Specialise Cells and Their Functions

13 Feb, 2021 249 11 minutes

Understand the Functionality of 6 Specialised Cells in Different Creatures

“A cell is regarded true biological atom”- George Henry Luis

A cell is a very small unit and the foundation of all the types of living organisms;that is why George compared it with an atom because it is also the smallest part of an element. Various types of cells are found in living beings, including specialised cells that work for a special purpose.

This blog will provide you information regarding what these cells are, their functions,andhow they affect different systems.

Let’s start knowing the meaning of these cells.

What Are Specialised Cells?

As the name implies specialised cells have special features to perform some important task in the organisms, that is why they are called special. They are found in animals, humans, and plants and all have different tasksto perform. With the help of specialised features, these types of cells complete the particular functions. Now, you may have understood what are the specialised cells.

These cells contain cytoplasm, cell membrane, nucleus, and mitochondria. Many students get confused between these terms, so let’s know their meaning to understand how they form specialised cells.

  • Nucleus: It is a structure, bound with a membrane,also called an organelle that consists of chromosomes. The nucleus is also referred an administrative center to pass information. It is the control center of a cell.
  • Cytoplasm: It is a thick liquid type solution that is protected by a cell membrane. Cytoplasm solution is made up of water, protein, and salts. It is also called gelatinous liquid.
  • Mitochondria: The chemical energy needed to power the cell is generated from mitochondria. It is a membrane-bound cell organelle and famous with the name of ‘powerhouse of a cell.

All the specialised cells contain these three elements,and a group of special cells makes tissues. These tissues carry out special functions. If you sit to read about these cells, then you may get confused;thus Global Assignment Help Australia has compiled all the important information in one blog.

Many a time,students don’t understand why are specialised cells important. If you know their functionality and the task they perform, then you can easily understand why these cells are important. Our next section is about the same topic, in which you will come to know about 6 main special cells.

So, let’s move ahead!

You may like to read: Animal and Plant Cells: How Different & Similar Are They?

6 Specialised Cells & Their Functionalities

Every organism has its functionality and different cells to perform them. Humans have their special cells, so do animals and plants. In this piece of information, you will know a list of specialised cells.

So, let's start with plants

Specialised Cells in Plants:

  1. Root Hair Cells: These types of cells are found in the roots of plants. Their main function is to absorb water from the rhizoshere. Root cell is single tubular shapedand pointed.
  2. Phloem Cells: They are located in the leaf veinlets,also called transfer cells. Fibers of phloem are flexible and soft. Their function is to transport food. This specialised cell is very useful.
  3. Xylem Cells: It is present in the non-woody parts of the plant. Xylem transports water to the different parts of the plants. It is also helpful in providing physical support to the plant.
  4. Palisade Cells: It is found right below the epidermis and cuticle of leaves of plants. These cells make sure the photosynthesis is carried out efficiently.
  5. Spongy Mesophyll Cells: They are covered by a thin layer of water and packed loosely for the smooth exchange of gases.
  6. Guard Cells: It is found in the epidermis of stems, leaves, and other organs also. Their main function is to control excessive water loss. They open when the need for a gas exchange arises. Many students get well-written assignments on guard cells from the assignment writers of Global Assignment Help Australia.

Specialised Cells in Animals:

  1. Muscle Cells: This type of cell can change its length to allow a creature to move. It contains more than one mitochondria to provide energy.
  2. Red Blood Cells: They are also called erythrocytes. They carry oxygen from the lungs to every tissue of the body.
  3. Nerve Cells: They are found in the nervous system of the animal and perform transportation of the information. An animal can respond to external and internal stimuli, if nerve cells are strong.
  4. Sperm Cells: Sperm is smaller than egg and found in male animals. They contain nutrients for the growth of the embryo.
  5. Egg Cells: These cells are used to reproduce offspring and found in a female. It is also called a reproductive cell.
  6. Ciliated Epithelial Cells: They contain microtubules and protein dynein. They are made of linear polymers.

So, this is the list of specialised cells in plants and animals. Now read about human cells. Most of the human cells are same as animals.

Have a look at them below.

Specialised Cells in Humans:

  1. Leukocytes: They are also called white blood cells because they don’t have hemoglobin. They protect the body against infection, from ingesting foreign materials, and cancer cells.
  2. Muscle Cells: These types of cells contract and expand. They contain protein filaments of actin and myosin. Their main function is to let the humans move and stretch.
  3. Sperm Cells: These specialised cells help in reproduction. They consist of 23 chromosomes. Sperm cells have mitochondria that produce energy.
  4. Red Blood Cells: These cells are approximately 70% of all the cells. Their function is to carry oxygen from the lungs to other parts of the body.
  5. Pancreatic Cells: These cells create pancreatic juices that are called enzymes. Pancreatic helps the digestive system.
  6. Fat Cells: They provide essential fatty acids to the body. Fat cells store crucial nutrients for the body.

All these specialised cells in humans have a specific adaptation to perform functions. Many cells become special by having more than one mitochondria and chloroplast than usual.

Now, let’s read about some cells that specifically work to make the digestive system efficient.

Students also like to read: What Is Global Warming? | Advantages & Disadvantages of Greenhouse Effect

Role of Specialised Cells in Digestive System

There are mainly four types of cells for the digestion system namely, mucosa, goblet cells, paneth cells, enteroendocrine, and the most important are absorptive cells. Let’s read a little about this cell in this write-up.

Absorptive cells are predominant and found in the small intestine. These types of cells are specialised in absorbing nutrients from the apical plasma membrane and transfer the same nutrients all over the basal plasma membrane.

Absorptive specialised cells have a short life that lasts for only a few days.

So now that you have gained knowledge about these cells, you can write an assignment or any paper easily. In case you don’t have good writing skills,then you can reach us for writing assistance.

Read about our servicesand perks, so that you can know much about us before seeking biology assignment writing help.

Students also like to read: Flawless Time Management Essay Writing Using 4D’s Strategy

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