Unit 5: Research Project London School of Science and Technology
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Overview of the Research
In the modern era organisations are widely concern on implementing innovation at work place as to enhancing their productivity and profitability at market place. Tourism is consist to be the fastest growing industry in all over the globe and provides various benefits to the economy. In today's era countries are focused on developing their tourism activities as it create benefits for improving countries economic condition (Christie, I., and et. al., 2014.). The high level of customers attraction create benefits for country as through this the level of foreign currency has increased in the economy. Developing countries are also concerned on enhancing their tourism activities as to improvising their economic standard which create benefits in attaining higher competitive edge. Nepal is consist to be the most attractive tourist destination which is famous for its pristine natural environment, rich culture, tradition, wildlife and beauties in Nepal. Tourism in Nepal also has a huge influence on the other industry of country such as retail, agriculture, finance and infrastructure. The present research is all about the development of innovation tourism in culture and natural tourism in Nepal.
Reason for conducting the Research
Tourism is the most developing industry which plays vast role in enhancing the economic condition of country as tourism contributes a he amount in the growth and development of economy and also helps in developing the living standard of people. The major reason for conducting the research is to enhancing the skills and knowledge of leaner in the area of tourism culture and its impact on enhancing socio-economic well being of Nepal. The present research provides a way to getting various kind of knowledge in regards to attempting their futures projects in effective manner (Newsome, Moore and Dowling, 2012). The present study is important as it is essential for each individual to know about the importance of tourism and its effectiveness for economic growth. A brief discussion about this topic helps people in identifying various measures and elements that are essential in the field of tourism. The present area of study also effective in conducting a more effective and relevant study in the future. The described issue is the most effective element of today's economy which needs to be analysed as to attaining appropriate data and information which leads the culture of tourism.
“To critically analyse innovative tourism development in culture and natural as vehicle to create competitive advantage in Nepal, in order to enhance the socio-economic well being of Nepal”
To determine through a comprehensive literature review the state of the art in innovative tourism and to identify the current gaps in knowledge pertaining to innovation in culture and nature tourism in Nepal.
To develop a robust primary research instrument that will identify perception of stakeholders regarding innovation tourism.
To develop a conceptual innovation tourism framework that will create competitive advantage in tourism Nepal.
To validate the framework through testing it key feature on an expert panel and to adjust the framework following this validation process.
To fully develop the innovation framework and to clearly show contribution to knowledge that the study has found and to articulate the usefulness of the framework to practitioners and various stakeholders in Nepal.
This section is effective in conducting an in-depth research through gathering data and information through secondary source. In this view points of different authors and writers are analysed as to accumulating proper and appropriate information about any particular area of study (Kuščer, Mihalič and Pechlaner, 2017). In this section result has to be generated through critical evaluation as in this researcher compare different views of writers who are having appropriate knowledge about some area of study. Through critical analysis researcher is ensure about the appropriateness of data and information by which investigator is able to carry out whole research activities into a well planned direction.
The art in innovative tourism and to identify the current gaps in knowledge pertaining to innovation in culture and nature tourism in Nepal
In this modern era tourism is consist to be the most developing sector which has a huge impact on the economic condition of country. Innovation is widely refers with a focus on newness and originality. At global level innovation provide supports to the economic growth, competitiveness, jobs and long term sustainability. Art is also plays an effective role in innovative tourism as it helps in gaining attention of large number of tourist towards the place as to attaining high growth and success at market place. Culture and adventure Tours in Nepal is design for a bit of everything Nepal has to substance is a single visit. As per the opinion of Walter Lsaacson, 2014, the most creative innovation of the modern era came from people who were able to connect with arts and science. Nepal is the most beautiful and stunning country in the globe, it is small in size and known as a nation of colour and contrasts a hidden Shangri-La of nature, adventure and culture. The way of living in Nepal is very simple and still people in Nepal follow some traditional culture. The major attractive element of Nepal tourism is its best, high mountains and lush valleys are ideal places for trekking and mountaineering. Nepal is rich with traditions of art and culture. The tourism level in Nepal is high and people are mainly attracts through art as the contribution of art in innovation tourism is high. In Nepal large number of people are working in art sector as they create some hand made and famous crafts of Nepal as to gaining attention of visitors.
