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Role of Manager and Leaders

University: UK college of business and computing

  • Unit No: 3
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 21 / Words 5342
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code: D/601/1743
  • Downloads: 74

INTRODUCTION

Managers and employees need to be developed in this highly competitive and dynamic business environment. The level of competition is increasing at a fast pace and to manage these circumstances both personal as well as managerial skills of an individual is quite crucial. With these developments, an individual can seek better opportunities in the business world. Further, improvement in the existing skills of the managers and leaders is also vital for the effective functioning of the organization (Carroll, 2013). However, team building and leadership skills is being regarded as pivotal for leading effective operations within the firm. In addition to this, the culture, as well as structure, also helps in determining the success of the company. Thus, the manager's role here is to encourage team members and guide them so that their personal objectives are aligned with the overall goals of the organization.

Consequently, the main focus of the current research report is to comprehend the principles related to behaviour management and own management principles among reviewing career development path. Different organizations will be selected and their management and leadership styles, culture and process of communication will be elaborated significantly. Every task in the writing is based on certain scenarios with the main focus on analysing how teams are being motivated for achieving the goals of the organization. How the decision of the managers supports the same will also be discussed. In addition to this, the report will also throw light on reviewing own potential as a prospective manager wherein personal SWOT analysis as well as targets will be prioritized for own development. The final part of the project report will show the need of managerial and personal skills for career development and will review developmental needs for developing a plan.

TASK - 1

In the current tasks, two organizations related to the hospitality industry i.e. Intercontinental Hotel and Hotel Hilton will be selected for the research purpose. Both the firms are leading hotels in United Kingdom and successfully managing their operations in various parts of the world. As a Junior Consultant with PKF Hotel experts, the main job here is to analyse and compare management and leadership styles, culture and communication process of both the hotels effectively.

1.1 Management styles of Inter-continental hotel and Hotel Hilton

Management style of inter-continental hotel

Talking in relation with the inter-continental hotel, the hotel has grabbed the leading position in the market of UK by their efficient workforce and effective management. They have wide networks in more than 100 nations with over 5431 properties. Many a times because of economic slowdown and other factors, the organization had to come across with several challenges (IHG, 2018). Though with the presence of effective leaders and managers, the hotel was successful enough from coming out from this situation. The managers within the hotel adopts coercive style of management which is also being known as directive style. In this style, the managers sets rules and regulations and every worker in the hotel are required to work under his control. Work activities needs to be accomplished by any mean under the supervision and guidance of superiors.

Management style of Hotel Hilton

On the other side, Hotel Hilton also has vast presence within the hospitality industry. They own more than 4000 hotels in 91 countries of the world and is based out of America. The management style being adopted by the managers of hotel is active style. In this style of management main focus is laid towards motivating the workers so that innovation can take place within the firm (Hilton, 2018). The main efforts of managers are directed towards satisfying the needs of the workers and making them contented so that effective functioning can be possible. Leader give direction regarding carrying out work activates to employees. Further, the main motivational factors within Hotel Hilton is responsibility, effective working, achievement and advancement.

Comparison of both the styles

Both the style of management being adopted by hotels are diverse in nature. The Active style of management being adopted by Hotel Hilton makes their workers happy and satisfied. They also get chance to take important decisions and carry out tasks accordingly. Whereas, in coercive style of management which is used by Inter-continental Hotel, the employees are under pressure and faces stress (Anaya, 2012). They are required to finish off their work duties at any means and are not allowed to take their own decisions.

1.2 Discussing leadership Features

Three main styles of leadership is available that can be used by firms to manage and lead the workforce and are being described below:

  • Democratic style - This is the most common leadership style wherein the leaders guides the team from front. In simple words, the leaders is responsible to give direction to each and every employee so that tasks are accomplished effectively. Further, he also motivates his staff members so that desired goals are achieved and issues can be solved (Democratic Leadership, 2018).
  • Autocratic leadership style - The leaders following autocratic style of management takes their decisions without consulting the employees and sub-ordinates are required to follow the rules being set out by him. Further, the leaders are strict and they can kick out employees from tasks if they feel anyone is at fault. Workers under this leadership needs to be prompt and work efficiently day and night to complete the delegated tasks.
  • Free-rein leadership - In this style, the leaders are quite free and flexible. The employees are being invited in the crucial decision making process and decision are undertaken with their consents. The leaders just view from top the whole working and employees are laid free to perform their tasks as per their choice (Caproni and Arias, 2007).

