Organisational behavior reflects the impact of working behavior of employees on the business operations of an organisation. 2m Group Limited deals in distribution of Chemical which was established in 2004 by Mottie Kessler. You are asked to act as a HR manager of medium sized organisation to analyze the culture of organisation in order to frame strategies for increasing performance level of business.
- Evaluate the impact of culture, politics and power on the working behavior of individual, team and organisation.
- Analyze the approaches which are used to motivate people working within 2m Group.
- Discuss the importance of building a team within an organisation.
- Use concepts and philosophies of organisational behavior to deal with business situations.
Organisational behaviour is study of attitude which is performed by employees within organisation. It can be referred as the study of interface among employees and other components of enterprise making good environment within business enterprise. It is essential to know what can be done through which culture of organisation will effective and efficient for providing satisfaction to consumer (Lee, Kim and Kim, 2013). In an association, there is requirement of various functions which makes business operations proper and significant. Leadership, motivation, appraisals, etc. is essential as it helps in performing business operations in positive way. In this report, there is a discussion about 2m Group Limited which deals in distribution of Chemical which was established in 2004 by Mottie Kessler. This report enhance knowledge about influence of culture, politics and power on behaviour of others, motivation of individuals and team, impact of cooperate effectively with others, application of concept and philosophies of organisational behaviour to business operations.
P1 Impact of organisation’s culture, politics and power on individual and team behaviour and performance
Organisational behaviour is analysis of employees behaviour in which they interact with each other. This is combination of management activities which helps to understand personnel's behaviour at work place. In business, it is requirement of various approaches which help to perform business operations in effective and efficient manner. While making changes in business operations it is essential to work according to market trends and take actions which is significant for growth and development of business. There is requirement to distribute some powers to subordinate level which helps to perform job responsibilities in better manner. 2m Group Limited is the association which deals in chemical so it is essential to deliver proper knowledge to workers so they can perform job duties in efficient manner (Owings and Kaplan, 2012) Due to change in business environment, so managers of 2m Group Limited have to alter business roles and responsibilities of employees. There is some culture which is present in organisation, this is because of employee's behaviour at work place. Manager must frame policies through which good environment can be followed and business activities is performed in better and appropriate manner. With the help of Handy's cultural typology and organisational culture 2m Group Limited able to analyse worker's behaviour which is discussed as below-
As per this theory, there is difference in culture of every organisation. It is essential to know what changes are required through which changes can be performed in better and efficient way. Handy's cultural typology has four categories of culture which are discussed as under-
Power culture- In this culture, power is vested with some people. They decide what has to be done through which changes are significant and effective for market growth and development. They work according to market trends and this is effective for making changes in roles and responsibilities of workers. In this, culture of 2m Group Limited controls all the business operations from centre. There are possibilities of bureaucracy within business organisation (Paillé and Grima, 2011).
Role culture- In this culture, managers assign roles and responsibilities to employees. It is essential to create policies which are significant for performing job responsibilities. In this culture, managers control business operations performed by employees as they assign some responsibilities related to their responsibility. In 2m Group Limited, power is vested with managers to take decisions which is significant and relevant for performing business operations. This culture is closely related with power and how much power has to be given depends on designation of personnel.
Person culture- In person culture, employees are considered essential component for 2m Group Limited. With this culture, there are opportunities of growth for employees and it benefits organisation as well as person. This motivates personnel to give their best and work according to market trends which are fruitful for enhancing image of 2m Group Limited.
Task culture- As per task culture, some responsibility is assigned to employees. As per this culture, employees are responsible for their assigned job roles. To deal with problem, there is some power also given to employees, so they need not to consult with higher authority for small issues. As per skills, task are assigned to employees, hence, it is responsibility of managers to analyse skills and characteristics of employees (Ali, 2010). In this culture, matrix organisational structure is followed and no single power i.e. associated with team.
Out of four culture, task culture is one of the best culture to achieve business objectives of 2m Group Limited. As per this task culture, business activities can be performed in better and effective way which help to analyse market and take actions which are essential to achieve targets. Due to inappropriate results under task culture, managers of 2m Group Limited are able to know reason and set accountability out of employees.
