Research Proposal of Globalization

Chapter 1: Introduction

Overview of research

Globalisation refers to the process of integration between companies, people and government worldwide. It works toward inter connecting market as well as national economies of different countries (Chanzu and Gekara, 2014). The concept of globalisation is very wide which support companies to operate their business at large scale by setting it up over several geographical area or by targeting different people at broader level.

In addition to this globalisation of businesses also help a customer to purchase product or services from several different companies that belongs to some another nation. This help in improving the living standard of people by satisfying their need and demand.

Therefore, globalisation describes about the process through which the regional as well as nation economies, culture and societies have become integrated by maintaining a network of communication, trade, immigration etc. at global level. Globalisation has removed the national boundaries and focus over promoting a view that information, opportunities as well as knowledge must be decentralised and shared among people. This major factor of globalisation also contributes improving the product as well as services offered by companies and creates competitive environment which encourage businesses to bring innovation for satisfying their customers. Hence, globalisation also leads to business success as by operating organisational operations at international level, companies will be able to enhance their quality of work through integration of knowledge, people, resources and skill. This results into more satisfactory services to customer and expansion of which in several geographical area that leads to higher profitability and organisational success.

Globalisation of business is now become a trend among corporates and also an essential part in order to survive in a market (Gansler, Lucyshyn and Rigilano, 2013). The reason behind this is that competition is increasing day by day which require companies to target large market for growth as well as survival in market. The globalisation has increased competition because of which after sometimes market get saturated that create a situation of no profit or no loss in front of company. But in order to maintain its growth stage it become essential for them to expand their business in other nation which provide them several growth opportunities and also leads to organisational success (Intriligator, 2017).

There are several companies which started operating their business at global level and experience a higher growth like, Marks and Spencer, Tesco,  Cadbury, etc.  The present research is based on Cadbury which has faced robust growth with drivers of globalisation.

Background of company

Cadbury is a British multinational confectionery company, headquartered in London, United Kingdom. It deals in variety of products such as chocolate bars, candy, biscuits, milk additives and many more. It began its business by setting up a shop where they use to sell roasted and chocolates in their tea and coffee, by getting acceptance they started creating their chocolate bars by setting up a factory in Birmingham.

Later company started promoting its product through advertisements in order to expand and position its business in other nations. This step of nationalising business provide several growth opportunities to Cadbury i.e. expansion of business and approaching large number of customers. Through selling product at international level, the demand of its chocolate bars gets increased and as a result of company get accepted by people throughout the world which results in higher organisational success. Now company operates its business in more than 50 countries worldwide.

Research aim

“To analyse way globalisation drive business success: A case study on Cadbury”

Research objectives

  • To explore the concept of globalisation
  • To identify several strategies that help Cadbury in achieving business success at global level
  • To determine the ways in which Cadbury can drive success through globalisation.
  • To recommend ways through which Cadbury can manage  success at global level.

Research question

  • What is the concept of globalisation?
  • Explain about several strategies that help Cadbury in achieving business success at global level?
  • What are the ways in which Cadbury can drive success through globalisation?
  • What are the recommendations through which Cadbury can achieve success at global level?

Rationale of research

Main aim behind selecting this topic is to identify the importance of globalising a business and ways through which it helps a company to achieve higher success at marketplace. This topic involves a broader concept which help a learner as well as researcher in enhancing their knowledge about the particular field of study i.e. globalisation and its role in business success. Now a day’s globalisation has become a major factor that support companies in achieve higher growth as well as success (Savrul,  Ince Kara and Sener, 2014). The study is conducted to determine several new opportunities which business experiences at the time of globalisation like innovation in product or process, huge market to serve, technological benefit, higher profitability and many more.

Apart from it by conducting research over this topic researcher will be able to identify major issues that organisations usually face while entering in a new market or in new country. This information will further support companies to formulate their strategical plan by considering several barriers as well as opportunities present in marketplace.

Chapter 2: Literature Review

Literature review is referring to a comprehensive summary of previous finding made by some other people on related topic. This survey is basically performed over scholarly article, books and several other sources in order to collect information regarding topic of interest (Scheyvens and Russell, 2012). Information provided by this scholar paper help researcher to create an understanding and theoretical bases for current research topic with the help of which researcher continue their investigation in more effective manner.

