Organisational Structures and Culture

Introduction

Organization culture design the frame or outline of references in which organizational structure is develop. Organizational structure is system design and define a hierarchy in a company which is develop to insure in what way an organization operates and assist its planned goal or objective which leads to future growth (Alvesson and Sveningsson, 2015). Organizational culture is a system which develop common assumption, acts, values and beliefs which direct employees and employer how to behave in a workplace.  For this assignment taken is TESCO, it is a British multinational groceries and general merchandise retail which is established in 1919 and headquartered in Welwyn Garden City, England, United Kingdom.  It is founded by Jack Cohen and in 1960 they diversified into various area such as retailing of books, clothing, furniture, toys, petrol, software and so on.

In this certain topics are covered in respect of TESCO that are different management style approaches in public sector, concept of organizational behaviour and identify relationship between motivation, organizational behaviour and reflection and its impact on respective firm.

TASK 1

P4 Evaluate different approaches to management styles within the TESCO

Management is structure of an organization, it can be a business, non profit organization or government body. Management style is combination of policies, processes and procedures which is used in an organisation to ensure the fulfilment of task requirement to achieve goal and objective (Bortolotti Boscari and Danese, 2015). There are various elements included in management style are leadership involvement and responsibility, employee selection, placement and competency assurance, workforce involvement, communication with stakeholders, management of interface and so on . A complete or appropriate management system consider every aspects of management and aim on supporting performance management to achieve goal.  There are numerous of approaches in management system such as classical, bureaucratic, administrative, science, system, contingency, behavioural and human relations. Below is mention the approaches which is use by TESCO in their organization are :-

  • Human behaviour approach:- It is develop by contribution of Maslow, Herzberg, Vroom, Mc Cleland, Argyris, Likert, Lewin, Mc Gregor, etc. It is used by TESCO to evaluate ans analyse how their management can be effective by using knowledge of organization behaviours. Through it the respective firm management can  understand their human relations. It help in increase productivity through motivating and maintain good relationship with staffs.
  • Contingency Approach:- It is also known as situational approach, it consider the concept of management that there is not any universal application of management principles to manage organization. A company is individually different, face different situation and it required different type of ways to mange it (Cao and et.al., 2015). TESCO evaluate and design different management plan or strategies to face or avoid the different different barriers and situation, so that it leads to effectively completion and achievement of goal and  objective.

Management Style is a specific ways used by mangers to accomplish organizational objective. It depend on manner on which they make decision, plan and organize work and how they distribute authority to employees. It vary from company to company, level of management styles and also differentiate on basis of person to person. Their are various management style, major management style use by TESCO are describe below:-

  • Visionary:- Mangers or leaders of TESCO are visionary in nature so they communicate purpose of work and direct the employees how to complete that work thus respective firm employees believe in them which help managers of TESCO to convince their team to work hard to complete or achieve their vision in effective and efficient manner (Glisson and et.al., 2016). In this leaders of respective company direct staff about task and free their employees to do that work on their own, the managers only check employees to make sure that they are working on right track to achieve respective firm goal.
  • Coaching:- In TESCO coaching of mangers help to improve employees long term professional development by teaching and watching their employees growth. It motivate employees of respective company to deal with their short term failures which result as learning and betterment in long term such as professional development opportunities that is related to promotion or more responsibilities. By providing coaching to employees TESCO help them in developing new thing and offering career opportunities by maintaining and motivating employees relation in the organization.  

Their are various role and responsibilities played by managers in an organization for maintaining and developing smooth functioning of workplace, it also motivate employees which leads to achieving goal and objective effectively and efficiently. In TESCSO various role played by manager, some of the major of them are describe below:-

  • Planning:- Management of TESCO must be visionary and good planner so that they can achieve long term goal and plan strategy that leads to profit and earning (Helms, J.C. and Mills, 2017). The managers of respective company must break down and clear goal to their team and employees so that they perform and get work scheduled and strategies work accordingly. It involves innovative thinking and planning strategy of how to improve quality and increase profit of TESCO.
  • Decision Making:- It is the role and responsibility of manager ion TESCO that they make innovative decision which help an organisation to achieve their goal in effective way. And it is responsibility of manger in respective company to communicate employees and staff about decision and motivate them t to do work, decision of a leader in TESCO is based on important things what is right and what is not right.