Power helps to perform business operations in proper manner. 2m Group Limited frame policies which is effective for performing business operations in effective and appropriate manner. There is impact of power, culture and politics on team work as well as individual. Managers of 2m Group Limited has to keep this factor in mind. With giving power to subordinates, they can get motivated and feel more comfortable while working. While in mind of other workforce, there are feeling of dissatisfaction and conflicts may arise (Al-Zu’bi, 2010).
Impact of organisation’s culture, politics and power on individual
Individual works in 2m Group Limited to achieve targets. There are many workers working in 2m Group Limited so possibilities of difference in perception of personnel. Politics, culture and power affects the performance of company's worker. When more power is given to employees there are possibilities they dominant other team mates. In case, more power is assign to person at same designation, this may create dissatisfaction among employees and creates personal conflicts. There are possibilities that employees do not use power vested with him for positive reason. So there is impact on operations of company. In case,if power is not given to employees, the circumstances can increase dissatisfaction among workers and this can increase turnover of workers. Culture of 2m Group Limited affects performance of workers. For e.g. if there is culture of innovation, then employees will be prepared to accept changes and give best results. In case of politics in 2m Group Limited communication gets diverted and possibilities of misleading workers.
Impact of organisation’s culture, politics and power on team behaviour
2m Group Limited deals in chemical distribution, so, there are many activities which collectively helps to perform business operations in effective and significant manner. There is requirement of team which perform job roles in efficient manner. Such as project performed by 2m Group Limited finished on time. Manager has to structure teams as per job requirement and skills of person (Ayyagari, Grover and Purvis, 2011). In case, wrong time is framed, there is wastage of time as well as cost. Productivity of 2m Group Limited also gets affected in negative manner. Due to improper culture, there are possibilities of negative results and it can bring impact on image of 2m Group Limited. In 2m Group Limited managers follow culture of working in team so possibilities of positive behaviour is more. Employee's interact between team mates, so culture within organisation will be good. Due to bad politics, there can be emergence of controversies among team members and performance of overall team adversely affected.
Impact of organisation’s culture, politics and power on performance
Organisation and its employee performance is hugely influenced by culture, power and politics. Due to more power, employees remain satisfied and perform work in proper manner because they are aware of their accountable for their job roles. In chemical business, 2m Group Limited has to be careful while dealing with changes (Ali, 2010). With the influence of working style, employees may give their best which give positive impact on performance of 2m Group Limited. In case of negative politics performance get adversely affected. So it is essential that manager must control business activities of employees.
P2 How to motivate individuals and teams to achieve a goal
Motivation is one of the essential component which has to be considered by managers to perform business operations in effective and appropriate manner. There are possibilities that due to change in working styles, personnel may not feel comfortable at workplace, so motivation is effective. There are some motivational theories that managers of 2m Group Limited can utilise in order to make workers work with full enthusiasm so that positive results can achieved. Managers of 2m Group Limited use key two motivation theories that are discussed as under-
As per this theory, there is difference in needs and desires of employees with passage of time. Managers of 2m Group Limited are working to know what changes are acceptable by employees and accordingly motivational techniques are implemented. There are some factors which encourages individuals to give their best if there demand gets satisfied (Al-Zu’bi, 2010).
Maslow's Theory of Motivation: This theory have five needs which has to be considered by managers of 2m Group Limited. These factors are discussed as under-
- In this, first need is Physiological need. This contains basic need of employees. According to it, rewards and salary of employees must be sufficient to satisfy food, shelter, clothes gets satisfied.
- After this, second need is safety and security need. This discuss about safety measures at work place. 2m Group Limited deals in chemical sector, so there must be proper safety at work place.
- Third need in this theory is social need. Employees wants to become social which help them to create good relations with external as well as internal parties.
- Fourth need is self esteem need. In this employees gets satisfied when they gets promoted, rewarded when positive results are generated (Ayyagari, Grover and Purvis, 2011).
