Essential Aspect Used By Managing Infection

Question :

Within the intensive care unit, various radiographs are taken and the simplest ones are considered as mobile chest x rays. In achieving a diagnostic image, different types of challenges can occur and these are mentioned in the present case.

  1. Identification of ways in which better health can be attained by an individual.
  2. Examining the ways in which multidisciplinary collaboration can be improved.
  3. Identification of the ways in which hand hygiene can be maintained.
  4. Evaluation of essential aspect used by managing infection.
Answer :

CASE STUDY

Within the intensive care unit, various radiographs are taken and the simplest ones are considered as mobile chest x rays (Bontrager, Lampignano, & James, 2005, pp. 75-90). In achieving a diagnostic image, different types of challenges can occur and these are mentioned in the present case. In case of large patients, there are chances that the radiation scatter will increase which further minimizes the contrast of the image, so this is considered as quite difficult to do (Henschke, Yankelevitz Wand, Davis, & Shiau, 1997). A person dealing with obesity also feels quite unconscious and ventilated during this procedure. To ensure the fact that the person is being dealt in an efficient and secure manner, some efforts are required from team mates as well. It also helps in preventing them from any sort of injury or complication. In case of patients of MRSA positive, there are risks of expanding the infection to other patients, so to avoid these, specialised and advanced measures are being provided. For the people who are immunocompromised, the risk of spreading infection is slightly high, so these are also provided an advanced set of treatment. Patients with some special considerations of culture or of indigenous descent are being provided benefits as their own and family's needs can be fulfilled (Airhihenbuwa, 1995). In order to provide an efficiency and quality in care, a better analysis of background of indigenous Australian's is necessary. This also helps in maintaining an effective interaction rate, thus achieving more appropriate objectives (Meghani & Punjani, 2014).

For achieving a better health, a strong cultural identity and family connections play a major and important role. It is because this somewhere makes involvement of patient and their family members in an effective manner (Shahid, Finn & Thompson, 2009). There are various specialised health professionals as well who are keen to analyse more about the diseases, indigenous people are going through. Just because the language they use does not involve English much, so there are some possibilities of occurring some language barrier. Same is the case with Jargon. Involvement of communication methods such as asking name of patient, making them understand the whole situation and ways that will be included for treatment procedure can actually make the patient feel comfortable. If the patient is unconscious, even then also, interacting with them is important because at this stage also, they can hear but cannot react. Therefore, it is very important to interact with them in a friendly and respectful manner. Patients with MRSA usually have a higher rate of risk of spreading infections and can act very complicated. It is because its bacteria acts resistant to various antibiotics and its treatment procedure is quite crucial as well. Some well known precautions include use of gloves, washing of hands regularly etc. These are important as hand washing gels based on alcohol are said to reduce the number of bacteria's or germs present on hands (Boyce & Pittet, 2002; Girou, Loyeau, Legrand, Oppein, & Brun-Buisson, 2002).

Alcohol based gels for hand wash can help in excluding the risk of spore forming organisms, therefore, can be classified as efficient enough (Rupp et al., 2008). All these factors are essential to be considered for maintaining cleanliness, specially for the people with MRSA. Also, use of gloves is also considered as an effective factor and helps in reducing the complications associated with VRE. It is because studies show that it decreases the count of bacteria by 71% and also minimises the risk of transmission of infections (Osman & Askari, 2014; Srinivasan and et al., 2002) . So, all these precautions can be taken for reducing the overall rate of risk of transmission of infections. There are some cases when the patient that is to be diagnosed is large and quite complicated to assist. So, in such cases, managing injuries etc. is very important while positioning of the patient again (Muir & Heese, 2008). Also, an additional amount of staff can be required as well at that time and it will help in minimizing the risk of causing any injury or further complication (Stevens, Rees, Lamb & Dalsing, 2013). There are some risks associated while re positioning of the patient such as excess spinal loads. For convenience, it is usually said that the load should be below or equal to 35 pounds, not more than that (Galinsky, Hudock and Streit, 2010; Waters, 2007).

The mechanisms of body cannot be termed as capable enough of preventing any injury and specially in case of large patients. Although equipments that are being used within these mechanisms are considered effective because it helps in minimizing the exertion rate of body, which further proves helpful in case of preventing complications and injuries (Lloyd et al., 2003). Although there are various methods but a very basic method is the involvement of a HoverMatt and mechanism of body. It is appropriate enough because this minimizes the effort rate of moving a person, so weight doesn't matter here. In this, a bed flat is being placed till the height of the waist, which means a very decreased amount of stress will be put on back of the individual (MacGregor, 2016). Also, a single person takes the charge and guides appropriate directions to other people as well. Some patients are ventilated as well, so airway is being compressed because of their position (Muir & Heese, 2008). This position is for a limited amount of time, so before adjusting the patient, proper advice should be taken from the nurse. Also, it will lead to decrease the load for moving the patient because they are already oblique towards them. So, they can take benefits from this.

To deduct the load on the back that is the base of support of stability, centre of gravity over base of support for simple and secure manoeuvring, and the use of mobility muscles for lifting and stability muscles for support- the relative body mechanics should be applied (Pollard, 2015). The patient can be change back his position to supine position when the staff on the other side can put a HoverMatt underneath the patient. The patient should be in the centre of the HoverMatt before it is given and his movement on bed to procure the injury to the patient. Thus, the use of this type of devices and body mechanics to handle a patient, will reduce the physical disturbance and also best for injury treatment.

