Marketing Essentials

Introduction

Marketing is an essential need of every organisation due to which the company can able to gain strong identity and become more popular in market which attract and influences interest and buying behaviour of customers. It is an effective tool which help company in reaching to the maximum number of customers and inform them about the quality and benefits of products and services. It includes various activities such as identifying market trends, building relationship with customers, identifying and analysing the needs and preferences of customers, developing a strategy through conducting research and on the basis of which products and services has been sold out to maximise the level of satisfaction of customers (Bačík, Štefko and Gburová, 2014). The present assignment report is based on McDonald's which is a fast food restaurant provides multiple number of food and beverage products such as hamburgers, French fries, cheese burgers, soft drinks and many more. McDonald's is one of the known and largest chain of fast food restaurants throughout the world. The project covers the roles and responsibilities of marketing functions as well as elements of marketing mix which must required to adopt by management of an organisation. Basic market plan of McDonald's has been also discussed under this report. All such aspects are explained under this report with the context of McDonald's.

Task 1

P1: Roles and responsibilities of marketing function

Marketing: It is an activity of promoting products and services with an objective of attracting and influencing the interest and buying behaviour of customers throughout the world. It is an effective way of telling customers about the information and advantages of products and services offering by an organisation.

Therefore, the marketing managers of McDonald's are held liable to make an effective marketing planing and decision in order to reach to the maximum number of customers across worldwide. For this, marketing managers need to perform roles and responsibilities which are briefly described as under:

  • Identifying the marketing trends related with food products and services through conducting research.
  • Fixation of price of food products and services after analysing their rivals' pricing strategies which help McDonald's in retaining loyal customers for longer period of time (Brown, McDonagh and Shultz II, 2013).
  • Adoption of an effective marketing tools and techniques in order to grab an attention of large number of customers. Such marketing tools includes online advertising, TV advertisement, print media etc. through which the customers are informed about the discounts, coupons etc. offered by McDonald's.

Therefore, all such activities need to be performed by marketing manager of McDonald's in order to achieve huge customer strengths and generate huge revenues. It also contributes maximum in building healthy relationship with their loyal customers and retain them for longer period of time through giving the special discounts, coupons etc.

About McDonald's:

It is an American fast food company which has operated its business in more than 100 countries with the help of their 36900 outlets. The company has offering multiple varieties of food products such as chicken products, cheeseburgers, soft drinks, French fries etc. thus known for its hamburgers. McDonald's is one of the largest restaurant chain on the basis of the revenue generated every year. In 2016, the company has generated approx. $24.622 billion as revenue. McDonald's has served over 69 million customers on daily basis and has attained over 375,000 employees.

Roles and responsibilities of marketing function

There are various roles and responsibilities of marketing related function given as below:

Product: It refers to a substance which is produced by company with an objective of fulfilling the needs and requirements of market. Focusing on quality is important as it easily attracts large number of customers. McDonald's is known for their quality thus has attained huge customers strengths. It is important for company to conduct market research in order to find out the taste and preferences of customers and accordingly make changes in the menu card so as to influence the buying behaviour of customers (Campbell and Martin, 2015).

Selling: It is also important part of marketing functions in which different marketing strategies has been formulated in order to enhance the sales figure of the company. The main focus of marketing manager is to adopt an effective distribution channels through which they can easily provide products to their customers. For example, Conducting research in order to find out the best location of opening outlets helps in increasing sales of company.

Pricing: Pricing factor play an important role in influencing interest and buying behaviour of customers thus need to be set an effective price which maximises their satisfaction level. There are different types of customers on the basis of which pricing strategies need to be formulated, Customers having higher income gives more preferences to quality instead of price whereas middle income group people give more preferences to prices first before quality. Therefore, in order to attract all income groups the management of McDonald's need to set an effective price after analysing the rival's strategies and buying behaviour of customers (Desai, 2013).

Promotion: IT is an effective tool which help customers in gaining knowledge about the products and services of an organisation. The marketing department is responsible to make an effective marketing plans and strategies in order to inform customers about the quality and price they are charging for their products and services offerings. Marketing tools includes social media, online marketing, TV advertisement, campaigns etc. which grabs an eye of maximum number of customers.

Marketing information system: Such system help company in providing relevant and accurate information about customer's interest, actions, preferences and buying behaviour. Thus, help management of McDonald's in making an effective decisions and plans to fulfil customer's requirements. Using MIS, information of marketing is gathered, properly analysed, stored and then allocate to managers in order to make further actions and plans.

Financing: It is the backbone of company which gives adequate support in implementing an effective tools and techniques. Therefore, it important for an organisation to have adequate amount of funds so as to adopt an effective and advanced technologies in the marketing as well as production process. The marketing manager are responsible to prepare budget and allocate funds in different areas on the basis of their effectiveness (Douglas and Craig, 2011).

