Unit 4 Management and Operations Assignment Level 4 Regent College
Unit 4 Management and Operations Assignment Level 4 Regent College
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LO1 and LO3
Operation management is a way through which the the business practices are administered so that organizational objectives can be attained. However, this requires effective management and leadership in a firm. This will assist in controlling and and planning of business operations in an appropriate manner. With the help of operation management an organization will be able to sustain in long run. Moreover, management plays an essential role in the performance of a business. It leads to define the organizational structure in a way that goals and objectives of the firm can be achieved. Beside this, leadership also plays a significant role as it offers guidance to the whole team and motivate for them for the betterment of business operations. The present report is based on the case study of Holborn, London which is a management consultancy firm. The stated organization provides consultancy services to different organizations. Additionally, this report is prepared with a purpose to depict the role of leader and manager as well. It also going to enlighten the relationship between leadership and management. It will help the user to develop good understanding of management and operations (Anderson and Anderson, 2010).
Leadership and management are the two important concept which is being adopted in each and every organization. Both the concept are contrary to each other and have individual applicability in the organization. Management has mainly four functions such as planning, organizing, controlling and leading. On other side, leadership has eight functions such as defining the task, planning, briefing the team, controlling, evaluating, motivating, organizing and setting an example. Management functions are simply restricted or bounded up to the four functions. But leadership functions can be better known as the extended form of management functions. The motive of management function are to manage the company operations nut leadership is focused on the improvement of people or employees. With the help of management functions a leader can know what is to be done. On contrary to this leadership functions suggests how is to be done or the implementation of the planned function is done. Additionally, management functions assist in forming a structure and authorities can be delegated effectively. On other side, leadership helps in offers appropriate guidance for the development of company goals and visions (Audi, 2012).
Management by objective can be define as procedure through which the organization can define its objectives which leads to remain useful for the employees and top management of the company. The main motive of this concept is setting goals in a participative manner and also to opt a course of action. There are different features of this concept such as it helps in making workforce participative and make them a part of goal setting process. In context to this, the lower level employees are supported by their superiors which leads to leaver up their perfection and confidence towards the work and organization as well. Adoption of this concept can impact the organization in both the positive and negative manner. This process can act as an effective tool for motivation and also facilitates the planning process effectively. Additionally, this can be fruitful for employees as it will uplift their morale. On contrary to this, it may concluded as a time consuming process which also lacks durability. This can also create a conflicting goals for the organisation (Pato and McCalman, 2008).
Mintzberg gave 10 management roles which are bifurcated in a category in interpersonal, informational and decisional. However, interpersonal role is consist of leaders, liaison and figurehead. On other hand, informational function is further divided in monitoring, discriminator and spokesperson. In context to this, decisional role is also being played a manager in which he act as an entrepreneur, disturbance handler, resource allocator and negotiator. In an organization a manager needs to perform the three stated role in an effective manner. In different situation and as per the requirement the roles are changed. This helps a firm to manage its changing and dynamic situations which is raised in the company. This model can be applicable when an individual wants to develop or improve his or her skills and knowledge. Additionally, this is not only applicable for the individual purpose but also when it comes to team work it can be used for the improvement of team work (Heath, 2012).
The major focus of leadership trait theory is to analyse the personality traits which can be adopted for the successful leadership in different situation. In the dynamic situations of the organization, this leadership trait theory can remain useful. In the required situation what behaviour is needed can be analysed by this theory. In context to this, there are different leadership styles which can be adopted in different situations at workplace. But as per the case two leadership styles are given below.
Autocraticstyle: According to this style, a leader does not involve its team members in the decision making process. This sort of style can be adopted at top level or when quick decision making is required. The positive impact of the same is that it will save time and quick decision making can be done. On other hand, this can affect the motivation level of the employees due to non involvement in decision making process.
Participativestyle: Participative style ensures the proper interaction and involvement of the employees in the decision making process. This style can remain effective at lower level so that it can enhance the motivation level of the subordinates. The positive impact is that it helps in making good relations between employees and leader. On other side, it can affect the decision making process or turn down slower. In addition to this, it can also result into security issues (Anderson and Anderson, 2010).
Hard management skills can be defined as concept in which the employees are considered to be the resources of the company. Here, they are not offered flexibilities and restrictions are imposed on them. As per this concept, the organization adopts 1:4 ratio where the 1 denotes to the employee's salary and 4 denotes to the revenue generation. This is one of the traditional concept which is being adopted by the firms like infosys. However, the impact of hard management skills can be on employees and their performance. It result into increase in employee turnover ratio. This is presently faced by the stated organization.
