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INTRODUCTION TO PUBLIC HEALTH
Health and social care is one of the most important sectors providing social, physical and emotional help to people in need. It can be defined as a sector providing integrated services to disabled people to contribute towards the betterment of society (Martin, Charlesworth and Henderson, 2010). Thus with respect to same terms, this research work has been undertaken to help readers understand the strategies used by health and social care organizations to control different form of diseases or illness. In the present research paper, different scenarios and cases have been highlighted so that researcher can provide better solutions to control societal problems. Other than this, different statistical data has also been presented to showcase the level of control different diseases require within UK.
Roles played by WHO (World Health Organization), Department of Health (DH), and local authorities in identifying the level of diseases and health in communities in UK is as mentioned below:
WHO (World Health Organization): WHO is an international organization concerned with all major health care issues taking place that are of a global concern. They actively provide solutions as well as medical assistance to different countries at the time of need or crisis (Gilson, 2006). Their role is to monitor, evaluate and then provide technical, financial, medical and other support. In order to control the overall level of diseases and health issues in communities in UK, WHO comes up with vaccination camps and other treatments for the cure of harmful diseases.
Local authorities: These are the governing bodies operating at local or domestic level and are the lowest level tier of healthcare management system. But these organizations have greater access to people with diseases and are responsible for keeping a regular check on the health issues prevailing in society. Another significant role played by them is to maintain epidemiology of the incidents that take place at domestic level (Tucker, 2006). On the basis of statistics collected by them, higher authorities determine the ways to look at those issues.
Department of Health (DH): It is a ministerial department that works with 23 agencies and related public bodies and a staff of 160 employees. This department is responsible to look after health and well being of people of UK and help them have a better living. Different national legislations and policies are identified by them and they further set priorities for preventing those ill situations or conditions amongst people of UK (Robinson and Griffiths, 2000). Furthermore, with the support of different vicarious agencies, Department of Health recognizes health issues and addresses them accordingly. They also get full support from local authorities for the same (Bogg, 2011).
1.2 Epidemiology for HIV and Type 2 Diabetes in UK
HIV or Human Immunodeficiency Virus is associated with immune deficiency caused to thymus-dependent system. The health issues in relation to this disease have grown quite significantly in past few years in UK. According to data released by Health Precaution Agency in 2009, there are 85,500 people in UK of all ages that have been diagnosed with HIV. The number of deaths caused due to the same in year 2009 was also the highest which was 516 (Nzira and Williams, 2009).
There are numerous ways and approaches that can be used for controlling the overall incidents related to Type 2 diabetes and HIV in UK and the further evaluation of its effectiveness can be determined as mentioned below:
Appointing public health consultant: People have various myths and unsound beliefs about HIV virus as well as about Type 2 diabetes. Thus there is a great need to appoint certain medical consultants so that people suffering from any one of these issues can get right treatment in their initial stages itself (Genkeer and et.al, 2002). This will also clear different doubts that are present within people with different thinking and will further help in imparting right knowledge. Appointing a new public health consultant is a veery effective strategy as it will allow hospital to bring in not only the new approaches to deal with healthcare issues but will also allow him to provide specific treatments to the patients after their complete and close examination.
Close surveillance: In this segment, local authorities have to keep a strict eye upon the statistics that are growing within the country and also inform higher authorities on right time so as to allow better control and medical aids (Soultatou and et.al, 2011). They can also identify emerging symptoms and provide their timely cure. This close eye at local people is also one of the most effective methods as it will allow lowering down the overall infection rate in the society.
Educating mass: It is very important to create awareness and amongst mass to understand the skills, habits and behavior of people and then provide needful knowledge to them. This will help in a great manner to make people conscious and avoid habits leading to poor physical and mental conditions (Henderson, 2008). This approach has always worked in an effective direction as if people have required knowledge about the ways to control or prevent these diseases, then they will take all the preventive measures to keep themselves hale and hearty.
