Leadership and Management – Service Design


Service design is all about managing better services for people in different sectors. Managing this service in health and social care is further another concept that is required to be developed by the managers of such health care centres. This report is based on studying the need of effective leadership and management in designing sexual health clinics in India that are required to support the health issues of the population (Dawson, Madera and Neal, 2011). Further this report manages to explain the different factors like management and leadership along with implementation of change in these health clinics. Maintaining the service of these sexual health clinics is important in reforming the lives of people in India.


1.1 Significance of effective leadership

Leadership is a key to successful functioning of an organization and help sin leading employees towards right direction. Similarly leadership is also effective to be used in sexual health clinics in India that will be helpful in managing the care workers that will in turn provide better services to the patients. It is very much important for the relevant health care centres to manage better leadership at all the three levels of management (Matic, 2008). It is important to understand these three levels and leadership there:

Strategic level: At this Level the leaders at these clinics are required to be visionary and develop plans that will be helpful in developing strategies to improve the service and conditions. Further change management is practiced at this level of management where leader and all the top managers exhibit better control over the overall services.

Managerial level: At this level, leadership can be practiced within clinic by improving the quality of all employees and care workers. This would require them to work within teams and manage problems effectively to achieve better quality of service (Mitchell and Boyle, 2009).

Operational level: At this level of management the leadership is very significant as the leaders here need to manage their employees through better emotional intelligence and providing them participative and coaching approach in managing their better service and performance to serve the patients effectively.

1.2 Theory, principle and practice of High Performance Working (HPW)

High performance working is facilitated in organizations and systems that are highly involved in managing the quality of services to the people. Here the employees and managers are all committed towards achieving better performance of organization. Many key theories that are adopted by organizations to manage high performance working that are concerned with managing Human resource, enhancement of motivation and developing commitment (Hong, Catano and Liao, 2011). These theories can be effectively utilized by sexual health clinics in India that will help in managing their care workers to work in commitment to better performance and service to patients of India. According to the human capital theory, it is required that these sexual health clinics invest better amounts in developing and training of their human resources that is care workers by making them capable and knowledgeable enough to provide better consultation and treatment to various patients. Another theory that can be used under this concept is that of motivation and commitment that defines that when the clinics and managers take care of the motivation and satisfaction level of their people (Gittell, Seidner and Wimbush, 2007). Thereby keeping all of them motivated will be helpful in achieving better performance and service from the care workers and thus will help in improving the quality of service provided by these sexual health clinics in India.

1.3 Assess value and relevance of leadership theories

There are some of the leadership theories that are adopted by manager are being followed in organizations according to the requirement o the situation. In managing effective leadership at various sexual health clinics in India, various theories that can be practiced are:

Trait theory: This theory explains that those people must be developed as leaders that have particular traits and qualities of an effective leader. This theory is helpful in bringing effective leadership in the clinic so as to manage the people their service (Paton and McCalman, 2008).

Skills theory: This is another theory where those care workers must act as leaders that have effective skills that a leader requires and can be capable of adopting leadership through better knowledge and attitudes required to offer services at the clinic.

Situational theory: this is further another theory that is relevant for leadership in situations and adopting various styles of leadership in those different situations. This theory is much better to be adopted in the health clinics as it will help in managing people according to different situations (Roberts, 2011). Here leaders may manage various styles with of the situation like adopting strict style to manage people in crisis situations and participative to manage motivation and better performance with team work.

1.4 Attitudes, behaviours and capabilities for effective leadership

There are various attitudes, behaviours and leadership required by the leaders in managing sexual health care clinics in India. It is required by the leaders there to practice specific skills and attitudes at different levels of management to achieve better commitment from the employees and enable better engagement and commitment from their side. This will also help in facilitating high performance working in the clinics that will help in getting better satisfaction from the patients through their service (Oluremi, Ayoko and Härtel, 2006).

Strategic: This level of management requires the leader at the clinic to be highly efficient and manage better power and authority over other employees. The leader at this level must be visionary and must have influencing power to manage change effectively.

Managerial: The leader at this level of management needs to posses various skills and attitudes such that effective communication is facilitated among the top and the lower level too. The people working in clinic at the managerial level must have better problem solving abilities that will help them in formulating plans and strategies. Further these people are also required to manage the performance of other subordinates so that they offer a high performance and commitment towards the clinic (Payne and Frow, 2013).

Operational: The people must be effectively skilled and must have a supportive behaviour towards their patients. This may be related with making the people comfortable in sharing various issues concerned with sexual health.

1.5 Justifying appropriate leadership actions and styles

There are few styles of leadership that can be adopted by the leaders at various levels of management. These styles are different for each situation and are required by the leader to understand their application for each.