- Last and above most need is self actualization. In this, when all above mentioned four needs gets satisfied then this need arise. This need differs as per perception of workers.
ERG theory of motivation: This is similar as Maslow's theory but in precise manner. Needs of employees at 2m Group Limited are divided into three steps. They are discussed as under-
- First is existence need. In this, psychological, safety and security need is considered.
- Next is relatedness need. In this, social and self esteem need of employees are considered. In 2m Group Limited, there must be good communication and interaction approaches which gives satisfaction to customer.
- Last need of this theory is growth need. Every person what gets growth in their career path. This is last need and there is difference in this need. Such as some wants growth in monetary terms while some want in designation.
This theory works according to requirement and need of situation which helps to motivate employees through which they give their best. 2m Group Limited has varieties of workers having different mindset, so process theory proves beneficial. In this, there are two theories (Baum, Frese and Baron, 2014).
Vroom's expectancy Theory: This theory includes three major factors, i.e. expectancy, instrumentality, valence.
- In expectancy, person will have to give more efforts in order to get positive results. So as per this, elements of motivation can be performed by giving them targets and goals.
- In instrumentality, employees will get motivated with rewards. In this, when employees give best, then they will be rewarded with monetary or non- monetary benefits.
- In valence, employees measures reward as their performance. So managers must frame policies which are effective and signifiant for getting positive results. In 2m Group Limited, appraisal of workers is done as per performance and hence they work hard.
Skinner's reinforcement theory: In this theory, there are two components those are positive and negative (Coccia and Rolfo, 2013). In positive factor, incentives are given to employees as per their working style. While in negative impact, there is scrutiny of workers who are working in appropriate way. This motivational theory is effective for 2m Group Limited to aware workers about fired from job place.
Apart from motivational theories, it is essentail to apply some motivational techniques which are effective and appropriate for growth and development of 2m Group Limited. When there is an improvement in position of workers then this improves image of organisation also. Some of motivational techniques followed by managers of 2m Group Limited are as under-
Positive environment- There is requirement of positive environment within 2m Group Limited. This helps to motivate employees to give services as per requirement. 2m Group Limited deals in chemical industry, so changes in products are required which is essential for competing in industry.
Setting of goals- Managers of 2m Group Limited want to create portfolio of chemicals which satisfy demand of customers,, so goals must be setted. These must be acknowledged to employees, so they can work accordingly.
Incentives and Recognition of achievements- Incentives is one of the important component which is essential for making employees motivated. Manager must analyse which type of motivation is required required i.e. monetary or non- monetary. When achievements are gained, then employees must be rewarded. (DeChurch and Mesmer-Magnus, 2010).
P3 Explain what makes an effective team as opposed to an ineffective team
Team means to work in group of two or more people. There is requirement of joint efforts of workers to perform business operations in better and effective way. It is essential to make changes in roles and responsibilities which are significant and appropriate for attaining goals and objectives. Due to difference in skills, knowledge, experience, capabilities of workers. Hence, manager of 2m Group Limited has to find qualities and then assign job responsibilities. This helps to get positive results. In chemical sectors, changes are taking place very frequently, so it is essential to select sources which are effective and significant for business growth. There are various types of teams which helps to works in effective way. They are discussed as under-
Virtual team- This team generally don't considered as a team, but in case of contingency they work as team. It is essential to frame policies which are essential to get positive results from business operations of 2m Group Limited (DeChurch and Mesmer-Magnus, 2010). As there are various events organised in 2m Group Limited, so team working in such events to get positive results.
Problem solving team- This is the team which works to resolve measure which affects business issues. This teams helps to deal with adverse situation which are appropriate for market. It is essential to know what can be done through which managers of 2m Group Limited is able to deal with problem.
Functional team- This team is formed with the people to whom some responsibility is given. This is effective for performing functions in better way. Such teams are framed with the help of people who are capable to perform business operations in appropriate manner. In this team, there is similarity in functions of employees.