TASK 2

P5 concept of organisational behaviour

Organization behaviour is study and research of people behaviour how they interact with individual and group, it is done to to create more effective business organisation. Theories of organization behaviour is used for the purpose of human resource which is to enhance outcome from individual group members (Körner and et.al., 2015).  Organization behaviour study can be carried out by three ways, that are- individuals in organisation, work group and how organisation behave.

In TESCO organization behaviour help management to understand organization and employees or staff in a effective manner which leads to create and maintain friendly relationship between respective firm and their employees that develop proper working environment in TESCO. It help management to understand nature and activity of people of organisation by which manger develop strategy and plans accordingly. Their are various fundamental aspects of organisation behaviour in TESCO such as people, structure, technology and environment. To study organisation behaviour in respective organization have same objectives like job satisfaction, finding right person for position, maintaining organisation culture, leadership and conflict resolution, better understanding of employees, understand how to develop good leaders in firm, develop good team,  leads to high productivity and so on.  

Importance of Organization Behaviour:- 

Organization behaviour study is essential for every organization because it is beneficial for maintaining and developing better working environment (Lee and Kramer, 2016). Some of the major importance of organization behaviour in TESCO are give below:-

  • Skills improvement:- It is helpful for employer and employees to improve their skills and ability to complete work effectively.
  • Understanding consumer buying behaviour:- It is important for respective company to improve their marketing process by understanding consumer behaviour.
  • Employee Motivation:- This help to understand method of employees motivation properly in TESCO which leads to achievement of goal in better way.
  • Anticipating organizational event:-The study of behaviour of employees and organization of TESCO helps in predicting and understanding organization events such as annual business plan, demand management, product line management, production planning etc.
  • Maintain environment of organization:- It helps TESCO in maintaining and creating healthy, ethical and smooth environment in organisation.

P6 Relationship between motivation, organisational behaviour and reflection impacts on performance in the workplace.

In TESCO there is relationship between motivation, organizational behaviour and reflection which impact on the performance of employees and staff in the respective firm, points showing relationship between all these are describe below:-

  • Psychology of OB:- It is a field of study that investigates the impact of individuals, groups and structure have on the behaviour within the organisation for the purpose of achieving organisational effectiveness (Manojlovich and Ketefian, 2016). It is a tool for human benefit which basically describes the behaviour of people in the organisation. In TESCO organisational behaviour greatly helps in understanding, predicting and influencing individual behaviour in achieving effectiveness in business operations.
  • Personality and work behaviour:- On other hand organisational behaviour is the method or way to interact with people in a efficient manner. It helps to understand interface between human behaviour and organisation to behave in a effective manner (Naranjo  J.C. and Sanz-Valle, 2016). In the organisation managers majorly focus on to understand the behaviour of employees so that organisation and employees both become comfortable in business environment. Overall job proficiency is divided in two factors that are task performance and contextual performance that is beneficial for organisational performance and development in TESCO.
  • About motivation:- Motivation is psychological process that provides direction and purpose of behaviour in right manner. Management is concerned with sufficiently utilisation of resources and greatly use available resources in TESCO. Motivation enhance the productivity of employees that encourage them to behave in proper manner. So both directly and indirectly behaviour of employees in the organisation influence activities to TESCO to attain its objectives and goals.

There are different motivation theories that are as follows:

Extrinsic and intrinsic motivation theories:-

There is important to understand that every person is different in its psychology and  needs and wants for that there are different methods to motivate employees. That affect behavioural aspect of every employees in TESCO.