Concept of globalisation

According to the John Williamson (2019), Globalisation refers to the integration of world economy where whole world is behaving like a part of single market which consumes similar goods, interdependent production and responding to same impulses. Globalisation is reflected over the explosion of foreign direct investment (FDI) where investors expand their capital within companies to earn profit and support them to expand their business. This also results in integration of national capital market with the increase in foreign exchange after globalisation. Apart from this, it also allowed several different companies to freely move their goods, people as well as services throughout the world in an integrated and seamless manner which further support companies to expand their business operation and mark their global presence for achieving competitive advantage.

As per the view point of ERTÜRK,  (2015), Globalisation refers to the process in which ideas, goods or people flows freely within countries. It is a governmental policy which is in favour of free trade, free flow of capital and goods, open borders, elimination of tariffs and price control, privatization of publicly-owned or controlled enterprises. Globalisation has been considered as a historical process which is a result of technological progress as well as human innovation. This concept is getting existence and popularity with the increase in integration of economies around the world particularly through financial as well as trade flow among countries. But apart from this it sometimes also includes the movement of knowledge, technology and people across international boarder.

Several strategies that help Cadbury in achieving business success at global level

As per the view of point of Lou Cooper (2010), building a consistent as well as strong brand culture which remains known and familiar to customers is consider as one of the major source through which a company achieve success at global level. The inception of digital channel of promoting product, services as well as brand has shifted the brand emphasis from structure to culture. So, by reflecting a brand culture instead of its structure will help Cadbury in achieving success at global level. Cadbury is a confectionery company which operates its business in several countries but in majority of places it reflects a culture of belongingness by connecting chocolate with the emotions as well as happy time of people. So, in order to achieve further success at global level it must present a culture to its customers with which they are familiar.

According to Martin (2019), main reason for growing business internationally is creating and maintaining a consistent brand image which always seems familiar to customer. This help a company to easily enter within a new market as when product or brand name are known to customer then it results in quick acceptance among them. Cadbury is a well-known brand which put more emphases toward building a strong brand image by performing several promotional activities. It uses digital marketing as a major tool for creating brand awareness among customers by connecting advertisement to the special moments of a person's life. Cadbury focuses more over its marketing strategy in achieving business success which includes increase in promotional activities during special occasions such as new year, Christmas, valentine's day, friendship day and many more. This support in grabbing the attention of customers toward its product. Apart from this Cadbury also uses innovation strategy in which it keeps on bringing new flavour in their chocolate bars and milk additives for keeping customer engage with company.

Ways in which globalisation help Cadbury in driving success

According to Eriksen,  (2014), globalisation plays an essential role within the growth and success of a Cadbury by marking its presence at international market. Cadbury started its business with a tea and coffee shop but later it started offering its chocolate in several other nations which support them in achieving greater success at global level. Following are the ways in which globalisation help Cadbury in driving success:

  • It provides an access to larger market where Cadbury experience higher demand regarding their products which help company in achieving maximum profit. This further help Cadbury in achieving economies of scale that leads to minimization of average production cost.
  • Globalisation provide an opportunity to access cheap raw material which also help Cadbury in achieving cost competitive in their own as well as overseas market. This is because by getting raw material at low price Cadbury is able to manufacture its product at relatively lower price and this cost effectiveness will further support company in performing their operations appropriately in new country.
  • Internationalisation step taken by Cadbury support it in reducing the product development time by engaging several specialised teams which work with maximum capacity. This support company in increasing productivity that further contribute toward achieving the market success.
  • As per the view point of Eriksen (2014), Globalisation help Cadbury in expanding their business worldwide by improving its operational and production process through integrating the knowledge of several experts belongs to different culture as well as countries. This integration of knowledge support Cadbury in keep on bringing innovation to their product either by improving the taste of products, adding flavour to its or improving the packaging. These all support company to achieve higher market share and competitive advantage at market place.

