and pensioner poverty.
The major impact of homelessness is noticed on people living in Tower Hamlet. Due to the increase in homelessness there is a gradual increases in child poverty and health inequalities. The children who are deprived of proper shelter are also deprived of different luxuries and benefits which another individual from another family background receives it. These children are not allowed to pursue further education due to poverty and homelessness. There has been a bidirectional link between health and homelessness. The individuals who are not living in proper housing are likely to reduce their life expectancy by almost 20 years. Moreover the mortality rate of homeless people increases from 20-50% in Tower Hamlet. It also increases the prevalence of infectious diseases due to the presence of stressful conditions. According to a recent survey it has been reported that people who are homeless from long period time are easily exposed to substance in order to get relieve from mental stress and trauma.
Area of Tower Hamlet is broadly related to my profession. As this area ha been reported to contain more than 9% of unemployment rate in the London borough. Even if the council for homelessness services have prevented many families from becoming homeless nut there are still many people in this are who are homeless. Severe consequences of homelessness has been noticed on children in the families and pregnant women. Financial hardships are faced by many families so that they are able to prevent themselves from being homeless. Unemployment, health inequalities and child poverty are at its peak due to the increased rate of homelessness in Tower Hamlet. The major impact of homelessness in this area has been seen in health sector. Many health issues such as acute and chromic physical disorders, premature deaths increase in mortality rate.
The overall report was divided into three major sections which discussed three various sociological aspects. The first task addressed the prevalence of poverty in Camden are of London. The second task mainly discussed single parenthood and lastly the report concluded with a detailed study of homelessness in Tower Hamlet.
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