(Source: International Tourism arrival in Nepal, 2017)
In the sector of tourism innovations plays vast role in enhancing the culture of tourism in effective manner through gaining attention of people towards the famous destinations of Nepal through developing the culture of art and science. As per the above mentioned graph it has been identified that the internation tourist arrival in Nepal has increased through implementing innovation and art as these two consist as the most essential element which has a huge impact on the growth and development of tourism in Nepal. As a worlds largest source market the number of international tourist and Chinese tourist in Nepal is negligible, as per the statics 2015 of China National Tourism administration, Nepalese citizen arrivals in China recorded 36,600 visitors for different purpose such as business, meeting, sightseeing & leisure, visiting, relatives, workers, friends, crew and other purpose. As to bridging the gap between traditional tourism and innovative tourism govern and its authorities plays vast role in gaining attention of more and more visitors through offering them variety of services and products. Innovation is effective in creating more appropriate handicrafts which are very much famous in Nepal as these are very much useful in gaining attention of people from different geographical area. Nepal is famous for its traditional culture and large number of people are attracted towards Nepal just for their unique art and traditional culture.
So the country is widely concern on bridging the gap between traditional culture and innovative culture as to attaining competitive edge in the sector of tourism. As per the opinion of Murphy, 2013, In ancient times, people were aware about different places and there is lack of knowledge about cultural. But as per the time passes, new technologies come on the way then the trend of tourism is developed; now individuals prefer to visit different places over the globe. Nepal is one of the best tourism place, every year large number of people are coming. Furthermore, in modern era people have great knowledge about the place by using new and innovative techniques.
A robust primary research instrument that will identify perception of stakeholders regarding innovation tourism.
As per the views of Ruhanen and et. al., 2015 primary study is process which facilitate and enable in gather diverse number of information. For gathering healthy and appropriate information, there is a need of questionnaire survey for analysing aspects of differ number of stakeholders. Stakeholders are such part of business or industry whom made vast impact on working and operations. For analysing their abbreviation, management have to organise and consider better and supportive instruments so that their view points could be understand properly.
On the basis of questionnaire is one of a best consideration which facilitate and determine the aspects of various individuals. Thus, for identify the perception of stakeholders regarding innovative tourism, questionnaire is one of a best approach. This would get done on 100 respondents whom used to visit to Nepal with a hope of some innovative and better things. This will facilitate them in identify the major aspects and opinion of diverse individuals so that better ad suitable outcome could be drawn.
Primary research is consist to be the most essential part of research project which preforms a vast role in collecting the actual and reliable data through conducting questionnaire and survey. Through applying the instruments of primary research it has been analysed that the tourism condition of Nepal is challenging as stakeholder said that the economic condition of Nepal is not good and their country or its government is not able to spend a huge amount of rupee in maintaining the places of tourist destinations, so this cause issue in gaining attention of people towards the tourism destinations. The number of tourist increases at seasonal basis as the growth of countries economy is less. As per the opinion of stakeholders it is essential for countries government to adopt innovation within the country so that proper maintenance of tourist destinations can be done in effective and appropriate manner. Stakeholders are the key element who are providing a significant amount of rupee in developing the tourism sector in Nepal as to enhancing their economic condition.
A conceptual innovation tourism framework that will create competitive advantage in tourism Nepal.