Undertaking public-private partnerships: With increase in issues related to HIV and Diabetes within UK, there is a great need for both public and private firms to work together and provide people with high quality services and also lower down the overall rates of these diseases (Latest UK Statistics, 2014). This will be an initiative at higher level where both these sectors if work as a single unit, then it will help in solving more of the cases of HIV and Diabetes Type 2 and will also help in controlling them in the initial stages itself.
2.1 Priorities and approaches for services for people with Diabetes and HIV
As per the data received through the survey of World Health Organization about the global burden of diseases (GBD), it has been observed that GBD for diabetes type 2 is going to double from 180 to 366 million by 2030. Moreover, 80% of the cases are expected to come up from adult and low income groups. Coming on to HIV, DALY (Disability-adjusted Life Years) is used to measure the burden of these diseases. As per DALY an estimate, HIV is majorly caused amongst the people aged between 30-34 in both the gender and its GBD is expected to rise by 20% in coming 10 years (Soultatou and et.al, 2011). The different priorities can be set for controlling this rate of GBD for diabetes type 2 and HIV amongst people suffering from the same. The top priority that can be set over here to take a properly planned approach to lower the rates at which both these diseases are expected to rise is that a three level prevention. The stages that come up under three level of prevention are as mentioned below:
Primary prevention: HIV is an infectious disease which spread with human intercourse and transfusion of blood from one body to another. Most of the time, this disease spreads due to carelessness which can be prevented if people take adequate measures to control the same on their part (The new role for local authorities in public health, 2013). Same is the case with diabetes as people in UK are quite ignorant about their eating habits and sometime diabetes also spreads due to genetic defects. But both of these situations can be put control on as people need to understand and take preventive measures on initial stages. People need to focus on their dietary practices, exercising, etc. This will put a control on such illness or diseases in UK to a great extent. In case of HIV as, it is quite important to educate people about the same and also let them be aware of the safety measures related to the use of equipments or instruments that medical practitioners use at the time of any blood transmissions (Heath, 2014).
Secondary prevention: Providing treatments is one of the major priorities as it is highly important to provide timely treatments to the people suffering from these two crucial diseases. If they are not provided with cure at apt time, then it might worsen their future conditions ultimately leading to death (Craig and et.al, 2012). Thus it is quite important for the government of country to understand the criticality of these health issues and provide word class services to people at reduced costs so as to protect them from any severe consequences and support better living standards.
Remedial care: This care approach consists of all corrective measures that healthcare organizations can undertake for providing better medical treatments and care to the patients in need with regards to HIV and diabetes type 2. Remedial approach helps in providing timely medical care to the patients in needs. Thus this approach aims at improvement of different deficit abilities that is present within patients so as to improve their overall efficiencies (Cunha, 2013). Diagnosing diseases and providing best possible treatments accordingly also forms part of this care approach.
Palliative care: palliative approach is the one that tends to provide people not only medical but also the psychological and emotional support to the patients who are in the critical stage of HIV and diabetes type 2. This approach also includes end of life level of care to protect patients with critical health conditions and the ones with low chances of survival. This approach might also include care services up to the level of social, spiritual and emotional care (Anderson and McFarlane, 2010).
There is a great need to come up with different measures to prevent and protect people from both HIV and diabetes within UK. HIV is an infectious disease which can be easily transmitted from one person to another and the rate of HIV has quite strongly increased in UK in past few years. It has doubled at twice the rate that was prevalent a decade before. At present, there are 107,800 people in UK that are living with HIV where 642 are just the children (Nzira and Williams, 2009). As the statistics shown above showcases that the severity of disease in the country is high and as per the statistics available, it has been witnessed that only 47% of the total HIV cases were diagnosed by year 2012. Other than this, there were 110,000 people suffering from HIV in 2012 and only 77,610 were treated in the same year (Cunha, 2013). This means that almost one in every ten is not receiving treatment. Another figure for the costs or funds required for treating patients with HIV is that £18,000 is required for treating a single patient in a year, but due to financial constraints within the budgets, people are not receiving adequate care and treatment.