Project team- 2m Group Limited deals in distribution of chemical, so there are various projects. These projects are performed by team known as project team. When project gets completed team gets dissolved. There is chain between activities of these team mates. Project team consist of varieties of people having different skills and qualities.
Benefits of working in team
Improvement in quality of product- There are many changes taking place in business environment, so manager has to change their product and services with working in team. These helps to improve quality of chemical offered by 2m Group Limited (Haslam and et. al., 2014).
Able to handle adverse situation- There is requirement to deal with external as well as internal factors, so it is important to make strategies which help to control adverse situation. In case of frequent decision making it is easy to deal with situation and get best decision.
Tuckman and Jensen's model of team development:
This model assist in managing team and functioning of collaborative working in efficient manner. This model can be understood with the help of five major steps. They are discussed as under in detail-
Forming- This is the first step which is associated with planning and organising of people to perform collaboratively. In this step, collecting information, finalising roles and responsibilities of workers, etc are required (Hershcovis, 2011).
Storming- In this step, managers of 2m Group Limited has to motivate workers to give their best. This is effective for making changes in working style through which positive results can be analysed. Disputes arises in this phase due to numerous causes such as language barriers, generation gap etc.
Norming- In this step, teams come together to perform job responsibilities. In this model, there is use of approaches which are essential to develop good team. In this phase, people start to resolve their issues and differences to work in combined form. In this appreciation is given to workers which is essential to know what changes helps to achieve targets.
Performing- In the stage of performing, worker perform hard work without any friction and disputes. In this step there is performing of business operations is necessary. In this managers of 2m Group Limited some powers are delegated to employees so they can perform operations in more appropriate manner.
Transforming- This stage is also known as adjourning. There are possibilities of difficulty in reaching team up to this stage. As per this, component says that team may continue with completion of projects for future. But managers of 2m Group Limited does not perform properly because future is unpredictable (Huang and Bond, 2012).
P4 Apply concepts and philosophies of organisational behaviour
Organisational behaviour is essential component to achieve targets and perform business operations in proper and effective manner. When workers perform well, then this proofs beneficial for growth of 2m Group Limited. There are various goals and targets with specified time limit. Manager plays vital role in motivating workers to give best. Motivation and leadership are essential components which help to analyse what can be done through which changes can be signifiant for 2m Group Limited. Also, it is essential to analyse changes and take business actions in appropriate way. Managers must give focus on matching gap between employee's and organisational goal. 2m Group Limited has numerous employees, so it is essential to work in harmony among employees and employer. There are some concept and behaviour which are significant for creating good organisational behaviour are-
PATH GOAL THEORY- It is one of the best and effective concept for creating changes in roles and responsibilities of workers of 2m Group Limited. It is essential to know what can be done through which goals can be attained on time. With this theory, there is knowledge about factors which provides satisfaction and motivation (Johns, 2010). This theory was launched in 1964 to know ways in which person may react in various situations. There will be numerous benefits to 2m Group Limited in there growth and development. Factors of this theory are as under-
Employee characteristic: There are varieties of workers working in 2m Group Limited. There is difference on mindset as per change in situation. There are possibilities that due to change in working styles worker may change their working style. In order to achieve own goals and objectives, workers may not work in appropriate way.
Task and environmental quality: 2m Group Limited apply path goal theory which is significant for maintaining quality of product and services. It is essential to develop strategies which are competent to market. There are various task which help to perform business operations in appropriate manner. There are possibilities that due to change in business goals and objectives, roles and responsibilities of employee's at 2m Group Limited gets altered. It is responsibility of manager to deliver appropriate information.
LEADER BEHAVIOUR- Leader is one of the essential component which is necessary to make changes in roles and responsibilities. While dealing with changes managers has to lead team, so positive results can be judged. As per path goals theory, leader makes plan to perform business operations. Goals set by managers can be achieved with the help of employees and employer of 2m Group Limited. There are four types of leader behaviours which helps to achieve targets are-
Directive leader- This is the leader which gives direction to team to perform operations in specified manner. While distributing chemical, it is essential to deliver it on time, so directive helps in guiding subordinates how to perform business job responsibilities (Joseph and Newman, 2010).