Tourism can be consist as the most developing sector which contributes a huge amount of profit is the development of economy. As per the views expressed by Ken Taylor & Jane Lennon, 2011, There is a huge scope of tourism in Nepal as it is one of the most visited country in Asia, because of the presence of some major attractions like Mount Everest and ancient temples. For the purpose of reaching to full potential of tourism in Nepal, it is necessary that there is a proper framework, which can be applied for the purpose of innovation in the tourism sector. The competition is so huge in the sector of tourism and each each country is concern on developing their tourism through implementing innovation as it consist to be the most effective element of attaining higher competitive edge at market place. Nepal is a most famous tourism place which attracts tourists through implementing various innovative and effective elements such as creating handicraft things, implementing digital technologies, tools, local traditional products etc. there is an conceptual innovation framework which will create competitive advantage in tourism Nepal which is described as under:
Network collaboration: This consist to be the most essential element which needs to be managed in appropriate manner. This component performs vast role in destination planning and its implementation. A network collaboration helps in establishing an effective and collaborative networking among stakeholders which create benefits in appropriate flow of data and information. At the level of higher community network collaboration plays key role in implementing sustainable envelopment through gaining attention of large number of visitors. The network collaboration helps the community to reaching at final goals and results through implementing coordination.
(Source: Conceptual Framework on Preconditions and categories of Innovation, 2018)
Entrepreneurial Spirit: Entrepreneurial are consist to be the most essential element of market as entrepreneurs are effective in attaining high growth and success of country and also provide a significant based to developing the economic condition of country. Entrepreneurial are focused on creating new and effective products at market environment as to attaining high attraction or people which create growth and success. In the sector of travel and tourism entrepreneurs plays vast role in developing more innovative and attractive products at market place. Nepal is famous for its culture and tradition and entrepreneurs are concern on introducing more effective products which are having unique features and attractive design which represents the culture of Nepal in order to enhancing tourism attraction.
Technological advancement: This is also an another essential element of conceptual framework of tourism as technological advancement consist be the most favourable component which helps in creating a huge amount of profit for country through implementing its operations in effective manner. In this modern era each country is concern on attaining high competitive edge through improving their condition and living standard. As a developing country Nepal is focused on implementing advance technologies in order to improvising the culture of tourism as to achieving more profitability. Advancement in technologies such as social media, Digital phones and networking helps in creating awareness among people about the popular destination and culture of Nepal.
Competition: This is the most effective element which has a huge impact on growth and development of economy. Competition has often been regarded as a major dynamic forces of innovation. It is essential for each country to adopt most suitable technology as to implementing innovation which create benefits in growth and development of country. In the sector of tourism competition is so high at market place as this consist to be the most developing sector which helps in providing various opportunities to the country or its people. Nepal is concern on producing more traditional handcraft as to attaining higher competitive edge and provide competition to their rivals.
Profitability: This is the major focused area of country as the major objective of each country is to attaining higher profitability through enhancing the number of tourist within the country as it helps in developing the economic condition of country as well. Innovation helps in enhancing the chance of profitability, the sector of tourism apply various innovative tools and technologies in respect to creating the tourist destination more attractive in nature which create benefit in gaining attention of large number of people towards the country.
As per the views expressed by McGehee and et. al., 2013 Some of the innovative techniques for increasing the overall tourism in Nepal would be to use more of digitalisation tools for reaching tourists and attracting them towards the country, Spreading awareness regarding various major attractions of Nepal on International forums through proper use of social media platform and Digital technology. It is also necessary that the government of Nepal works in hand with various promotional agency for the purpose of taking Nepal tourism to global level. There are various other ways for increasing the competitiveness of Nepal Tourism like improving the penetration of Private sector in Nepal Tourism. This will help in bringing more funds within the sector and also bring some private players under the sector which will increase overall profitability and productivity within the tourism industry.
The framework through testing it key feature on an expert panel and to adjust the framework following this validation process.
