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LO1 Understand the different perspectives of human resource management
The different perspectives of human resource management (HRM): ‘soft’ and ‘hard’ human resource management, ‘loose’ and ‘tight’ human resource management ; models of Guest and Storey differences between HRM and IR and personnel practices; strategic approaches to HRM.
LO2 Understand ways of developing flexibility within the workplace
- Flexible working models: the core and periphery workforce model (Atkinson 1984); Handy’s (1989) Shamrock Organisation
- Types of flexibility: e.g. numerical, functional, temporal, locational, and financial
- Flexible working methods: e.g. employment of part-time and temporary staff, teleworking, homeworking, job sharing, zero hours
- contracts, annual hours, staggered hours, compressed hours
- Labour market and the need for flexibility: labour market demographics, employment statistics, local, regional and national labour
- markets and the growing recognition of the importance of work-life balance
LO3 Understand the impact of equal opportunities in the workplace
- Discrimination in employment: forms of discrimination, e.g. gender, ethnicity, religion, disability, age, sexual orientation, education.
- The legislative framework: direct and indirect discrimination; current legislation and proposed changes to the law e.g. age.
- Equal opportunities in employment: equal opportunities practices and initiatives in the workplace including initiatives such as Opportunity 2000 and positive action approaches, codes of practice, implementing policy, training within the law and monitoring; the move from equal opportunities to managing diversity.4. Understand approaches to human resources practices in organisations
LO4 Understand approaches to human resources practices in organisations
- Performance management: the role, purpose and types of appraisal, 360 degree feedback, the skills of carrying out appraisals and giving feedback, the link of appraisals to reward management
- Counselling and employee welfare: the traditional welfare function – occupational health practices and policies, the management of ill health at work, costs and absenteeism, accidents at work (statistics), ergonomics, alcohol and drug abuse, HIV and AIDS, stress and stress management, workplace counselling
- Health and safety legislation: Health and Safety at Work Act (1974) and the role of the Health and Safety Commission, European Community Directives e.g. Working Time Regulations (1998), Parental Leave (2009)
- Other topical issues: e-recruitment, e-learning, flexible benefits, work-life balance, employee voice, changes to pension schemes
In this task, you are required to show an understanding of the different perspectives of human resource management.Professor David Guest and Professor John Storey has been one of the biggest contributors to human resource management (HRM). The different perspectives/approaches to HRM and the models proposed by these authors has been highly recognised by academicians and industry professionals alike in contributing to the human resource, personnel management and industrial relations issues.
In recent years the government has begun to acknowledge the importance of work-life balance issues by introducing a variety of laws to support employees. The concept of work-life balance, of which flexible working is a part, is that if people could improve the balance between the demands of their work and the demands of their home life they would be more satisfied at work and be more productive. Getting the balance wrong can mean health can suffer, work is less productive and relationships – both at work and home – begin to deteriorate (UNISON, 2014).
In recent years there has been many cases of employees bringing charges against their employers for discrimination in the workplace. During the period from 1 April 2014 to 31 March 2015, 61,308 claims were raised. The highest sum awarded by the Employment Tribunal in 2014-2015 was £557,039 and was awarded in a sex discrimination claim.
Managing employees’ performance is a continuous process. It involves making sure that the performance of employees contributes to the goals of their teams and the business as a whole. The aim is to continuously improve the performance of individuals and that of the organisation.
Topical issue Well-being has become an increasingly significant element of public policy in the UK. In 2010, the Government launched its National Well-being Programme to measure the quality of people’s lives and the Office for National Statistics (ONS) now produces annual figures on the 41 headline measures of national well-being.