Soft leadership skill can be explained as the process in which the employees are taken as the assets of the company. As per this concept, they are offered several flexibilities and the policies of the organization is formulated by keeping in mind the needs and requirements of the workforce. Additionally, this is a new concept in which the subordinates are taken care by the management and they are provided as much as help so that they can balance work and life. For an instance, Deloitte benefits its male employees for the paternal leaves through which they can balance their work and life (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). The impact of the same is that it will increase a sense of trust and loyalty towards the organization. In addition to this, it result into decrease in the employee turnover problem.
Transformation process can be explained as the activity in which the inputs are added and transform them for providing final output to the customers. This process is purely based on three activities such as input, transformation and output (Audi, 2012).. However, the input process includes the raw material and further it is transformed to the end product. In order to initiate the transformation process inputs includes materials, information, customers etc. In addition to this, the transformation process includes manufacturing, transport, supply and services. Whereas, manufacturing is a process in which the a product is prepared or integration of the parts are done. Further, the designed product is transported form one place to another with the help of different transportation process. Supply is done to the end customers with the help of distribution channels. At last the end product is prepared and produced.
Quality can be explained as a way through which it can measured with the help of selected standard. In context of product, each and every organization needs to focus on the production process so that good can be produced up to the standards. In addition to this, the quality of the product is also based on the supplied raw material. This will help the organization to maintain its quality as per the standard (Organizational chart. 2016). Additionally, the four cost of quality are internal failure cost, external failure cost, appraisal cost and prevention cost. With the help of cost of quality, the firm is able analyse the use of resources for the prevention. Additionally, prevention cost is charged so that quality issues can be avoided. These are the cost which are related with the implementation and designing of quality management system. In addition to this, appraisal cost is helpful in in the monitoring of the tasks ascertained in the company. These cost are also related with material purchased and supplied goods. On other hand, internal failure cost is the cost helps in removing the defects of a product before the delivery to the consumers.
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Managers play an essential role in the total quality management(TQM) where the TQM programmes can be implemented and initiated by the managers itself. This process needs to have lot of planning and research so that it can be effectively implemented (Bush, and Middlewood, 2013) . While conducting the TQM programmes, it incurs huge cost and expenses. Here, the manager is required to allocate the budget in the starting year. Additionally, the manager is responsible to be a facilitator in the organization. Being a manager it is crucial for him to provide assistance to the employees at the time of implementing the TQM. In context to this, a manager is required to interact with the employees so that they can let them know the benefits of the TQM programmes. This will result in developing clear understanding of the stated programmes. It leads to achieve the objective due to which the adoption of TQM is done. Moreover, the manager also needs to offer requisite training and development session for the employees. This will help them to accept the cahnge and be able to work in an effective manner. In turns, this will help in improving the position and performance of the employees and the organization as well (Boxall and Purcell, 2011).
Just-in-Time(JIT) approach is an useful technique through which the inventory level can remain low by producing the particular goods demanded by the customers. It can result into decrease in investment with reference to inventory and scrap cost. In this concept, high coordination plays an essential role With the help of this approach, decrease can be seen in raw material and work in progress (Cicmil and et.al.,2006). However, this method can be useful for the organization as it helps in decreasing the cost of production. On contrary to this, the stated process can affect the production if the suppliers are not able to deliver the goods on time. In addition to this, if suddenly the company gets an urgent order in mass production then the firm will not be able to meet the immediate requirements on the stated time.
Waste management or reduction in the operations is again the crucial aspect on which the management is required to focus. It is the duty of the firm to eliminate or reduce the waste. However, this can be known as non-value added activity(Chell and et. al., 2014). In context to this, waste reduction will help in decreasing the time and improving the quality of the end product. It also assist in decreasing the cost of production through which the firm will be able to generate more revenues.
Capacity management can be defined as process through which the operations capacity can be measured at the maximum level of the value added in a particular time frame. In an organization, the production department faces certain capacity constraints because of the less demand of the products. However, there are different measures through which demand and capacity can be measured. For the same, the department is required to focus on three areas such as planning and controlling of the capacity(Cadbury, 2006).. With the help of this method, the planning of the same can be done. This will help the managers to safeguard from the over utilization of the resources. In addition to this, the firm is required to forecast the accuracy in changing demands. This will help in proper analysis of the of the customers requirements and production requirements. This will give an indication to the relative uncertainty because extra stuffs are based on future level of the demands.