Coming on to preventive measures taken for diabetes type 2, it has been witnessed that out of 2.5 million of total patients, 850, 000 still haven’t been diagnosed. There are no exceptional facilities that have been made available for the cure and control of diabetes type 2, other than a BMI healthy weight calculator, blood glucose level check and other basic measures, etc (Diabetes: Facts and Stats, 2014). This, further force the health care sectors, both public and private to stand strong and fight back this infection to avoid it from spreading in other peoples. Not only the service providers, but also every citizen of the nation should voluntarily participate and educate people about the ways to control HIV (Frahm, 2009). More of the nurses and medical practitioners will be required to let service providers diagnose more and more people and make efforts to remove this infection completely amongst the patients who are at the initial stages. They can be provided medicines and other treatments to maintain proper control. Moreover, further steps are also required for providing better care and treatments especially to the children so that their future can be secured. Different service initiatives, like campaigning, organizing health camps, volunteering, etc will help in further lowering down the overall rate of HIV (Sim and Wright, 2014).
Lifestyles and living patterns of people in UK is mostly unbalanced as people are quite careless about their eating habits and diet patterns. They are less conscious towards healthy eating, exercise; etc which is followed could bring a substantive and a positive impact on their health. Health and social care services in this regards should provide more awareness to people on regular basis so as to let them promote healthy life styles (Brechin, Brown and Eby, 2000). Because of unbalanced eating habits, their entire digestive patterns are imbalanced which further leads to major internal disorders. This misbalance also goes further giving rise to problems of obesity and other cardiac problems. Surveys have also clearly highlighted the increase in cases of cardiac arrest, blood pressure and obesity in past few years, giving major rise in concern to resolve the same (Jones-Devitt and Smith, 2007). This is majorly due to fast foods that are being consumed highest by people in UK as compared to other parts of the world which is the major reason for obesity and other lever infections. Thus there is a great need to make people especially children more health conscious and avoid not only fast foods but also alcoholic tendencies of the same. Hence, health and social care organizations are the ones that can promote all these things in healthy manner and to higher population (Robotham and Frost, 2005). Other than this, too much of use of alcohol, illicit drugs and smoking also are few of the strong reasons behind poor health conditions of people in UK. These things have become part of modern lifestyles of people and excess consumption of these three things might also lead to deaths and many other serious consequences. People consuming drugs and having diabetes will stop him from following a normal diabetic routine and also lead to increase in the risk of hypoglycemia, ketoacidosis and hyperglycemia (Brechin, Brown and Eby, 2000).
When talked about health and well being priorities of people in London Borough of Croydon, there are different needs associated with the same. The people associated are service users and providers, visitors, other external bodies, etc. their priorities can be as identified below:
Getting timely treatments: People admitted or associated with London Borough of Croydon expect that they are provided with easy and timely access to different healthcare treatments that are of critical nature (Martin, Charlesworth and Henderson, 2010). This not only will improve their physical and mental conditions but will also improve the level of trust and belief that people will show on this organization in future.
Prevention from different cross contamination and infectious diseases: There should also be adequate measures taken to control any kind of contamination or transfer of infection from one person to another. Not only the health and social care premise should be clean but they should promote same to the areas where it serves (Gilson, 2006). Cleanliness, awareness and education needs to be some of the strong remedies that London Borough of Croydon should undertake to protect people from any kind of contamination or infection (Young, 2005).
Improved dietary practices: London Borough of Croydon also needs to educate people and mass to follow up healthy dietary practices not only till the time they stay within hospital but also imply same in their routine lives. This balances system will help them avoiding numerous diseases and stay healthy (Tucker, 2006).