Recommendation for Cadbury to achieve success at global level

Cadbury is a British confectionery company which operates its business at international level among several different countries which support it in marking its success at global level. Globalisation of business provide several opportunities to a company in term of their growth as well as success, but apart from this there are certain barriers which a company has to face while performing its operations at international level (Segaro, 2012). These barriers or risk includes not fulfilment of customer expectation, political risk, cultural risk etc. so in order to overcome this issue following are the recommendations that are given to Cadbury are: -

  • As per the view point of Eriksen (2014) it is recommended that Cadbury must focuses over setting up the price of product after analysis the cost on which local retailers offer. This support Cadbury in attracting large number of customers in another nation.
  • According to Lou Cooper (2010), Cadbury must also research over the culture of area in which it is planning to expand its business as cultural and language differentiation is a major factor that sometimes leads to failure. This investigation will help Cadbury in formulating marketing strategy which better work toward influencing customers to make purchases.
  • One of major risk that is usually faced by company while entering into new market at global level is competition from local businesses as well as existing international players. So according to Martin (2019) it is recommended to Cadbury that it must try to maintain a relation with local trader for entering in market and achieving sustainability. Apart from this company must also focuses toward formulating competitive strategies to deal with rivals and positioning itself by differentiating its product. This provide a mean of comparison to customer which support them in forming up purchasing decision.

Chapter 3: Time Scale

Research is the collection of various activities that are required to be perform in a systematic manner in order to generate desire result. But in order to perform them in a systematic and reliable manner it is very essential to estimate and then assign the time take by each activity so that they can be prioritise on the bases of their importance as well as time taken by each. Time scale is referring to a technique which is generally used to allot time to different activities that are required to performed under research. These techniques help team members to perform their operation effectively within specified period of time which results into time completion of project (Zalega, 2016).  So for allotting time to activities Gantt Chart is used which is a pictorial presentations of several task involve in particular project along with the time required for their completion.

 

(Source: Time Frame)

    

  (Source: Gantt chart)

(Source: Critical path)

Chapter 4: Research Methodology

It is defined as a theoretical and systematic analysis of methods which are used to perform investigation over particular field of study (Tadesse, 2013). Research methodology includes the theoretical analysis of body of principle associate with the branch of knowledge.  

Research philosophy: - It define as a technique which is generally used for collecting information from respondent so that it can be recorded in appropriate manner and use while performing a conclusion over the investigation. These are of three types pragmatist, positivist and interpretivist, among these pragmatist approach will be used by researcher. The reason behind it is that the currently research is over globalisation which is a very broad concept and also time consuming so by using this approach researcher will be able to perform its work effectively.

Research approach: - It refers to a technique which help in observing and reviewing the data that support in providing appropriate recommendation on relevant research topic. Research approach are of two types i.e. deductive and inductive (Veeran, 2012). In order to conduct this research inductive approach has been used as it is considered as a more authenticated medium to provide views over research which consider quantitative data for concluding the result. In inductive approach, main focus is over data collection using questionnaire based on research topic.

Research type:- 

There are generally two type of research named as Qualitative and Quantitative which are explained below:

  • Quantitative research: -It refers to a research method which focuses over quantifying the problem by collecting numerical data over particular problem so that it can be converted into usable statistics. It is generally used to present the quantify opinion, behaviours and attitude which is collected from large sample population. Method used for quantitative research are paper survey, mobile survey etc.
  • Qualitative research: -It is defined as a primary exploratory research which is collected for gaining understanding regarding underlying opinion, motivation and reasons. This investigation provides an insight into problem which can be further used to develop ideas for potential quantitative research. Methods used for this data collection is interview, group discussion etc. in order to conduct this research qualitative method will be used by researchers.

Data collection: -

It define as the process of measuring and gathering information over variables in a systematic manner. There are generally two types of data collection method i.e. primary and secondary. Primary data collection method works toward gathering information which is totally new and freshly collected by the researcher (Velthuis, 2014). These types of data are more authenticated, latest and reliable as it is collected by researcher for the first time. Primary data is collected using several method such as questionnaire, survey, interview, brain storming etc. On the other hand, secondary data collection refers to the method of collecting information from several other sources such as books, journals, articles or online source, etc. This is called as secondary data because it is already collected by some another person previously over topic similar to current research. Under this investigation both primary as well as secondary data will be used by researchers in order to develop an in-depth understanding regarding the current research topic. For collecting primary data structured questionnaire will be used that consists of number of questions that are going to be asked from the respondents. In addition to this for collecting secondary data literature review will be used under which article, journals and book used as a major source for gathering this information.

Sampling: - 

It is defined as a method of select some group of respondents from the whole population in order to collect information from them over topic of interest. Sampling method are generally of two types i.e. random and non-random sampling. Under this research random sampling method will be used because in this method there is an equal possibility of selection from the population (Wirtz, Tuzovic and Ehret, 2015). With the help of this method researcher will be able provide relevant information about topic and possibilities of selected candidates are also equal.  The sample size taken for this research is 10 respondents i.e. customers who are selected randomly for survey.