Supportive leader- They are leaders which supports team mates while operating business operations. With leader's support employees gets motivated to perform business operations in effective and efficient way. Leaders of 2m Group Limited must support employees through which they can be friendly and feel feel to share problems. This brings quality to chemical offered by 2m Group Limited.
Participative leader- Participative leaders are the best leader because they keep engaged in project with employees. This bridges gap between employer and employee of 2m Group Limited and business operations are performed with more efficiently. These leaders think for employees first, so workers are motivated and give their best (Kulik and Olekalns, 2012).
Achievement- There are setting of goals which can be achieved with the help of employee's engagement. It is essential to make 2m Group Limited to exist in industry.
From the above discussion it is clear that 2m Group Limited deal with various changes which are significant for roles and responsibilities. With the help of Path goal theory targets are achieved on time. Leader plays vital role in 2m Group Limited to perform business operations as per demand of customer. In 2m Group Limited, participative leaders are more active as compared to other.
From the above discussion it is clear that organisation behaviour is one of the essential subject which has to be considered. Power, roles and responsibilities are allotted to workers according to their position in organisation. Process and content theory both are essential to be followed as this helps to motivate workers to give best at work place. Various monetary and non- monetary benefits are helpful to achieve targets on time. There is discussion about various types of team which is effective for performing business operations. A leader plays very essential role to make workers perform in appropriate way. Participative leader is best approach as it helps to know what problems are faced by employees and accordingly solution is given.
Books and Journals
- Ali, I. B., 2010. A correlation study of leader-member exchange and organizational citizenship behavior in a public sector organization. Journal of Global Business and Economics. 1(1). pp.62-78.
- Al-Zu’bi, H. A., 2010. A study of relationship between organizational justice and job satisfaction. International Journal of Business and Management. 5(12). p.102.
- Ayyagari, R., Grover, V. and Purvis, R., 2011. Technostress: technological antecedents and implications. MIS quarterly. 35(4). pp.831-858.
- Baum, J. R., Frese, M. and Baron, R. A. eds., 2014. The psychology of entrepreneurship. Psychology Press.
- Coccia, M. and Rolfo, S., 2013. Human resource management and organizational behavior of public research institutions. International Journal of Public Administration. 36(4). pp.256-268.
- DeChurch, L. A. and Mesmer-Magnus, J.R., 2010. The cognitive underpinnings of effective teamwork: a meta-analysis.
- DeChurch, L. A. and Mesmer-Magnus, J.R., 2010. The cognitive underpinnings of effective teamwork: a meta-analysis.
- Haslam, S. A. and et.al., 2014. Social identity at work: Developing theory for organizational practice. Psychology Press.
- Hershcovis, M. S., 2011. “Incivility, social undermining, bullying… oh my!”: A call to reconcile constructs within workplace aggression research. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 32(3). pp.499-519.
- Huang, X. and Bond, M. H. Eds., 2012. Handbook of Chinese organizational behavior: Integrating theory, research and practice. Edward Elgar Publishing.
- Johns, G., 2010. Presenteeism in the workplace: A review and research agenda. Journal of Organizational Behavior. 31(4). pp.519-542.
- Joseph, D. L. and Newman, D. A., 2010. Emotional intelligence: an integrative meta-analysis and cascading model.
- Kulik, C. T. and Olekalns, M., 2012. Negotiating the gender divide: Lessons from the negotiation and organizational behavior literatures. Journal of Management. 38(4). pp.1387-1415.
- Lee, U. H., Kim, H. K. and Kim, Y. H., 2013. Determinants of organizational citizenship behavior and its outcomes. Global Business and Management Research. 5(1). p.54.
- Owings, W. A. and Kaplan, L. S., 2012. Leadership and organizational behavior in education: Theory into practice. Pearson.
- Paillé, P. and Grima, F., 2011. Citizenship and withdrawal in the workplace: Relationship between organizational citizenship behavior, intention to leave current job and intention to leave the organization. The Journal of Social Psychology. 151(4). pp.478-493.