The leaders and managers of Hotel Hilton takes into consideration democratic style of leadership and possesses different leadership characteristics such as good communication skills, honesty, creativity, fairness, competence and intelligence. The working environment in such type of leadership is also very suave and healthy. The employees within the hotel are encouraged ad motivating by recognition and various other rewards. On contrary, the leaders of Inter-continental hotel makes use of autocratic leadership style, where they control their employees over all the decisions and take little input from the staff members. The autocratic leaders of inter-continental hotel are quite effective, agile, rigid, decision maker, authoritarian and controller (Komaki, 2006).

1.3 Evaluating communication processes of Inter-continental hotel and Hotel Hilton

Talking in reference with both the hotels, they are leading organizations in the hospitality sector all across the globe. They both have large base of customers as well as employees to manage their vast networks and processes. Pertaining to this, communication has a key role to play for the purpose of having effective flow of operations and activities. With communication channels in place, inter-continental and Hotel Hilton can share useful data all across the organization. As per the words of Miller, different firms consider different process of communication as per their structure, procedures and culture such as upward, downward and horizontal (Desanctis and Monge, 2008). These three types of communication process is being adopted by both the hotels at different levels.

  • Downward communication - Downward communication process is considered so as to share data and facts from top level to lower level management of both the hotels. Concerning this, skip level meetings, emails, noticeboard and conferences are used so that information can be transferred effectively. In this process, the senior manager of the organization send email to the lower level employees and they need to respond within a stipulated time period. They sometimes even call their sub-ordinate to have face to face meeting regarding ant issue or problem. Here at this level, non-verbal and written types of communication is more prevalent.
  • Upward communication - Upward communication is being adopted by lower level management of Inter-continental hotel and Hotel Hilton. When they need to share some information or want to give update to top level management, this process is being taken under consideration. This is being performed through emails, sending daily updates by worksheets or reports, conducting status meetings etc. At this level, written and verbal communication takes place frequently.
  • Horizontal Communication - This type of communication take place between the employees working within the same level of management. This is being carried out by emails, meetings, chatting, phones, group talks, conferencing etc. All these tools are adopted for transmitting information between the employees, teams and groups. Verbal communication is more prevalent at this level.

All these three process of communication is taken under consideration by both Inter-continental hotel and Hotel Hilton, as they belongs to service sector and have numerous things in common (Desanctis and Monge, 2008). Although there are some barriers as well that hampers the effective flow of information within the organization like diverse opinions of the employees, social and cultural difference, overcrowding of information, vagueness in data, confusion, dissimilarities in language, diverse attitude and values of employee and many more.

1.4 Analysing the organisational culture and change in Inter-continental Hotel and Hotel Hilton

The culture as well as the structure of the firm is responsible towards the motivation and behaviour of the workers. The culture of the organization is nothing but a set of rules, beliefs, vision, value and habits of the people within the firm. The structure of Inter-continental hotel is flat and because of this, clan culture is adopted within the hotel. In this type of culture, relationship between the employer and employee is friendly and they even don't hesitate to have a words with their peer group members. Furthermore, in clan organizational culture, employees are also responsible to take crucial decisions on their own. The employees can decide about the services being offered to the guests as well. Moreover, the working environment is cordial and flexible in nature that keeps on changing according to the circumstances (Carzo and Yanouzas, 2009). Finally, the inter-continental hotel places satisfaction of their prime customers at supreme importance and moulds their policies and rules accordingly.

On the other hand, talking in reference with the organization culture of Hotel Hilton, it is a blend of both market oriented as well as Adhocracy culture. In this type of culture, the managers and leaders shows trust towards the entrepreneurial capabilities of the staff members and have faith on innovation as well. Pertaining to this, the leaders and managers of Hotel Hilton make significant efforts to motivate their staff members so that they can manage higher job accountabilities and challenges easily. This will also improve their productivity level and potential. In addition to this, the adhocracy culture within the hotel also focuses in regards with reaping out effective outcomes (Byron and Khazanchi, 2012). The top level management of the hotel is of the belief that this kind of culture is very much needed to have sustainable growth of the business. Further, the present culture within the Hotel Hilton provides an aid to the firm enticing new talent and skills from all across the nations.