The conceptual frame work of tourism and innovation is an essential element which has a huge influence on the activities and performance tourism sector. As per the opinion of As per the views of Mirtl and et. al., 2013, government or its authorities are concern on implementing an effective frame work as to developing the sector of tourist through implementing innovation. In the framework of tourism various elements are involved such as Network collaboration, entrepreneurial spirit, transformation leadership, technological advancement, competition and profitability. These all are needs to be implemented in systematic manner in respect to resolving any kind of issues and conflicts that are arises in the field of tourism. These all elements helps in providing a significant way to enhance the profitability and economic condition of country. As a famous tourist destination place it is essential for the government of Nepal to implement all innovation activities in to proper action as to creating more benefits and growth for county's economy. A proper framework which has been framed and its key features for Nepal Tourism must be tested on an expert panel and if any recommendation or changes is advisable on such framework by that panel, than those shall be implemented in an effective manner as soon as possible for getting right kind of growth and development in tourism Sector of Nepal. It is also necessary to monitor those frameworks which has been created for the purpose of innovating in tourism sector and if any changes are needed to be made in those framework, those shall be done at the earliest for effective outcome. It is important that government of Nepal takes various initiatives for increasing Nepal tourism, because it will have a ripple effect on the economy of Nepal going into future. The economy will benefit by getting tourists and Foreign exchange income along with higher level of employment among people as they can become Guides, tourism operators etc.
The innovation framework and to clearly show contribution to knowledge that the study has found and to articulate the usefulness of the framework to practitioners and various stakeholders in Nepal
As per the views expressed by Servaes and et. al., 2012, Innovation is consist to be the most essential element for each business sector as it plays vast role in implementing modification in the products and services through growth can be increased. Nepal is consist to be the most attractive place which has various attractive destinations and places. High level of tourist attraction create benefits for economy of country. Tourism in Nepal create various opportunities for the tourist agencies as to increasing the competitiveness of marketing. Stakeholders such as government, its bodies and tourist authorities are concern on developing the culture of tourism in respect to gaining more profit and market share through increasing level of tourists and visitors. The government of Nepal is concerned on creating awareness among people about the attractive destination so that people can easily attract towards the places and this create value in enhancing growth of countries economy. Practitioners and stakeholders plays vast role in providing appropriate amount of fund and capital in order to maintaining the appropriateness of tourist destinations and also conduct various function as to gaining attention of more and more customers.
This consist to be a process which is applied to gather data and information for the purpose of making business decisions as to providing significant direction to the researcher to carry out the research in right direction (Poudel, Nyaupane and Budruk, 2016). In this section various elements are included such as interview, surveys and other research tools and techniques. This part of research is significantly based on various application which all plays crucial role in selecting the most appropriate methodology for research process. This section includes various elements in which essentials are described as under:
Type of Investigation
It consist to be the primary factor of each research project as it is the major responsibility of investigator to identify the type of research as it can be measured as two major types such as qualitative and quantitative research. Qualitative research is based on data which are gathered by researcher through qualitative means of data and information. On the other side quantitative research is based on actual facts and figures which are accumulated by researcher as to analysing and appropriate outcome. In the present research is based on Innovation tourism development in culture and natural tourism in Nepal (Pomering, Noble and Johnson, 2011). In this area of study researcher select mixed method of research in respect to identifying the accurate and appropriate result which helps in completing the research work. In the present research project mixed method of research has to be taken by researcher as it is required for investigator to complete the research through qualitative and quantitative analysis. In this various numerical facts and figures are included which plays effective role in reaching at final and accurate result and outcome. Both the techniques are effective in analysing the data and information in effective and efficient manner.
This can be considered as the most essential part of research project which plays a vast role in developing an effective research project. It refers as the blue print of the research which provides a clear direction to the researcher to implement all research activities in well planned manner. This create value in attaining appropriate result for the research (von der Weppen and Cochrane, 2012). A research design is effective as it provides a clear and specified area to fulfilling the goals and objectives of research. This section of research is categorised among various types such as descriptive, exploratory and experimental and meta analytic research design. Descriptive research design is based on case study, naturalistic observation and survey. This research design is encompasses on representing research by detailed description which is based on existing facts and figures. Exploratory research is based on exploring some new and effective concepts and models which are effective in analysing the data and information in effective manner. On the other side experimental research design includes mathematical and scientific analysis in respect to developing and proving some certain theory. In the present research project descriptive design has to be taken into proper action by researcher as its helps in analysing the both qualitative and quantitative research in appropriate manner. Descriptive research design helps in conducting mixed research techniques into appropriate way in which all activities are implemented at right manner. As the present research is based on the analyse innovative tourism development in culture and natural as vehicle to create competitive advantage in Nepal, in order to enhance the socio-economic well being of Nepal. This consist to be a vast topic in which both techniques are needs to be implemented in respect to reaching at final result and outcome. With the help of descriptive research design investigator is able to provide a detailed analysis of the various elements to the particular area of study.