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Research ethics: -

This research is conducted in an ethical manner which consists of number of techniques to implement over research that support in conducting authenticated interpretation for providing relevant recommendation regarding research. Research ethics is very essential to adhere to ethical principle for protecting the right, welfare and dignity of research participants. The focus of scholar will be on maintaining confidentiality of information shared by participants.

Research reliability and validity: -

A research must be conducted in reliable and authenticated manner as after so that information can be conclude effectively as well as proper findings can be extract. This will make content more interesting for readers and references as well as citation will also be provided from where information has been collected by researcher to make information more authenticated.

Appendix

Research Proposal Form

Student Name   Student ID  
Center Name      
Tutor   Date  
Unit      
Proposed Title      

 

Section One: Title, objective, responsibilities

 

Title or working title of the research project (in the form of a question, objective or hypothesis)

Title: “How globalization can drive business success: A case study on Cadbury”. A case study on Cadbury.”

Research objectives (e.g what is the question you want to answer? What do you want to learn how to do? What do you want to find out?):

Research aim:

Main aim of this research is “To analyse how globalisation drive business success: A case study on Cadbury”

Research objectives:

· To explore about the concept of globalisation within 1.5 months.

· To identify three strategies that help Cadbury in achieving business success at global level within the time period of 2 months.

· To determine the four important ways in which globalisation help Cadbury in driving success within 4 months

· To recommend ways through which Cadbury achieve success at global level.

Research questions:

· What is the concept of globalisation?

· Explain about several strategies that help Cadbury in achieving business success at global level?

· What are the ways in which globalisation help Cadbury in driving success?

· What are the recommendations through which Cadbury can achieve success at global le

 

Section Two: Reasons for choosing this research project

 

Reasons for choosing the project (e.g links to other subjects you are studying, personal interest, future plans, knowledge/skills you want to improve, why the topic is important):

Main aim behind selecting this research topic is to determine the benefit that globalisation provide to Cadbury which help in achieving organisational success. This research is conducted to determine several issues which affecting the global performance of Cadbury and ways to overcome that in order to suggest ways which support company to achieve success.

 

Section Three: Literature sources searched

 

Use of key literature sources to support your research question, objective or hypothesis:

 

Section Four: Activities and timescales

 

Activities to be carried out during the research project (e.g research, development and analysis of ideas, writing, data collection, numerical analysis, tutor meetings, production of final outcome, evaluation, writing the report):

 

How long this will take:

 

Milestone one:  _________________

Target date (set by tutor): ____________________

Milestone two: _______________________

Target date (set by tutor): ______________________      

 

Gantt Chart

 

Section Five: Research approach and methodologies

 

What type of research approach and methodologies are you likely to use and why? What your areas of research will cover:

· Research philosophy:- It define as a technique which is generally used for collecting information from respondent so that it can be recorded in appropriate manner and use while performing an conclusion over the investigation. These are of three types pragmatist, positivist and interpretivist, among these pragmatist approach will be used by researcher.

· Research approach:- It refers to a technique which help in observing and reviewing the data that support in providing appropriate recommendation on relevant research topic. Research approach are of two types i.e. deductive and inductive

· Sampling:- It is defined as a method of select some group of respondents from the whole population in order to collect information from them over topic of interest. Sampling method are generally of two types i.e. random and non-random sampling. The sample size taken for this research is 10 respondents.

 

Comments and agreement from tutor

 

Comments (optional):

I confirm that the project is not work which has been or will be submitted for another qualification and is appropriate.


Agreed: ________________ (name)_______________ Date ______________

 

Comments and agreement form project proposal checker( IV sampling)

 

Comments (Optional):


I confirm that the project is appropriate.


Agreed /Disagree:                            (Name of the IV)                                                        Date

 

Research Ethics approval form

All students conducting research activity that involves human participants or the use of data collected form human participants are required to gain ethical approval before commencing their research. Please answer all relevant questions and note that your form may be returned if incomplete.

For further support and guidance please see your respective Unit Tutor:

Before completing this form, we advise that you discuss your proposed research fully with your unit tutor. Please complete this form in good time before your research project is due to commence.

Section 1: Basic details:

Project title:

Title: “How globalization can drive business success: A case study on Cadbury”. A case study on Cadbury.”