Distribution: It is also an important part of marketing functions which help company in attaining huge customer base. Conducting research regarding finding out the best place for opening their new outlets in order to increase in the number of their loyal customers. For example, In UK, London is an appropriate place where large number of visitors are visited every year therefore opening outlets in such place will help in increasing the sales figure of McDonald's as well as generate huge profits every year.

P2: Roles and responsibilities of marketing related to organisational context

Marketing department mainly perform their roles and responsibilities in order to help company in attaining huge customer base due to which they need to get support from other departments of an organisation through which they successfully achieve its objectives. Marketing concept includes promotion, sales, marketing and delivering products to the customers in most effective way. Through marketing strategy, their main objectives to attract customers towards company's products and build healthy relationship with them in order to retain them for longer period of time. It directly makes positive impact on the company's sales and revenue as well. For this, research shall required to be conducted in order to identify the taste and preferences of customers on the basis of which the management make changes related to their products and services (Eslinger, 2014). Along with the marketing department, there are other departments as well which gives equally support to the company in achieving growth and success. The managers of different departments shall required to give support to each other department in order to achieve desired goals and objectives of McDonald. The interrelationship of the marketing department of McDonald with others departments are explained under the below:

Marketing department with operational: Operation department is responsible to arrange raw materials from the suppliers and utilise them in production process in order to manufacture quality products. Proper coordination between marketing and operation department help in executing production activities in an effective and efficient manner. As through conducting research, marketing department of McDonald provided sufficient information regarding demanded products and services in market which directs the operation department to focus on producing such demand products in order to meet customer's requirements. This will help in satisfying the customers in an optimum manner.

Marketing department with finance: All departments of McDonald required to get support from finance department in the execution of business activities in an effective and efficient manner. The manager of finance department is responsible to prepare budget report and allocate funds to each department according to their requirements. With the help of support of finance department, the marketing manager are able to make an effective marketing plans and adopt marketing tools and techniques in order to promote their products and services.

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HR Department with marketing function: HR Department of McDonald are liable to recruit skilled and knowledgeable employees with an expectation of getting maximum support from them in achieving desired goals and objectives. Conducting training and development programs, giving performance appraisal, better policies etc. helps in bring motivation and confidence among employees which in results achieving productivity. In order to recruit skilled and qualified employees, HR department need to take help from marketing department in order to advertise vacant job position so as to attract large number of applicants to apply for the job. This will brings lots of options among HR manager to recruit skills and knowledgable employees (Gummesson and Grönroos, 2012).

Sales function and marketing function: The main responsibility of sales department of McDonald is to increase the sales figure of company and generate huge revenues. This can achieved when the marketing department contributes maximum efforts in influencing interest and buying behaviour of customers through adopting an effective marketing tools and techniques. It will help McDonald in achieving huge revenues and profits.

Marketing department with R&D: The research and development team of McDonald is responsible to conduct research in order to identify the needs and preferences of customers and according direct marketing department to communicate with their customers in order to provide relevant and accurate information about the products and services offered by McDonald along with the price they charged.

IT Department and marketing department: The marketing department of McDonald before adopting marketing plans and policies, need to take support from IT department in order to find out the information about the targeted customers so that an appropriate marketing strategies has been formulated. Management information system (MIS) is an effective system which is more helpful in storing data and information about employees, customers etc. on the basis of which targeted customers are identified and make suitable plans to attract them.

Task 2

P3: Compare ways to use elements of marketing mix

Marketing mix refers to an actions or tactics which a company used to promote their brand or product in the market. It includes 7P's which consists of product, price, place, promotion, physical evidence, process and people (Hsu, Hsu and Yeh, 2010). These all components need to be thus considered in order to make an effective marketing plans and decisions which help McDonald in achieving desired goals and objectives. Under this, there is the comparison of marketing mix of two rivals companies such as McDonald and Burger King. Both are engaged in similar sector thus giving tough competition to each other.

Marketing mix of McDonald:

Product: McDonald is one of the largest fast food restaurant which is known for their quality in market thus attained strong brand image in market. The company deals in offering multiple variety of products including sandwiches, burgers, desserts, drinks and many more. Their main focus is to provide nutritional and healthy food products in order to maximise the satisfaction level of customers.

Price: McDonald charged for the quality thus can easily attracts lots of customers across worldwide. As providing multiple number of food products and beverages, McDonald mostly attracts higher income group due to their price of products and services. Adopting an effective pricing strategies help company in retaining loyal customers for longer period of time.

