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Introduction to Human Resource Management
Human resource management is the process of managing, controlling, directing and designing activities of employees working in a business enterprise. As employees are the key to success for every business, it is crucial for the firm to maintain flexibility in its working practices because consistent changes in business environment require the firm to change their operations. Sainsbury is the chosen firm in this report (Gomez-Mejia, Balkin, and Cardy, 2004). It is one of the largest retail sector businesses in the UK which employs numerous employees. Numbers of techniques are adopted in the firm to maintain flexibility in the firm. And the report will also explain importance of health and safety measurements in Sainsbury.
Task 1 Perspectives of human resource management
1.1 Guest model of Human resource management
Guest model of human resource is mainly used to find out or to demonstrate the difference between personnel management and human resource management. However, it states that human resource management is based on commitment whereas personnel management is wholly based on compliance. According to this model, human resource is very essential for recruitment and selection process because it hires highly qualified and skilled employees in order to accomplishment commitment made by them for achieving business targets (Bohlander and Snell, 2006). Approach of human resource mainly focuses on individual needs rather than collective needs.
This model is adopted by human resource of Sainsbury in order to develop their strategy that increases employee’s engagement and trust as well. In order to achieve this, Sainsbury has the responsibility to recruit the best available talent and simultaneously through training and developing existing employees enables them to perform their roles in more effective manner. Another major role of human resource management can be seen in structure of the firm because they change organizational structure by breaking down high level hierarchy in various part and along with that, it delegates more responsibilities in hands of employees in order to improve their performance (Snell, Morris and Bohlander, 2015).
1.2 Difference between Storey’s definition of HRM, Personnel and IR practices
Storey states HRM as a strategic approach to the management of the cited organization’s most valued property- employees, who are contributing and making efforts to achieve planned objectives. Besides that, Storey also defines HRM in two parts, Soft and Hard HRM. Where, Hard HRM highlights the need to manage employees in such a way that will achieve added value from them and gain competitive advantage over the market. Therefore, it can be said that, it concentrates on quantitative, measurable criteria, control and performance management as well (Jackson, Schuler anad Werner, 2011). Whereas, Soft HRM is the soft model of HRM which is based on human relation schools. It is identified by Storey as it involves treatment of employees as a valued asset, a source of competitive advantage through their valuable commitments and adaptability as well as high quality performance.
On the other hand, Storey observes Personnel Management as management of employee’s n order to meet the terms and conditions required by the management or owners of the firm. However, it is mainly concerned with recruitment and selection of employees, their payroll and health and safety within the workplace. According to Storey, Personnel management is a bureaucratic which is based on rules and procedures and observed as a distinct function from general management (Stone, 2010).
1.3 Implication for line managers and employees of developing a strategic approach
There are number of implications for both line managers and employees at Sainsbury while developing strategic Human resource management approaches. Here, line mangers will have to integrate such approaches with organizational culture, leadership style, business policies and most especially with the goals of business in terms f production. Therefore, aspects of HRM like senior management hierarchy, leadership styles, and job rotations can demonstrate various implications.
Here line managers of Sainsbury will have to avoid devising approaches which results in conflicting situations in business operations leading to negative effects on values ad brand of Sainsbury (Budhwar and Mellahi, 2006). On the other hand, employees, range of implication is from security of job, consistent fluctuations in remunerations, commissions and bonuses. However, all these implications are based on performance of employees and their contribution towards success of the firm.
Task 2 Impact of equal opportunities within the workplace
2.1 Model of flexibility
Flexibility refers to ability of employees or whole firm to accept sudden changes in operation of business. It has become the key factor in every business enterprise. Most especially, in the chosen firm Sainsbury, flexibility plays significant role in contributing towards success. Flexibility is all about how an individual will provide his or her best potential at the time of making changes to when, where and how that individual will work even more better in order to meet individual as well as business needs (Elvira and Dávila, 2007). This indicates that are number of flexibility models that can be used by Sainsbury such as job-sharing, part-time working, flexitime, compressed working hours, work from home and mobile working or teleworking. However, for a model like mobile working, employers or managers creates a provision for employee in order to work wholly or partly by staying at a remote location from employer’s place of work.
This has to apply by agreeing of employee with the firm he will work remotely for merchandizing the organization. In other words, it can be said that customers who cannot reach employer’s workplace can get products and services of the firm through the help of merchandizing and it is the best example which demonstrates flexibility of the firm (Larsen and Mayrhofer, 2006). In context of Sainsbury, human resource managers has recognized inherent or basic needs of employees, and has developed various strategies to provide flexible job opportunities so that they can participate and engage properly in contributing success to the firm. Mobile working is available at Sainsbury as it has globally expanded and employees can have good access over internet and intranet in order to stay in touch of employer every time.
2.2 Types of flexibility
There are number of flexibility methods that can be devised by Sainsbury and can be implemented on the basis of strategies that have been adopted by the firm to fully engage the staff members for higher efficiency and productivity. Being a large retail firm, management can provide part-time working flexibility in order to allow their employees to play their role more effectively and efficiently. As it is mentioned Sainsbury’s website, the firm recruits temporary staff members during winter and summer sales period (Schuler and Jackson, 2008).