This is also considered as an essential part of research methodology as it is essential for a researcher to analyse the sample and its size in respect to accumulating appropriate data and information (Pitchforth and Mengersen, 2013). The sampling consist on selecting the sample which replicates from the original population. In this section researcher is having the choice to select probabilistic or non probabilistic sampling technique. The probabilistic sampling technique is based on simple random sampling in which equal probability assigned to each individual. On the other side non probabilistic sampling is based on purposive and convenience sampling. In the convenience sampling techniques the investigator choose the sample of population as per the conveniences of researcher. Thus purposive sampling technique encompasses on selection of sample which serves the purpose of the research which has been taken into proper action. In the present research project purposive sampling techniques has to be taken into proper action as to select relevant sample from the population. In the present research sample size of 40 has been taken in which people who were visited the tourism place of Nepal. In which people from different age group are involved as they are able to providing appropriate data and information to the researcher through their experience and knowledge.
Data Collection Method
This is an important part of research methodology as it helps in gathering data and information as to reaching at final result and outcome. In this section data has to be gathered through primary as well as secondary source of data collection. Primary source of data collection encompasses on accumulating data and information for the very first time as this section is significantly based on questionnaire, interview, survey and case study. These all are considered as the most essential way to gathering new data and information which are gathered for conducting a new research project (Maes and et. al., 2011). On the other side secondary source of data collection is effective in gathering data and information through books, journals, online sites and previous research projects. In the present research project both the techniques are used by researcher as the section of data analyses is done through primary source of data collection on the contrary secondary source of data collection used as to conducting the section of literature review in effective manner.
A) Threats of validity
It is the most essential duty of researcher to produce valid and reliable results by conducting a research project, thus validity is consist to be the essential aspect of research. In respect to satisfying the needs of research, researcher have to collect information through various authentic sources. It is essential for an investigator to drawn reliable and valid outcome as to completing the task in effective manner. At the time of conducting a research project researcher faces various issues and conflicts which has a vast impact on the activities of research. There are various issues such as triangulation of data, group coding meetings are faced by investigator while accumulating data and information through various sources (Stein and Valters, 2012). It is required for researcher set a specifies period of time in respect to completing the task in appropriate period of time. Researcher faces issue while conducting the survey or questionnaire as it is hard for them to convince people to give information about their experience.
B) Address the threats
It is necessary for researcher to address the issues which has a direct influence on the validity of research project. It is also essential for researcher to resolve the issue in appropriate manner so that research work can be completed in the limited period of time. There are various issues which are needs to be addressed by researcher in which some are described as under:
Triangulation of data: It is a powerful techniques which facilitates the validation of data by cross verification from more than two resources. This is most effective tool for conducting qualitative research. The researcher have to gather proper data and relate it with the specified area of study, it reduces the chance on conflict.
Group Coding meeting: In this people with similar set of interest are involves who are able to providing appropriate knowledge and idea about the study. Researcher needs to accumulated data from people through a discussion. This reduce the chance of wrong information as in this data has to be gathered through group discussion.
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Maes, W. H., and et. al., 2011. A quantitative indicator framework for stand level evaluation and monitoring of environmentally sustainable forest management. Ecological Indicators. 11(2). pp.468-479.
McGehee, N. G., and et. al., 2013. Doing sustainability: An application of an inter-disciplinary and mixed-method approach to a regional sustainable tourism project. Journal of Sustainable Tourism. 21(3). pp.355-375.
Mirtl, M., and et. al., 2013. Development of LTSER platforms in LTER-Europe: challenges and experiences in implementing place-based long-term socio-ecological research in selected regions. In Long term socio-ecological research (pp. 409-442). Springer, Dordrecht.
Murphy, P. E., 2013. Tourism: A community approach (RLE Tourism). Routledge.