Student name:

Student ID number:

Programme:

College Name:

Intended research start date:

Intended research end date:

 

Section 2 Project summary

Please select all research methods that you plan to use as a part of your project:

Ø Interviews                           Yes                    No

Ø Questionnaires                   Yes                    No

Ø Observations                      Yes                    No

Ø Use of personal records    Yes                    No

Ø Data Analysis                     Yes                    No

Ø Action Research                 Yes                    No

Ø Focus Groups                     Yes                    No

Ø Others  (Please specify) :    

Section 3:  Participants

Please answer the following questions, giving full details where necessary.

Will your research involve human participants?

Who are the participants? Tick all that apply:

Ages 12-16:                 Young people aged:  17-18        Adults

How will participants be recruited (identified an approached)?      

With the help of sampling method participants will be recruited. For this non-probability method is used.

Describe the processes you will use to inform participants about what you are doing:

To inform all participants, researcher use different tools such as social media, website, mobile application etc. all these are work as an effective process and assist an organisation to collect accurate data about the topic.

How will you obtain consent from participants? Will this be written? How will it be made clear to participants that they may withdraw consent to participate at any time?

 Questionnaire instrument is essential and important tool to obtaining consent from selected respondents which is mainly in form of written. 

Studies involving questionnaires: will participants be given the option of omitting questions that do not wish to answer?

Yes       No

If no please explain why below and ensure that you cover any ethical issues arising from this


Studies involving observation: Confirm whether participants will be asked for their informed consent to be observed.

Yes      No


Will you debrief participants at the end of their participation (i.e give them a brief explanation of the study)?


Yes   No


Will participants be given information about the findings of your study?(This could be a brief summary of your findings in general)


Yes    No

Section 4: Data Storage and Security

Confirm that all personal data will be stored and processed in compliance with the Data Protection Act (1998)

Yes  No

Who will have access to the data and personal information?

Researcher

During the research:

Researcher

Where will the data be stored?

Data will be stored in computer system.

Will mobile devices such as USB storage and laptops be used

Yes   No

If Yes, please provide further details:

After the research:

Where will the data be stored?

How long will the data and records be kept for and in what format?


Will data be kept for use by other researchers?  Yes                     No

Section 5 : Ethical Issues

Are there any particular features of your proposed work, which may raise ethical concerns? If so, please outline how you will deal with these:

It is important that you demonstrate your awareness of potential risks that may arise because of your research.  Please consider/address all issues that may apply. Ethical concerns may include, but are not limited to the following :

Ø Informed consent.

Ø Potentially vulnerable participants.

Ø Sensitive topics

Ø Risk to participants and /or researchers

Ø Confidentiality/anonymity

Ø Disclosures/ limits to confidentiality

Ø Data storage and security, both during and after the research (including transfer, sharing, encryption, protection).

Ø Reporting

Ø Dissemination and use of your findings.

Section 6: Declaration

I have read, understood and will abide by the institution’s Research and Ethics Policy:       Yes  No

I have discussed the ethical issues relating to my research with my Unit Tutor:

Yes  No

I confirm that to the best of my knowledge:

The above information is correct, and this is a full description of the ethical issues that may arise in the course of my research

Name:                                                                         Date:

Please submit your completed form to your supervisor and also attach to the Research Proposal when submitting to Turnitin.   

References

  • Chanzu, L. N. and Gekara, M., 2014. Effects of use of derivatives on financial performance of companies listed in the Nairobi Security Exchange. International Journal of Academic Research in Accounting, Finance and Management Sciences. 4(4). pp. 27-43.
  • Eriksen, T. H., 2014. Globalization: The key concepts. A&C Black.
  • ERTÜRK, E., 2015. A COMPREHENSIVE APPROACH TO THE ROLE OF INFORMATION AND COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY (ICT) IN GLOBALIZATION. Journal of International Social Research. 8(38).
  • Gansler, J. S., Lucyshyn, W. and Rigilano, J., 2013. The Impact of Globalization on the US Defense Industrial Base (No. UMD-AM-13-101). MARYLAND UNIV COLLEGE PARK CENTER FOR PUBLIC POLICY AND PRIVATE ENTERPRISE.
  • Intriligator, M., 2017. Globalisation of the World Economy: Potential Benefits and Costs and a Net Assessment. In Economics of Globalisation (pp. 85-94). Routledge.
  • Savrul, M., Incekara, A. and Sener, S., 2014. The potential of e-commerce for SMEs in a globalizing business environment. Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences. 150. pp. 35-45.
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