Health and social care are vital to be provided to individuals who are in need of it. It is critical that better and effective medical treatment should be offered to people so that physical and social well being of individual living in the society can be ensured (Mair, Quiñones and Pasha, 2015). Other than this it is critical that need and requirement of individuals should be considered so that better measures can be taken for offering them better medical care and services. Present report is based on London and in this Demographic profile of London and health issues that are faced there has been covered. Moreover health inequality that is being faced in the country also has been described and social determination of health and policy related issues that are being faced in that specific geographical area has also been mentioned.
London is a exceptionally diverse and fast changing borough and more than 70% of the population of London is young people. Islington is a district that has been situated in London and population of the district is ethnically diverse. More than 57% residents of the district are White British and majority of them belongs to Turkish, Irish and Black Caribbean. Total population of the districty in the age group of 0-3 is 10,890 and population in the age group of 4-10 is 14,810. more than that population in the age group of 11-15 is 8,870 and in the age group 16-19 it is 8,630. with this population in the age group of 20-39 is 99,810 and in 40-64 it is 55,770. in the range of 65-76 it is 13,970 and people more than 80 years of age group are total 4,870 (White, Currie and Lockett, 2014).
Majority of the people are in the age group of 20-39 years and it reflects that there is high opportunity for preventing ill health and other diseases conditions. Life expectancy rate for men in England is lower and it is 79.1 for males where as life expectancy rates for females is 83.2. 51.1% population is male and 49.9% is female and other than this largest ethnic group in the nation is while British. 45% of the people living in the nation are Christian (Makai and et. al., 2014). In addition to that it has been estimated that population in the age group of 18-64 is likely to be increase by 69.5%. there are more chances that this age generation is likely to receive more health related issues and diseases and it is critical that appropriate measures should be taken for rendering better and medical preventive care for individuals that are living in the local society.
Birth rates and death rates are increasing and in the year 2014/2015 there are 310 more deaths in the borough (Glasby, 2017.). It shows that there is need for taking preventive measures for rendering better services for people. Unemployment rate is high and due to that also issues are faced by individuals.
Health issues in Islington London
Respiratory diseases and cardiovascular diseases are main cause of premature deaths and deaths in Islington. Average 288 deaths have been observed due to cardiovascular diseases and 130 deaths due to respiratory diseases. It is the major health issue that has been faced in the that particular geographical areas and due to that physical well being of the individual is getting affected. Obesity and unhealthy lifestyle are major reasons due to which these disease are caused (Nakanishi and Nakashima, 2014).
Cardiovascular diseases are major cause for death in all the age groups in Borough. There is need for making the people aware about the risk causes by cardiovascular diseases so that their physical and mental well being of individual can be ensured. Death rates in Borogh have been increased due to that and number of people suffering from Cardiovascular and respiratory diseases have been increased (Cartwright and et. al., 2015). High rates of pollution in inner city areas in Islington is the major reason that lead towards creating respiratory diseases in people. It also contribute towards morbidity in children and adults and also with earlier mortality.
Health inequality in Islington London
Cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases are major cause of deaths in Islington London. As per Marmot report reducing health inequality in England requires action on six major policy objectives and it includes giving every child the best start in life, enabling all child, young people and adults for maximizing their capabilities and have control over their lives. Other than that creating fair employment and good work for all and ensuring healthy living standard for all is one more policy objective (Brooker and Latham, 2015).
Along with this creating and developing healthy and sustainable places and communities and strengthening the role and impact of ill health prevention is major policy objective. Health inequality is explained as variation and differences in health status among different population age groups. For example differences in mortality rates among people belonging to differentsocial class is major reason for health inequality. There are various reasons due to which inequality exist and due to that challenges are faced in providing better medical care to people that are suffering from these diseases (Bowling, 2014). Health inequality is differences in health status in the distribution of health determinants among different population groups. There are some social determinants of health that lead towards creating social and mental challenges for people that are living in the society . Stress, availability of healthy food and income and income distribution are major reasons for which health inequality exists.
Social determination of health
According to Munn-Giddings and Winter,(2013) social determinants of health are explained as living conditions in which a individual lives. There are diverse range of factors that gives impact on the health of people that are living in the society. As per the report of WHO there are many social determinants of health and it includes stress, social exclusion, unemployment, social support, early childhood development are included in the list of social determinants that gives impact on the health of individuals that are living in the society.
Kitson and et. al., (2013) has described that availability of healthy food and availability of healthy transportation are also included under the category of social determinants that gives impact on the health of people that are living in the society. These elements gives influences on health conditions of an individual and due to that probability of getting the diseases gets high.