There are different roles and responsibility are being played by both the manager and the leader. By performing their roles effectively the operations of the company can be attained. In addition to this, leaders are responsible for the development of the employees (Collins, Weber, and Zambrano, 2014). However, they need to analyse the task to be performed by the them. This will help the employees to improve their current position for the achievement of future needs and objectives. This will ultimate assist the organization to implement the planned strategies and plans. However, the managers are required to focus on the formation of strategies and plans for the implementation of the same. In addition to this, the manager is required to analyse and perform the duties in an an effective manners. This will help the organization to attain its goals and objectives effectively. Additionally, the leaders is also responsible for his certain duties and roles towarsd the employees and his team members. In addition to this, the leader is required to take proper care of the employees needs and requirements. This will help them to form a good employee and employer reflation between the team and its members (Ciulla,2013).
LO2 and LO4
The present report is base on the case study of the leading management consultancy firm in Holborn,London. The motive of this company is to provide consultancy services to the firms and other candidates. In addition to this, the firm provide guidance and expertise knowledge to the customers. In addition to this, the stated firm identify the the potential clients. Further, they develop proposals for the types of services which are being offered by them. This helps an organization to focus on the challenges and issues related to the business. In the stated report different roles in operations departments are going to be depicted (Fullan, 2014). In addition to this, the stated organization provides guidance with reference to different areas such as management, human resources etc. This helps the company to attain the objectives of the companies who wants to get these services. The major work are performed by them are identification of the clients. They do this process with the use of different sources such as books, internet and other sources. The major work done by the cited firm is to broaden the portfolio of the clients so that they can get different career opportunities. This will help the candidates to get desired job opportunities as per their needs and requirements (Organizational chart, 2016).
Being a personal assistant at stated consultancy firm there are different roles are being performed by my department. The department focused on entitling the powerful incentives to the subordinates for recruitment and the process of retention. However, the department plays an essential role where it manages the company operations. With the help of this department, the firm is able to make proper record of the operations (Graves, Sarkìs and Zhu, 2013). This help the firm to safeguard with the problem of overlapping and duplication of work. The stated organization offers consultancy services to the customers and other firms where being a personal manager the drafts and quotations are being prepared by me. In addition to this, being a personal assistant the reports and presentations are also prepared by the department. This helps in showing the clients and customers. Here, the use of customised software for the development of products. In addition to this, our department also gives solution t the customers queries for the specific issues.
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The management team of the stated department includes the CEO, CFO and the managers . Having a management team can help the organization to provide a specific direction for the working (Heath, 2012). This helps the employees to work in one direction so that the objectives of this firm can be attained. The management team of the stated organization plays crucial role for providing the strategies and plans for the betterment of work. This helps an organization to improve their current position for attain the future objectives. The management team of this organization is well versed with several skills such as administration, marketing, finance and consultancy. All these areas are being analysed by the management team. In addition to this, the delegation of responsibility and duties are done with the help of this team. This has resulted in effective operations of the organization. In addition to this, the team is focused on the development of the employees with the help of training and development programmes. This will help the organization to improve the current skills and talent of the subordinates.
The stated organization has the manager with participative leadership. As per this style, the manager involves the employees in the decision making process of the organization (Paton, and McCalman, 2008). Wherever e, the polices are formed the manager of this company ask to the employees whether they are OK with the policies of not. This helps the organization to maintain good relation with its workforce. In order to support the employees this style is helpful for the stated organization. As it helps in giving chance to each and every individual to express their ideas and views towards the organization objectives. However, the this style has certain impacts on the operations of the organization. The positive impact is that it offers equally chances to the employees for expressing their view and ideas to the management. In context to this, the firm is get a chance of present innovation to the customers. Because all the employees participate in decision making help the company to get new ideas. On contrary to this, the stated leadership style can be time consuming process as the participation of all the employees can lengthen the decision making process (Employability Skills - Skills You Need for a Job. 2016).