Job sharing is another flexibility method in which employees can share their roles with others in order to get done the same task from others. Along with that, job rotation is also considered as good option for the firm wherein employees can rotate their roles in equal intervals of time. Each individual can learn new skills and develop themselves through understanding other’s role and responsibilities. Term-time working model can be so beneficial for Sainsbury in terms for students because they can take paid leaves during their examinations of holidays. As mentioned earlier, job-sharing model should be the flexibility model that can be used in the cited firm because of its retail nature (Bae, Rowley and Sohn, 2012).
2.3 Flexibility working practices from employer and employee viewpoint
Top level management or employers of the firm Sainsbury apply flexible working practices for number of benefits and purposes for employees and other employers. It has been ascertained that flexible working practices are in line and with equality and diversity legislation and human right acts in order to ensure fair bit of practices will help employees to fulfill their needs and will enable the firm to achieve its objectives in desired manner (Badawy, 2007).
Term-working flexible model will be helpful for students who are working in Sainsbury. These students give their best performance during their holidays and also take unpaid leave during their school terms. In this manner, the firm is not going suffer from any kind of loss. Sainsbury get benefit in this case if their temporary staff takes unpaid leaves because managers can change shifts and replace other employees in vacant place (Hitt and Duane, 2002). It is beneficial for the firm because they do not have to incur additional salary. As a retail firm, human resource managers can employee women staff in terms of part time job due to reason like child care or any other reasons.
2.4 Impact of changes in labor market
Due to changes in global market, it is obvious that it will affect flexible working practices of Sainsbury in several aspects. Rapid evolution of technology, increase in undergraduates, post graduate recruitments and demographic changes are some of the reasons that are affecting the changes in the cited firm. However, from certain viewpoints such changes are beneficial for the firm as well (Becker and Huselid, 2006). For example, in recent time, it has been observed that Sainsbury’s human resource is acquiring best multiple talents in contrast to prior specialization trends.
Implementation of working practices that help to determine where and when performance of worker is getting increasingly affordable and beneficial for both employers and Sainsbury because the firm expends less of its staff and still encourage them to accomplish qualitative jobs as in their contract that contribute the cited firm to still retain its position at the top of table.
On the other hand, demographic and migration changes have also made great impact on the firm because the firm is now having people from different cultural backgrounds who are seeking for full time job employment with part time job offers just after completing or finishing their main jobs (Chen and et. al., 2004). In nutshell, it can be said that such changes have made procedures and approaches concerning implementation of such practices even easier and comfortable.
Task 3 Approaches to human resource
3.1 Forms of discriminations that can take place in the workplace
Many types of discrimination acts can be practiced in the workplace environment of Sainsbury and the firm is not protected from such discrimination acts. However, gender discrimination can take place within the workplace because here, the organization imposes certain rules and regulations on male and female employees that can be against their wish but can be helpful or beneficial for the firm itself (Major and et. al., 2007). For example, female employees are strictly ordered to stay always in make up by applying lip stick, eye liner, dress code, base, blusher, full eyes and gloss all the time.
On the other hand, another discrimination act that can be observed in the workplace is related with age discrimination. Here, most of the undergraduates and post graduates are employed in the firm to apply their best talents which are against the law that is not applicable to employee people before completing their education. Sainsbury is aimed at impressing customers through its image and impression, therefore, there is likelihood of discrimination to those with any form of disability or the other either during recruitment process or while eat the work (Roberts and Hirsch, 2005).
3.2 Practical implication of equal opportunities legislation practiced in Sainsbury
There exists number of practical implications that such legislations has in Sainsbury, both positive as well as negative. For example, the cited retail firm has to review their HRM policies and guidelines in order to ensure that they practically consider discrimination unacceptable in their firm. Furthermore, they have to acquire experts in order to ensure themselves that they are not practicing any violation of equality legislation and other similar codes of working practices within the UK (Wirtz, Heracleous and Pangarkar, 2008). However, from the financial point of view, the firm will have to pay for external professionals in order to perform this task.
In order to create reputation in the eyes of customers, Sainsbury will have to prove themselves by demonstrating that they have outstanding composition of staff. Not only that but firm also requires to assure its customers or clients that its practices are not in touch with any of the discrimination activities. Policies and policies of Sainsbury should be properly composed so that regulatory authorities and clients and other stakeholders can be satisfied with conducts of the firm. This indicates that it will provide opportunity for recruitment process as all eligible individuals will apply for job by keeping in mind policies, religious beliefs, age as well as gender of candidates (Yahya and Goh, 2002).
Task 4 Appropriate presentation techniques
4.1 methods of performance management
Management of performance includes monitoring and scrutinizing working practices of employees. The main reason for such monitoring is that, management can understand key areas where employees can play excellent role through their effort and contributes to success if the firm (Cardon and Stevens, 2004). On contrary to it, top level management can also ascertain information regarding weak areas of staff members in order to bring improvement through organizing training and development programs. However, in Sainsbury, performance management includes methods that put stress of employees or group of employees, production lines, departments and other branches of