Similarly there are some other social determinants and it consist of education, income and income distribution, employment and working conditions, early childhood development, housing conditions, social exclusion, social safety, social safety network, health services, gender, race and disability and food security are major causes that lead towards enhancing possibility of health related diseases. In Islington district of London Cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases are major causes that lead towards creating health related issues.
Major social determinate that lead towards creating these disease in individual includes stress. Unemployment and job security are major causes which lead towards creating stress among people which lead towards developing cardiovascular disease in individual. Pattern of unhealthy lifestyle has also been observed in people and availability of healthy food is decreasing.
People are not taking initiatives for following healthy life style and it is directly affecting their cardiovascular health and it is increasing health related issues in an individual. Respiratory diseases comes at second place when it comes for increasing death rates. Other than this income and income distribution is major social determinant that affects the capability of an individual for availing the medical treatment and medical services. Challenges are faced for taking better treatment and it create health inequality.
Stress and unemployment have been defined as an factors that create cardiovascular diseases in individual. Social exclusion is one more important social determinate that is accountable for creating stress in minds of individual that ultimately make people prone towards cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. Pollution is the major reason for developing respiratory diseases among people and it is one of the major determinate that creates diseases that are associated with respiratory system.
1. Many policies have been framed by government that supports for individual suffering from Cardiovascular diseases. Policies framed by state influence people suffering from cardiovascular diseases and it expedites for reducing the risk for cardiovascular diseases. policies have been formed at local and national level and it has supported to people that are suffering from different CDV issues. Policy related to CDV includes Tackling health inequalities : A program for action has been framed to tackle health related inequalities over next three years (Kahn, Yang and Kahn, 2010).
2. It establishes some foundations that are essential to be achieve the target for 2010 for reducing the gap in mortality groups across different social groups. This program has been formed for supporting families, mothers and children for ensuring that best possible efforts should be taken so that generation of cycle of health can be done (Archer and et. al., 2011). This program also made on the themes for preventing illness and providing effective treatment and care, making certain that the NHS provides leadership and makes necessary contribution for reducing inequalities towards delivering better medical treatment of people suffering from those diseases. National stroke strategy 2007 (Barry and Edgman-Levitan, 2012).
3. Stroke is a state in which blood clot appears in the brain which causes severe damage to the entire body. The impact of stroke results in problems in movement, visibility, etc. Despite of such serious features, this particular vascular disease is curable unlike other diseases. The National Stroke Strategy was developed with help of 6 project teams that had experience and knowledge from different professional backgrounds. The main aim of this strategy was to make people aware about the necessary measures that need to be taken in case of emergency or stroke attack (HM Government. 2017). Department of Health was taken into consideration for gathering support regarding the coordination and execution of strategy related activities. It was realised that it is important for people to be able to recognise basic symptoms and take necessary steps for avoiding casualties and deaths due to stroke. This strategy has been able to accomplish the purpose for which it was developed.
Food 2030' (Department for Environment, Food and Rural Affairs 2010)
The food strategy 2030 has been developed with an aim to encourage people regarding their awareness for 6 issues. These include:
1.Eating healthy and adopting a sustainable diet.
2.Assuring and enforcing a food system that is more competitive, profitable and resilient in nature.
3.Sustainable production has to be encouraged.
4.The control over greenhouse gas emissions has to be increased.
5.Reusing, recycling and reprocessing the waste which is produced in the food system (Bennett, 2010).
6.Enhancing the use of skills, knowledge, techniques for research and methodology.
7.Food is the basic source of energy and the constituents which are needed for survival. It is important for the government to improvise the food production and consumption system so that health issues are easily resolved (Pickard, 2010). The Food Strategy is one such strategic step that helps in overcoming the basic.problems related with food systems and achieve sustainability. Cardiovascular diseases and the risk related can be decreased with help of this food strategy.
Public health relation in Borough
Department of health has formed policy that supports for rendering guidelines for local authorities and NHS commissioner so that outcomes of CDV can be improved. Policy framed by department of health UK gives advice to local authority so that this strategy should support for improving the outcomes for people who are at risk of cardiovascular diseases. This policy set outcomes for individuals who are at risk of CVD. NHS and public health outcome framework have been depicted in this policy. The strategy that has been formed by department of health supports for reducing the premature mortality rates for cardiovascular disease by improving prevention, diagnosis and treatment and bringing all services up to the standard of the best. Moreover it also supports for better identification of individuals and families in Islington that are at risk of CVD and it supports for making improvements in its management of primary care (Du Pré, 2010.). Along with this making improvement in intelligence, monitoring and research into cardiovascular disease is one major motto that publishing comparative data on the quality of care that is being provided to patients suffering from CVD.