Thus it can be attributed that if London Borough of Croydon need to work hard on resolving these priority issues and provide better health services to the people requiring the same. By taking all these measures on priority basis, organization can improve the initial level of health conditions of people suffering from severe diseases.
There are different strategies that London Borough of Croydon follows so as to ensure right health and well being of people of the country. The overall effectiveness of this firm can be evaluated and classified as follows:
Compliant policy: Using this policy, London Borough of Croydon needs to appoint more of the service providers who can handle patient’s grievances in an effective and regular manner. This will not only allow patients to come up with their issues openly but will also allow service providers to ensure best of the treatments are being provided to the patients with critical cases (Robinson. and Griffiths, 2000). Other than this, compliant policy will also force management to promote healthy work practices with proper follow up of the management practices.
Better provisions of healthcare: This strategy of provisional care will force service providers to give attention to each and every patient individually and listen to their problems in an attentive manner (Tinning and et.al, 2009). If they practice this routine, they will be able to provide more of the specific treatments and better care at each and every stage of their illness. Although it is tough to keep this practice in continuous form especially at the times when overall patient rates are high but if practiced in a regular manner, it will get stabilized in management process (Juliet, 2013).
Both the compliance policy and healthcare provisions will help in improving the overall delivery of better care to patients and also lower down the rates for major diseases prevailing. These priorities should be implemented within management function so as to allow London Borough of Croydon to comply with the same at each level of care provided to patients
In order to come up with effective and positive changes in London Borough of Croydon, the following measures can be as mentioned below:
Provide timely treatments through plan formation: There can be a formal system which can be formulated in order to manage treatments and patient care within London Borough of Croydon. New systems can be derived which may consist regular monitoring or keeping up of the patient’s record from the time he enters hospital, till the time he parts from the same (Bogg, 2011). This will help in keeping proper monitoring and check on progress made by service users with the treatments so provided. These records might also be useful for resolving future cases of similar nature.
Bring in changes in compliance policies: There is also a need to bring in some modification in compliant policy of the hospital. Rather than just reporting different incidents within the service provisions, it should also make sure that all possible measures are taken to resolve conflicts or organizational issues that are faced not only y the management, but also by the patients (Genkeer and et.al, 2002).
Medicine management: It refers to a provision that can be undertaken by a hospital to enable people make best use of the medicines they have or it can also be said as a part of wider medicine optimization agenda. London Borough of Croydon can also come up with planned policies and mechanism to take care of the medicines they have in stock and follow up right regulation and guidelines set up by the National Health Services for the same (Jones-Devitt and Smith, 2007). This compliance with medical management policies will help organization to ensure a legal, safe and secure handling of medicines from prescribing to ordering, storage or administration.
In order to control smoking practices of people of England, London Borough of Croydon came up with an initiative named as ‘Smoking Cessation Programme’ to help those patients who are highly addicted to the same. Thin initiative has been brought on the floor to monitor the behavioral changes amongst the smokers as compared to the non smokers as there is a huge and negative impact of smoking that affects the lungs as well as the overall physical condition of a person (Soultatou and et.al, 2011). This campaign will make people aware and also educate them about negative health conditions that they might face as a consequence of continuous smoking (Henderson, 2008). A common discussion will be undertaken with people especially the ones addicted to the same and give them individual suggestions to leave this habit and have a better life. This smoking cessation program is quite effective because if people are prohibited from undertaking extensive smoking or drug consumption, then not only will they improve their health conditions but will also allow them to have an extensive control on diseases like that of diabetes, etc.
The overall conclusion that can be generated after undertaking this extensive study about health and social care practices, it is quite clear that these institutions play a very important role in promoting healthy lifestyles amongst the people of the country and improving their overall life expectancy rates. The two highly critical diseases have been discussed over here namely HIV and diabetes type 2 as the overall patient rate has increased for both of the same. Other than this, different London Borough of Croydon has been chosen to discuss the ways in which this organization has worked in controlling various ill practices related to health and well being amongst people of UK.
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