In medical terms, the multidisciplinary collaboration can improve the health results of a patient because it can provide fewer errors, avoid large delays and increased the effect of treatment(Baker Day & Salas, 2006). In the medical system, the education focused to make a decision related to medical independently with their country so that the individuals made the distribution of health care (Kydona, Malamis, Gianetsove, Tsiora, & Gritsi-Geogianni, 2010). The ownership is important for medical expertise because if it is not showed then it will be the reason of interdisciplinary act (Rose,2011).

The facts like same goals, responsibilities depends on each other, mutual respect and power sharing defines the interdisciplinary collaboration(Rose,2011). For example, the common work of the staff is to change the position of a patient and if any pregnant nurse said no for repositioning then her decision needs respect. Power sharing and co-dependency will define as, if that patient is able to lie in supine position himself then she has to remove the artefacts out from his chest area. The health experts can use their efforts by applying these features in collaboration to give effective care to the patient that can make better their health results.

The safety from radiation to be aimed because it has harmful effects and damage parts of the patient's body and it causes maximum chances of genetic mutations or cancer(UW Environmental Health and Safety, 2015). To procure this type of irrelevant radiation, use the exact process and proper examined site, check that unconscious patient using the armband(NSW Heath, 2011). We can fewer the radiation is to ignore the repetition of images.

However, to get a diagnostic image of this patient is not easy as the contrast of the image is reduced because of higher radiation scatter which caused by large adipose tissue thickness(le, Robinson, & Lwis, 2015). Many other problems are arrived like less beam attenuation caused by patient's size and artefacts from tubes and lines ans it is the reason of missed diagnoses (Carucci, 2013; Hobbs,207). Extra care should be given to the patient that there is no disturbing material in tubes and lines. The quality of image could increase with increasing beam energy but it will also increase scatter(Reynolds, 2011). To reduce this increases, we can use the grid and done with patient (Modica, Knal, & Gunn, 2011). The grid is suitable for large patient because the image degradation can make the image non-diagnostic and it wants repetition of image which is harmful for the patient (Carucci, 2013).

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In the clinical setting, there is difference between the application of knowledge and theoretical knowledge which can be seen in the aspects of manual handling, radiation safety, professional teamwork, communication and infection control. Patient's stress and anxiety level can be reduce through fruitful communication which is an important part of patient care (Baker & Melby, 1996). It is very important to talk to the patients who are unconscious but have ability to hear and perceive the meaning have right to know about the medical treatment taking place with them (Lawrence, 1995; The society and College of Radiographers, 2016). It is usual for clinical setting staff to assume that patients who are not aware of one's environment will not be able to understand and thus, staff do not try to interface with patients. It was found that 90% of the time, patients who are unconscious are taken care in peaceful manner (Cardim, Costa, Nascimento & Figueiredo, 2004). Instead of using assistive devices, university studies focus on the use of proficiency and safe body mechanics to handle patients. To handle patients in clinical environment, many equipments are being introduced globally but still manual lifting tends to be the first choice (Stevens et al.,2013). While university is still promoting safe patient handling culture. In US it is estimated that 25% of hospitals have enforced safe patient handling standard(Kenealy, 2015). However, barriers in using assistive device is that it consumes huge time in finding where these devices are located which leads to development of perception of staff for manual lifting (Stevens et., 2013).

More Suggested:

Theoretical studies stressed on the hand hygiene, as it is the most powerful method in removing microorganisms after getting in contact with patient is recommended to wash hands between duration of 15-30 seconds (Steere & Mallison, 1975). But, in the clinical setting, hand washing is not done on frequent basis and this method is many a time inadequate as the ICU staff wash their hand averagely 8.6 seconds (Albert & Condie, 1981; Quaraishi, McGuckin, & Blals, 1984). There was poor observance with the suggestion of hand washing practices and method (Graham, 1990). In order to reduce nosocomial infections, constant checking of hand hygiene procedures is crucial to preserve and increase cooperation (Boyce & Pittet, 2002). During studies there is a more focus on the importance of clinical justification and ALARA principles for radiation safety purpose. However, past studies claims that 95% of CXR done in ICU offers no new information pertaining to patients admitted. This certainly questions the requirement of using CXR in ICU (Hall, White, & and Karrison, 1991).While analysing of obese patients, it was found that effectual dose could be reduced (Yanch, Behrman, Hendricks, & McCall, 2009). For radiation safety purposes efforts for record and monitor of doses of larger patients should be made (Yanch et al., 2009). Discrepancy also exist in while working in group. Education focus on attaining clinical decision making and on the ownership of clinical expertise (Rose, 2011). While, it is valued that the team work is important and the benefits are well understood, a study in hospital showed low levels of team work and poor cooperation between the departments (Kydona et al., 2010). Thus, it is seen there is large gap exist between theoretical studies and its application in a practical setting in the aspect of manual handling, infections control, radiation safety, professional teamwork and communication.

In radiography, there are various essential aspects that are associated such as interaction, control for infection, managing radiations etc. It is because it is said that communication helps in achieving efficient outcomes (Lloyd et al., 2003). Also, for reducing the risk for injuries, assistive equipments, appropriate mechanism of body etc. can act helpful. In case of large patients also, equipments can be used because they are helpful as well as cheap (Kydona et al., 2010). It has been considered that use of gloves, hand wash etc. are better means to prevent risks. With the help of grids, radiations can be decreased as well (Hobbs, 2007; Modica et al., 2011; Reynolds, 2011). Teamwork at a professional rate is required for maintaining different outcomes such as providing care to patients etc. There are some gaps while considering these aspects within a clinical environment, so it can be improved by involving various ways and techniques.

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