NHS and public health outcome frameworks supports for reducing the premature mortality rates of CVD by improving diagnosis and treatment and bringing all the services unto the standards of the best. Other than this managing cardiovascular diseases as a single family diseases and developing a standard template for hospital care and community is one major area which has been focussed by department of health. NHS in Islington will routinely make the information available on the quality and outcomes of hospital based cardiovascular teams or services.
With this NHS nad HSCIC makes available comparative data on the quality of care that is being provided to patientest suffering from CVD through general practices. NHS also makes it ensure that PHE will make available at local authority level and comparative data on the risk factors and CVD outcomes is also provided. NHS and PHE are looking for establishing a cardiovascular intelligence framework by bringing together analysts, clinicians, patientsrepresentatives, epidemiologists and patient representatives. CVIN is working with HSCIC for collecting data and information so that best practices can be implemented for individuals suffering from Cardiovascular diseases. Other than this several excellent audits and registered have been established in the past decades for rendering wealth of good quality data and information on individual aspects of CVD.
Various aspects includes Heart attack, stroke, diabetes and renal. Next step that is followed includes linking all the information to routinely available datasets including Office of national statistics and Hospital episode statistics. Local authority of Islington is committed towards offering better outcomes and it will aid for improving the outcomes of CVD for Dementia patient (Cartwright and et. al., 2015). In the policy framework that has been released by department of Heath large number of common factors have been recognised that gives impact on the increasing the likelihood of individuals that are developing Atherosclerosis. There are three major risk factors that are associated with CDV diseases and it consist of age, family history and gender. Individuals that are living in the borough are having different risk factors and more than one manifestation of CVD is also there.
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Smoke related drives have been initiated by state so that people should get better opportunities for getting medical treatment. Other than this measures also have been taken by local authorities for educating the people for preventing smoking. Other than this it is also ensured by local authorities that smoking cessation services should target at high risk population and encourage them to quit (Glasby, 2017). Work has been done with local authorities for and local communities so that their understanding can be improved for how to improve the accessibility and reaching the services.
Local authorities are also trying for raising awareness about the needs of carers needs to be considered so that access for improving the support for carers and training for carers can be provided. Along with this it is ensured that commissioning and provision of services should be culturally sensitive (White, Currie and Lockett, 2014). It is also required that response should be given to changing population having different health needs. With this focus is being given for encouraging people to adopt healthy lifestyle so that better medical treatment can be provided to individuals. Work is also done for improving the awareness and dissemination of availability oflocal services. Views given by local residents are also used for ensuring health and well being is a previously untapped resources. A large, scale, systematic and coordinated approach has been used for reducing the health inequality for involving all the care patients and focusing on the wider socio economic and environmental determinants on family and individuals.
Government has also made policies for reducing inequalities so that poverty can be reduced in the society and it also creates threats to health and well being of people that are living in the Borough. People are also involved in work so that population groups that are facing barriers should be allowed to included in mainstream. Local authorities are working on the projects and services so that support should be provided to individuals that are affected by CDV.
Obesity is one of the major reason that creates difficulty for people who are suffering from CDV and local government and policies formed by state has helped to people that are suffering from Cardiovascular diseases. Weight management services are provided to people so that they should be promoted towards physical activities. These services are targetted towards population groups that are in need and it aids for rendering them better care and medical treatment so that effective outcomes can be received.
Summing up the present report it can be concluded that Islington which is a small District in London is facing issues due to the health inequality. People living in the country suffer from cardiovascular diseases and respiratory diseases. With this, it has been observed that government has made various policies that supports for providing better and safe conductive environment for people suffering from Cardiovascular diseases. Along with this local authorities and department of health has issued various guidelines that has supported for providing better acre services for people suffering from diseases. Along with this, initiatives have been taken by state for reducing inequality in society so that all individuals should get equal opportunity for getting better cardiovascular care and treatment.
Archer, N and et. al., 2011. Personal health records: a scoping review. Journal of the American Medical Informatics Association. 18(4). pp.515-522.
Barry, M.J. and Edgman-Levitan, S., 2012. Shared decision making—the pinnacle of patient-centered care. New England Journal of Medicine. 366(9). pp.780-781.
Bennett, P., 2010. Risk communication and public health. Oxford University Press.
Bowling, A., 2014.Research methods in health: investigating health and health services. McGraw-Hill Education (UK).
Brooker, D. and Latham, I., 2015.Person-centred dementia care: Making services better with the VIPS framework. Jessica Kingsley Publishers.
Cartwright, J. and et. al., 2015. Promoting collaborative dementia care via online interprofessional education.Australasian journal on ageing. 34(2). pp.88-94.
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