High amount of modifications continuously take place in business of both the hotels concerning the importance of customer satisfaction, as both the hotels i.e. inter-continental and Hotel Hilton is related with service industry. These modifications pertains because of presence of several factors like diffusion of diverse culture, evolution of technology, environmental factors and many other physical factors. In addition to this, competition within the hospitality industry is rising at a fast pace and thus, quality of products and services is important matter of subject to both the hotels. Even employees are having handful of job opportunities and therefore, their level of satisfaction need to be a prime importance for both Inter-continental and Hotel Hilton. Considering all these conditions, the hotels are in great need to modify their culture and must consider that culture which is appropriate and provide higher amount of satisfaction both to the customer as well as workers. Pertaining to this, Hotel Hilton have brought change within the firm by altering the projects and urge to their team to attain effective outcomes (El-Sabaa, 2001). The management also desire to improve their revenue and profits and due to this, a market oriented culture emerged in the firm. Inter-continental hotel has also faced problem related high employee turnover rate and by changing the culture to clan and flat, the firm was able to satisfy their employees.

TASK - 2

In this task, own potential as a prospective manager will be discussed as an Assistant Manager of Clayton Crown Hotel London a brand of Dalata Hotel Group. Further, SWOT analysis will be conducted and objectives will be set for the development of own potential.

2.1 Examining own management skills performance

According to Katz, technical and managerial skills is as important for becoming an effective manager as blood in the human body. Both these skills are vital and in the absence of such skills, a manager is not efficient enough in carrying out his work activities and responsibilities. Consequently, it can be articulated that to become an efficient manager of Clayton Crown Hotel, there are certain kind of skills that needs to be possessed by me and these are being defined in the subsequent paragraph:

  • Apposite Planning - Business can run effectively and achieve success with proper planning in place. Without planning, uncertainties and problems coming in the way will not be dealt properly. Seeking help from this management skills I will be in a position to allocate my work duties and goals effectively. I have this ability of planning things and with this I can support my company to achieve higher gaols and targets (Cooke, 2012).
  • Time management and organization - I also own two most important management skills i.e. time management as well as proper organization. In my daily routine, I am very much organized and this can be depicted by my habit of listing down the priority tasks to be accomplished right in the morning. This helps in fulfilling my short term work goals easily and effectively. Prioritizing tasks and completing them earlier is very crucial because short term goals keeps on changing and can impact the overall flexibility of daily work operations.
  • Decision making and problem solving skills - I can solve issues and problems meticulously and I am also good at making important decisions. In an organization, numerous challenges come across in front of managers and with these skills I can determine best solution to the problem. My forte is making strategic decisions (Armstrong, Brown and Reilly, 2011).
  • Delegation - At workplace, delegation of authorities is considered to be an important task. However, it is not as simple as it sounds. Before delegating authorities and work activities, estimations and appraisal of the potential of the employees is required to be made. Further, tasks that needs to be allotted should match up with the capabilities and skills of the employees. I am quite good in delegating accountabilities, as in have good ability to appraise the calibre of human capital.

Leadership and management skills audit

Competence

Evidence that I can do this

Evidence that I cannot do this

I don't have experience

Developmental needs

Leadership skills

-

I cannot instruct and give direction to sub-ordinates properly

-

I need to develop leadership skills to become manager of Hilton Hotel

Time management skills

I organize my daily work routine effectively and list down all activities in the morning so possess this skills

-

-

-

Decision making skills

Making strategic decision is my forte and thus I am quite good at making crucial decisions

-

-

-

Encouraging innovation

I am quite creative in nature and thus can bring innovation within the firm

-

-

-

Stress management

-

Over work load and several other issues makes me impatient and I cannot handle stress effectively

-

I need to learn how to manage stress so as to carry out my work activities effectively

Working with people

-

Sometimes I cannot share my views in front of others properly

-

Need to improve skills of working with people

Managing resources

I am quite at allocating resources as am critical thinker

-

-

-

2.2 Evaluating personal strengths, weaknesses, opportunities and threats

Strength

  • I am consistent in my approach
  • I am compulsive
  • I have good communication and inter-personal skills
  • Good at delegating responsibilities
  • Can influence the behaviour of others
  • Possess high social competence
  • Multi-lingual
  • Can handle large number of staff

Weakness

  • Sometimes I become very impatient
  • Need to learn effective stress management skills
  • Time management while setting priority based activities
  • Problem solving issues
  • Poor record keeping (Ahmed and et.al, 2011)

Opportunities

  • I need to learn how time can be managed effectively
  • Performing priority based tasks by participating in competition
  • Learning stress managing techniques
  • Gaining experience by working in a hotel
  • Presenting events and programs for displaying planning and other abilities (Egan, 2013)

Threats

  • Gaining experience in the hotel industry
  • Pressure related to time can become a major obstacle in development of self
  • High level of competition in the market
  • Economic downturn and other environmental factors can hamper the career growth and development.