Place: McDonald has attained over 36,528 restaurants in more than 119 countries due to which the company has capturing large market share. The main aim of the company is to attain strong presence in urban as well as rural areas. McDonald always search better location where they get maximum crowd (Malhotra, Birks and Wills, 2013).

Promotion: It is important for management of McDonald to make an effective marketing plans and decisions in order to provide information about the products and services along wit their benefits so as to attract large number of customers and motivate them to visit at their outlets. Promotional tools includes hoardings, television, social media etc. which grabs an attention of large number of customers throughout the world.

Process: The process of producing quality food products and services is transparent to customers thus can easily be visible to customer due to which their brand products are more reliable and trustable. McDonald has invested more in conducting research. The firm adopts new methods of distribution as well as packaging on regular basis.

People: The employees of McDonald are more educated due to which they know how to treat customers t their outlets so as to maximise the satisfaction level of customers. The environment of outlets is much friendly which brings interest of customers to visit at their outlets at once.

Physical evidence: McDonald can be easily recognised by their outlets in market through due to having strong brand image. Due to this, the customers are easily attracted to visit. Due to having attracting design and structure of outlets, maximum number of customers visited every year.

Marketing mix of Burger King

Price: Burger King mainly focuses on attracting middle income group due to which they charged an affordable prices on the products and services they offered in market. Adoption of cost leadership strategy help company in achieving huge customer strengths (Martin, Campbell and Harmsen, 2014).

Product: Burger King deals in offering similar products as compared to McDonald such as desserts, French fires, sandwich and many more. In order to give tough competition with McDonald, Burger King offered combo meals and packs at discounted rate. In addition with this, Burger King also focuses on maintain quality of products so as to maximise the satisfaction level of customers.

Place: There are number of outlets located at various countries such as Taiwan, Japan, India, South Korea etc. Burger King has attained 13000 outlets in more than 79 countries due to which they are given face tough competition to McDonald.

Promotion: Promotional strategies is depended around revitalising and reorganising concept due to which the company has sustain in market for longer period of market. Communicating with customers about the price, quality, variety of food items etc. help in grabbing an attention of customers across worldwide.

Process: Burger King produces quality and healthy products to customers in order to increase the healthy lifestyle of customers. The company has maintained work culture, taste, supply chain etc. and continuously introduce new food items as well in order to attain huge customer strengths.

People: The main focus of Burger King is to trained their employees so as to deal with customers having different cultures and backgrounds in more effective and efficient manner. It enhances quality in work which brings good image in front of the customers. Conducting training and development programs on regular basis help in enhancing the skills and knowledge of employees.

Physical evidence: Burger King has operates its business in more than 15000 locations in over 71 countries thus they make their strong presence in developed countries. The firm has always focused on expanding business to other countries as well such as India.

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Task 3

P4: Basic marketing plan

Marketing plan is an important part of business plan in which a blueprint is created in order to provide right direction to their employees of marketing department to perform allotted roles and responsibilities in an effective and efficient manner. Suitable plan is essentially required to made in order to execute further marketing activities in such an effective manner that will help company in achieving desired goals and objectives. Along with this, it is essential for marketing manager to first determine vision, mission, aims of company before deciding to make an effective marketing plan. Such marketing plan should be made in systematic manner which further help in execution of business activities in more profitable way. The marketing plan of McDonald are briefly given as below:

Company Background

McDonald is one of the largest restaurant chain in USA which was firstly founded in the year 1940 by Richard and Maurica McDonald. It has been generated huge revenues every year due to which attained strong brand position in market. It offers multiple number of food products such as milkshakes, desserts, chicken products, breakfast goods and many more (Perreault, 2010).

Vision

The vision statement of McDonald states to become modern and progressive burger company to enhance the experience of customers. The company has main focus is to deliver quality and tasty food to their customers and providing them a world class experiences that makes them feel welcome and valued.

Mission

The mission of McDonald is to become favourite place of customers where they can eat and drink. The mission statement statement also includes positive presence in community, delivering quality, service and provides value to customers.

SWOT Analysis of McDonald

Strengths

Weaknesses

· Attained strong brand image in competitive market.

· Competitive prices

· Know for providing quality products.

· Attaining huge customer base

· Healthy and clean environment at their outlets.

· Continuously decreasing in market share.

· Income and profit of McDonald grow on slowly basis.

· Disgruntled franchisees.

Opportunities

Threats

· Expand business to developed countries.

· It can serve 1% to the population of world.

· Need to merge with small retailers in order to expand its business operations.

· Health conscious people generally ignore to consume fast food products.

· Decrease in economy affects the growth of McDonald.

· More fluctuation in the foreign exchange rates of country.

· Changing in demographics.

· High competition.

 

STP of ALDI

Segmentation: Under this, market is divided into demographic, psycho-graphic and Behavioural and Geographic segmentation.