  • Autocratic style of leadership can be useful to be adopted by leaders of the sexual health clinic in managing change when there is a lot of resistance. There are some of the employees that may not be sincere and committed to the organization and their performance may not be up to mark (Resnick, 2014). This style will allow a strict behaviour from leader and facilitate changes in culture and structure effectively.
  • Democratic style of leadership is another style that can be used by the leaders at these clinics when the employees are made to work in participative nature and required to impart various skills to the employees. This style of leadership will help in managing better coordination among all the workers in achieving high performance objectives.
  • Transformational style of leadership is also another significant style of leadership that allows the leaders and people manage change in the clinic and thus allow all the employees to participate and support these changes (Blokdijk, 2008).
  • Paternalistic style is mostly relevant to be used in situations where the employees are well aware about their targets and performance and need limited guidance from their superiors to deal with the patients. This helps in making them confident and managing their performance and service effectively.


2.1 Strategies and models for managing capacity and demand in healthcare

There are significant problems and issues being faced by the healthcare centres and clinics in managing their patients and planning capacity. This requires them to foster better changes in the management and develop the facilities to remove such issues. According to Diaz, Torre and Garcia, (2002), managing capacity in a health care centre or clinic would require managing physical spaces, staff, equipments, supporting services etc (Diaz, Torre and Garcia, 2002). Further in terms of providing better services and advice to patients in sexual health clinics in India, it is required to plan all the aspects of performance and service for the patients. The service users visiting the places may require better facilities to be seated, waiting rooms, better guidance and support that will further help in achieving satisfaction through services of clinic.

Ashayeri and Selen, (2005), says that in managing better facilities leaders at the clinic are required to manage change effectively. Thus the leaders need to develop capacity planning options that will help in managing the patients, their hospitality and treatment once they enter the clinic (Ashayeri and Selen, 2005). This requires the management of the clinic to invest in building infrastructure in setting seating facilities and waiting rooms. Further adequate staffing is required to be done to manage the queries for the patients visiting the place. Also the patients arriving at the place would require a comfortable environment and confidentiality of this information that is one of the most significant demands in most of the sexual health clinics in India and must be managed for better support and services.

2.2 Appraising the impact and management of waiting lines in improving customer relationships

In managing the services of the sexual health clinics, there are various issues that are being faced by the managers and leaders in maintaining effective customer relationships. The most significant issue that arises due to the lack of proper infrastructure management is problems of waiting lines of patients in the clinic. This requires the manager to properly plan the management of patients visiting and their appointments and waiting time that does not make them dissatisfied through the management. According to (Anderson and Anderson, (2010), the first activity to be considered is managing the number of patients that can visit the clinic within a given time frame and thus arranging their appointments and waiting times (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). It is also important to understand the importance of managing these waiting lines by appointing staff that properly escort the people and provide them information along with waiting rooms. This is very useful in managing healthy relationships among customers or the patients visiting these health clinics.

2.3 Evaluating the strategic role of capacity planning and queuing models in managing client expectations

Palmer, (2005) describes the relevance of effective planning of capacity and adoption of queuing models that are helpful in managing the expectation of patients that are arriving these clinics (Palmer, 2005). This can further be analysed by understanding the application of effective capacity planning and queuing strategy for the health clinic in India where there are large number of patients visiting every day. The typical queuing model that can be implemented consists of following criteria:

Managing the arrival process: In managing the arrival process it is required that that staff of the clinic has an eye over the number of people arriving. This may involve understanding that these people arrive in groups or as singles

Better service mechanism: This is another concern where the management of clinic need to concern over the staff available t serve the patients waiting in queues and seating facilities etc (Erlenkamp, 2007).

Understanding the queue characteristics: This would require the management to plan the series in which they are going to serve the patients in queue. Mostly it must be on the basis of first come first serve or sometimes the age concern may also be considered.


The undertaken report has been based on studying various aspects of leadership, various theories and styles that can be adopted by the management of a sexual health clinic in India in managing high performance working. This is important to maintain a better support and satisfaction among patients by identifying their needs and demands in form of services and managing waiting lines and queues through capacity planning.


  • Ashayeri, J. and Selen, W., 2005. An application of a unified capacity planning system. International Journal of Operations & Production Management.
  • Dawson, M., Madera, M. J. and Neal, A. J., 2011. Managing bilingual employees: communication strategies for hospitality managers. Worldwide Hospitality and Tourism Themes
  • Diaz, A. B., Torre, G. P. and Garcia, V., 2002. A capacity management model in service industries. International Journal of Service Industry Management.
  • Hong, Y., Catano, M. V. and Liao, H., 2011. Leader emergence: the role of emotional intelligence and motivation to lead. Leadership & Organization Development Journal.
  • Matic, J., 2008. Cultural differences in employee work values and their implications for management. Management.
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