Intrinsic motivation:-

In intrinsic motivation that individuals needs and motivation comes from inside to accomplish the tasks and duties in a desirable manner (O'NeillJ.W and Scholl, 2016). Deep rooted desires give high level of motivation to behave in proper manner. Some instances are as follows:

Acceptance:

In an organisation it is feel that every one has to accept its co workers.

Curiosity:

All employee have to be curious to gain knowledge.

Honour:

All employees have to respect others and rules and regulations of organisation.

Extrinsic motivation:-

Extrinsic motivation is external and well known. Its main motivation is money. There is some examples that are as follows:

Award for best works, benefit packages and bonus with other monetary benefits in respective organization.

So motivation level is vary from person to person by different factor.

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Maslow's hierarchy of needs:-

Maslow's hierarchy of needs five tier model of needs that depicted in pyramid. In that pyramid hierarchy moves upwards that are physiological, safety, love and belonging, esteem and self actualization needs. When previous need should be satisfy person want to satisfy other needs in a hierarchy.

  • Motivation and performance:- Motivation and performance is interconnected with each other and influence behaviour of each other in TESCO (Valmohammadi and Roshanzamir, 2015). When employee feel motivated that automatically encourages to work effectively and efficiently in a proper manner in TESCO. So motivation and performance simultaneously affect to each other.

There are different factors that motivate employees and encourage them.

  • Rewards and incentives:- Rewards and incentives are very important factor to encourage and motivate employees to give monetary and non monetary benefits in form of rewards and incentives that encourage employees in TESCO.
  • Goal settings:- In that method of motivation organisation gives employees tasks and responsibilities that are challenging for them that encourage them to work with effectively. In goal setting they give them specific tasks and when employees complete them organisation give them rewards that boost their morale.
  • Reflective practice:- Organisational learning is practice of reflecting, creating and retaining knowledge and enhancement of organisation. Organisational learning with time increase experience and knowledge that helps in gain experience. OL helps to encourage employees to motivate them and give productive to TESCO. On other hand monitoring and evolution helps in achieving goals and objectives and observe performance of employees that indirectly motivate and improves performance of organisation in TESCO.

Conclusion

From the above discussed point it is conclude that organization behaviour is essential and important for every organisation as well as for TESCO. Their are different approaches of management style of organizational behaviour which help in smooth functioning of workplace. In respective organization behaviour is important because through it management can plan and make strategies for achieving goals. Their is also relationship between motivation, organizational behaviour and reflection which impact on performance of employees in TESCO.

References

  • Alvesson, M. and Sveningsson, S., 2015. /Changing organizational culture: Cultural change work in progress/. Routledge.
  • Bortolotti, T., Boscari, S. and Danese, P., 2015. Successful lean implementation: Organizational culture and soft lean practices. /International Journal of Production Economics/. 160. pp.182-201.
  • Cao, Z., and et.al., 2015. The impact of organizational culture on supply chain integration: a contingency and configuration approach. /Supply Chain Management: An International Journa/, 20(1). pp.24-41.
  • Glisson, C and et.al., 2016. Increasing clinicians' EBT exploration and preparation behavior in youth mental health services by changing organizational culture with ARC. /Behaviour research and therapy/.76. pp.40-46.
  • Helms Mills, J.C. and Mills, A.J., 2017. Rules, Sensemaking, Formative Contexts, and Discourse in the Gendering of Organizational Culture☆. In /Insights and Research on the Study of Gender and Intersectionality in International Airline Cultures/ (pp. 49-69). Emerald Publishing Limited.
  • Körner, M.,and et.al., 2015. Relationship of organizational culture, teamwork and job satisfaction in interprofessional teams. /BMC health services research/. 15(1). p.243.
  • Lee, Y. and Kramer, A., 2016. The role of purposeful diversity and inclusion strategy (PDIS) and cultural tightness/looseness in the relationship between national culture and organizational culture. /Human Resource Management Review/. 26(3). pp.198-208.
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