Demographic: Such segmentation is classified on the basis of variables which includes age, gender, family, income, religion etc. As McDonald charges higher prices for offering quality food items thus focusing on attracting higher income group (Vanhamme and et. al., 2012).

Psycho-graphic: Such type of segmentation is divided population on the basis of lifestyle of people, interest etc. For example, Having higher income group mainly prefer to visit at their outlets.

Behavioural: Such type of segmentation classified the population on the basis of behaviour and decision making pattern. For example, Children and young people are always prefer to visit at such places thus need to focus on their needs and requirements.

Geographic: Such type of segmentation is divided into population on the basis of geographical locations. In UK, London city are more preferable location to open new outlets.

Targeting: The main targeted customers of McDonald are children, young people who shows more interest in visiting at their outlets on regular basis.

Positioning: It refers to the market position at which the company sees itself. McDonald has attained its own position in market which can be easily recognised by markets from their outlets located at different countries.

Marketing mix of McDonald

Product: McDonald deals in offering multiple range of food products and services which includes chicken products, hamburgers, soft drinks, desserts and many more. It also offers smoothies, fish wraps and salads.

Price: The interest level and buying behaviour of customers depends on the pricing factors thus need to be formulate an effective pricing strategies in order to attract all higher income groups.

Place: The restaurants of McDonald are locates at various places due to which they capture large market share. In order to expand business, the management need to expand their business through locating at different places where they get more crowd (Marketing Structure, 2010).

Promotion: McDonald has generated huge revenues every year thus attained huge amount of resources. With the help of this, various promotional tools and tactics are easily adopted by company due to which the company has attracted large number of customers. Such tactics includes advertisement, direct selling, sales promotion and public relations. Among such tools, advertisement is most effective tool which help in grabbing an attention of large number of customers. Online, print media, television etc. are other tools through which they can communicate customers regarding the information about the products.

Marketing strategy:

It plays significant role in developing business of McDonald. Thus essentially required to be made by the management of McDonald. It is essential for McDonald business firm to develop marketing activities or process. In regards to this, relationship marketing is an suitable option through which they can able to maintain strong position in market.

Financial Projection of McDonald

Income statement All numbers in thousands

 

Revenue

31/12/17

31/12/16

31/12/15

Total revenue

22820400

24621900

25413000

Cost of revenue

12199600

14417200

15623800

Gross profit

10620800

10204700

9789200

Operating expenses

Selling general and administrative

1068100

2460200

2643700

Operating income or loss

9552700

7744500

7145500

Income from continuing operations

Total other income/expenses net

-57900

6300

48500

Earnings before interest and taxes

8573500

6866000

6555700

Interest expense

-

-

-

Income before tax

8573500

6866000

6555700

Income tax expense

3381200

2179500

2026400

Net income from continuing ops

5192300

4686500

4529300

Non-recurring events

Net income

Net income

5192300

4686500

4529300

Net income applicable to common shares

5192300

4686500

4529300

Execution

In this, all above steps need to be executed in an effective and efficient manner so as to achieve best possible outcomes. With the help of these steps, firm can required to formulate an effective plans and strategies for the proper execution so as to as achieve desired goals and objectives. It helps McDonald in achieving stable position in marker for longer period of time.

Evaluation

It refers to an examination of all business activities which are going to be performed in future in order to achieve better possible outcomes. It includes different methods which are as follows:

Sales analysis: Under this, the sales figure of company are analyse in order to find out the effectiveness of marketing plan.

Market share analysis: It is concerned with study of market in order to identify where such marketing plan help company in achieving large market share or not.

Efficiency Ratios- Asset Turnover Ratio- Revenue (Sales)/Net Assets

Cost-Profitability Analysis: It consists an profit examination in addition to costs. It displays gap between sales as well as cost.

Conclusion

It has been concluded from the above project report that marketing is an important element which support an organisation in achieving strong brand position in market. Therefore, the management of McDonald need to focus on adopting various marketing tools and techniques that will help them in attaining huge customer strengths. It builds healthy relation with the customers through which the company can able to retain them for longer period of time. Marketing plans are also required to be made in order to execute marketing activities in more effective and efficient manner.

References

  • Bačík, R., Štefko, R. and Gburová, J., 2014. Marketing pricing strategy as part of competitive advantage retailers. Journal of applied economic sciences. 9(4). p.30.
  • Brown, S., McDonagh, P and Shultz II, C.J., 2013. A brand so bad it’s good: The paradoxical place marketing of Belfast.Journal of Marketing Management.29(11-12). pp.1251-1276.
  • Campbell, R. and Martin, C., 2015. Media essentials: A brief introduction. Macmillan Higher Education.
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