There are different roles and responsibilities are being performed by the manager in the stated organization (Rademakers, 2012). But the major roles of the manager is towards the employees and the organization as well. Additionally, the manager is required to analyse the training needs of the employees. This can be done with the help of analysing the performance of the subordinates. The manager can evaluate the needs and for attain the same requisite training programmes can be conducted in the company. This will help the employees to improve their present position for the attainment of future goals and objectives. In addition to this, the manager is responsible towards the proper management functions. It is necessary for them to monitor and evaluate the work done by the employees. This provides an assistance to the company to save the issues of duplication of work. This can help the company to save its time and money which can be used for future development. This will help the organisation to attain its predetermined objectives in an effective manner.
At the time of giving lecture, there was a situation arises when the conflicting situation got created between the two students (Reason, 2016). This has resulted into affecting the environment of the class. However, at that time being a manager I used contingency theory of management where I make the two parties under to leave the topic and focus on lecture. This helped in solving the problem raised between the two students was sorted out.
There are different leadership theories which can applies to the stated organization. These leadership theories help the employees to provide appropriate guidance in order to work effectively (Anderson and Anderson, 2010). The stated organization can implement the different theories for the betterment of work. The stated organization has a leader with participative style who supports and motivates his team members. This leads to make good relations between the employee and the employer. In addition to this, the employees are offered cooperation band help form the employer. This has resulted into raising the interest of the employees towards the stated organisation. In addition to this, the stated leadership style has assisted the employees to improve their position and performance. Having a participative leader has resulted the employees to analyse the training and development needs (Employability Skills - Skills You Need for a Job. 2016).
The stated organization deals in providing the consultancy services to the clients and customers. However, the transformation process of this organization will be the same as the general process. However, in this organization the inputs are the clients and customers information for getting the reasonable solution. This will include the company data and the requisite information with the concerned company. Here, the management and employees will put their knowledge and skills for giving the proper solution of the problem. In addition to this, the solution will be checked by the top authority so that standard and quality services can be maintained. After analysing and evaluating the whole situation the comp-any will give an appropriate solution in terms of output. This output will be given to the clients for offering the effective solution to the business or concerned issue. After getting the solution, the clients and customer will implement the same in the practical aspect. If any deviation found then the client will give the feedback to the employees or recognized authority. This process will help the company to have an effective flow of information form one end to another.
Capacity management is a process through which the operations of the company can be managed assignment help in effective manner (Paton and McCalman, 2008). Or it can be defined as process through which the operations capacity can be measured at the maximum level of the value added in a particular time frame. In an organization, the production department faces certain capacity constraints because of the less demand of the products. However, there are different measures through which demand and capacity can be measured. For the same, the department is required to focus on three areas such as planning and controlling of the capacity. With the help of this method, the planning of the same can be done. This will help the managers to safeguard from the over utilization of the resources. In addition to this, the firm is required to forecast the accuracy in changing demands. This will help in proper analysis of the of the customers requirements and production requirements. This will give an indication to the relative uncertainty because extra stuffs are based on future level of the demands (Organizational chart, 2016).
It can be recommended that the organization can improve its performance by making good relations with the clients and customers. In addition to this, the management can analyse the current position of the company so that it can take corrective measures. In order to improve, the management can cut down the cost by taking corrective measures. This will help the company to invest money for the further expansion of the business. This will help the company to grow and improve its operations in effective manner. Additionally, the company can also resolve the weak areas by taking corrective measures. This will help the organization to improve its performance in an effective manner. In addition to this, it will also solve the issue of employee turnover which is generally faced by the organization (Employability Skills - Skills You Need for a Job. 2016).
From the above report it can be concluded that, the report has defined various management theories and leadership styles. This has helped the company to improve its position for the future goals and objectives. In addition to this, adoption of just in time approaches has helped the company to manage its inventory and other operation of the company. As a result, the objectives and goals of the company has achieved with the help of implemented techniques.
Audi, R., 2012. Virtue ethics as a resource In business. Business Ethics Quarterly. 22(02) pp•273-291.
Boxall, P. and Purcell. J., 2011. Strategy and human resource management. Palgrave Macmillan.
Burnett, J., 2013. Useful Toil: Autobiographies of Working People from the 1820s to the 1920s
Bush, T. and Middlewood, D., 2013. Leading and managing people in education. Sage.
Cadbury, A., 2006. Corporate social responsibility. Twenty-First Century Society. 1(1). pp. 5-21.
Chell, E. and et. al., 2014. Social entrepreneurship and business ethics: does social equa ethical?. journal of Business Ethics. pp.1-7.
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