Unit 18 Business Research Level 6


“To have and to hold: Modelling the drivers of employee turnover and skill retention in Australian Organisations”

1. What are the dependent, independent, moderating, mediating (intervening) or control variables in this study? How are these variables defined?

Independent Variable: This is defined as it can be changed or controlled in an experiment. This term Independent variable presents cause or reason of occurring an outcome. In other words these variable are defined as it can change in order to test dependent variables. When a change occurs in Independent variable then it will definitely make small or large alterations in dependent variables which revulsion is measurable and recordable. There are some example which can make clear picture of Independent variable (Brunetto and et. al., 2012). These instances are stated as beneath:

If a researcher wants to check impact of employee relations on overall turnover of association then in this case Independent variable is overall turnover of corporation. As per the case, independent variable is human resource practices that has its impact upon other variables that are rely upon this like employee turnover and skills retentions.

Dependent variable: This is a variable in which researcher is interested. Changes that are occurred in dependent variable are things that researcher wants to evaluate by taking help of fancy technique that is used for conducting investigation. Dependent variable also reflects changes that are happening in independent variable. In this study, employee turnover and skills retention are two dependent variable that have impact of human resource practices upon themselves. If human resource practices are not ethical then it will hamper performance and skills of an employee and then ultimately it will make increments in employees turnover. In this study, employees turnover and skills retention are dependent variables that what is controllable variable in research in human resource management upon human resource practices (Howe and et. al., 2012).

Moderating Variable: It is considered as a moderator variable which is significantly denoted as M it is an essential variable that has a huge impact on the strength of the relationship among a dependent and independent variable. This also consist as third and important variable which affects the correlation of two variables. Moderating kind of variable is an aspect that establishes connection between independent and dependent variable (Radford, Shacklock and Bradley, 2015). As per the case, work hours is a factor that is works as moderating variable because it develops connection between skills retention and human resource practices like if work hours are ideal and an employee can efficiently work then it will enhance level of overall performance of worker and on the other hand work hours are more or less then it will hamper profitability of company or will negatively effect performance of workforce. So, according to the case; work hours are considered as moderating variable which makes contact between human resource practices and employee turnover and retention of skills (Ekrot, Kock and Gemünden., 2016).

Controllable Variables: These variables are defined as core objectives of research program and these type of variable do not change and remain constant as time passes. Controllable factors are those that are found in association and organisational people can manage all these factors. In accordance with case study, controllable factors are employees satisfaction by providing a prominent pay scale. Satisfaction among manpower related to their working conditions, supervisory satisfaction and organisational commitment related to job satisfaction. As per stated in case, controllable factors are employee satisfaction related to all organisational aspects and all these things have their impact upon business operations and also on human resource practices (Gialuisi and Coetzer., 2013).

2. What is the motivation for including these variable into the conceptual frameworks for the study?

All these variable have their own role and importance that they are selected for this study. Variables have their advantages and disadvantages in research project by which their relevance are set. Main objective behind selecting all these variables in study is to conduct research program in an appropriate direction by taking adequate guidance and this type of action is helpful in carrying out a systematic research for better and most suitable outcome.

Independent variables are overall area of study that is researcher going to analysis and on the other hand dependent variable faces so many effects of independent variables like human resource practices have their impact upon employee relations and turnover and in this context researcher conducts study upon dependent variables by considers all effects and impacts of independent variable (Scanlan, Meredith and Poulsen., 2013).

3. How are these variable measured?

There are some methods that are used in evaluating all variables. Like observation because by observing all elements that are present in corporation and environment, a researcher can measure what are the dependent, independent, controllable and moderating variables and how are they important in conducting research program (Brunetto, Y. and et. al., (2012).).

4. Are there other variable that should be included in this study?

There are few other variable that have their impact in conducting a research program and also impacts working of association. These other variables are mediating, uncontrollable variables etc. that could be analysed for running a research program in more appropriate and relevant manner (Connell and Stanton., 2014).

Also Read: Unit 5 Virgin Atlantic Report UK College of Business and Computing


  • Brunetto, Y. & et. al., (2012). Emotional intelligence, job satisfaction, well‐being and engagement: explaining organisational commitment and turnover intentions in policing.Human Resource Management Journal. 22(4). 428-441.
  • Coetzee, M., & Pauw, D. (2013). Staff perception of leader emotional competency as a predictor of satisfaction with retention factors.Journal of Psychology in Africa. 23(2). 177-185.
  • Connell, J., & Stanton, P. (2014). Skills and the role of HRM: towards a research agenda for the Asia Pacific region.Asia Pacific Journal of Human Resources. 52(1). 4-22.
  • Deery, M., & Jago, L. (2015). Revisiting talent management, work-life balance and retention strategies.International Journal of Contemporary Hospitality Management. 27(3). 453-472.
  • Ekrot, B., Kock, A., & Gemünden, H. G. (2016). Retaining project management competence—Antecedents and consequences.International Journal of Project Management. 34(2). 145-157.
  • Fallon, B. J., & Rice, S. M. (2015). Investment in staff development within an emergency services organisation: comparing future intention of volunteers and paid employees. The International Journal of Human Resource Management. 26(4). 485-500.
  • Gialuisi, O., & Coetzer, A. (2013). An exploratory investigation into voluntary employee turnover and retention in small businesses.Small Enterprise Research. 20(1). 55-68.
  • Howe, A. L. & et. al., (2012). Stabilising the aged care workforce: an analysis of worker retention and intention.Australian Health Review. 36(1). 83-91.
  • Memon, M. A. & et. al., (2014). Training, engagement, social exchange ideology and employee turnover: A proposed moderated mediation conceptual framework.Australian Journal of Basic & Applied Sciences. 8(5). 151-156.
  • Mooren, L. & et. al., (2014). Safety management for heavy vehicle transport: A review of the literature.Safety science. 62. 79-89.
  • Murray, W., White, J., & Ison, S. (2012). Work-related road safety: A case study of Roche Australia.Safety science. 50(1). 129-137.
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