2.3 Setting as well as arranging objectives and targets

From the SWOT analysis being conducted above, weak points and areas that needs to be improved is determined easily. All these areas if not improved properly can certainly impact the future development. Thus, it is very essential to list down the objectives that needs to be achieved first and on the basis of that actions that needs to be adopted for overcoming the weaknesses can be listed down. Setting goals and objectives is quite crucial, as it will help me in attaining the growth and desired position in the hospitality industry. Further, it is important to map out all the opportunities with the strengths being identified above, as external threats can be dealt easily in this case (Jiang and et.al, 2012). Therefore, for my self-development as a prospective manager or leader I will create a plan for around 2 years so that I can develop both personally and professionally and all my weak points can be overcome. This can be carried out with SMART target setting i.e. measurable, specific, achievable, time bound and achievable. Targets are being described below:

Skills to be improved

Actions to be undertaken

Time frame

Time management skills

Time management skills can be enhanced by effective planning and recoding each and every tasks to be attained within a stipulated time period

6 months

Presentation skills

This skills is very vital and can be improved through participation in different role plays, simulation exercise, seminars and presentations.

1 year

Decision making skills

This skills can be enhanced by gaining practical experience and comprehension of different situations within the company

6-12 months

Stress management

Stress management can be improved through paying attention towards brain development exercise, practicing yoga and meditation every morning etc. In addition to this, this skill can also be enhanced by joining club where people are encouraged to express and share their opinions without any kind of hesitation (Miles, 2012)

2 years

TASK - 3

In the present task, as a worker in the Frankie & Benny's restaurant, a leading Restaurant Group in UK has asked me to lead a new restaurant in Stratford, London. The main tasks here is to motivate lead the team so that goals of the firm can be achieved and offering a justification of the managerial decisions being made.

3.1 Motivating and leading a team for achieving goal

For accomplishing the goals and objectives of the firms as well as workers, it is essential to lead and motivate team. Through this, both organization and employees can be benefited. Modifications do take place in each and every function of the existing business when some new ventures is being established. In such condition, it is the responsibility of the manager to depict sound leadership skills that helps the employees in showing right path so that gaols are met effectively (Neal, 2009). Team can be managed and motivated in different manner. The first and the foremost way is writing clear objectives for the team. With this, the members can visualize the objectives and can think the right path to achieve the same. Goals needs to be narrowed so that team members can attain a specified target related to customer satisfaction and innovation of the product. In addition to this, it is equally vital to define properly the period of time that should be considered for attaining the desired objectives. Appropriate and timely meeting needs to be arranged for rendering support to the workers in resolving their issues and challenges. With this initiation, the employee will be encouraged and work hard to achieve the goals. Performance appraisal and linked reward system should be established. Other than this, arrangement of training and development events will also help the leaders in making their workers more efficient and skilful and will motivate them to perform their work duties better (Clarke, 2005). Furthermore, this will also help them to remain updated with latest trends in the market and can know about the perceptions of the customers concerning the products and services of the restaurant.

Growth of the new restaurant is possible only with higher level of satisfaction within the employees. If the workers within the organization are contended that cordial and healthy working environment can be developed. In this regards, the manager of the Frankie & Benny's restaurant can adopts Maslow's need hierarchy theory with five important needs. Concerning the theory, the restaurant can offer psychological need like place, lunch break, food and remuneration to their employees. Next, safety of the workers should be offered to make them work freely (Huitt, 2004). The next social needs of the workers can be met by building good relationship within the teams, offering them handsome salary, reputed position and roles, phone, laptop etc. Afterwards, self-esteem needs come under the hierarchy of this theory which means that employees needs status and recognition in the company in which they work. For this, the restaurant can offer performance appraisal system, recognition, bonus for higher performance level etc. With this, they feel that the firm is thinking about their employee and they will work proudly to achieve the targets. The final need being described in the theory is self-actualization need when the employees are self-motivated to perform the task. Therefore, it can be attributed that Maslow's needs hierarchy theory can be used as a vital tool that can help leaders and managers of Frankie & Benny's restaurant in accomplishing their pre-determined objectives and can lead the firm to the path of success and growth (Barney, 2011).

3.2 Justifying managerial decisions to support attainment of goal recommendations for development

Without proper justification no managerial decision can be undertaken and thus, there is a need of effective planning as well as research. The Restaurant is required to accomplish various objectives like satisfaction of the customers, employee contentment, higher level of performance and productivity and reduction in employee turnover rate. All these defined goals can be attained by taking different managerial decisions along with analysing the influence of these decisions on the related stakeholders needs to be carried out effectively (Ballou and et.al, 2009).

Concerning this, it become essential for the managers to consider Maslow's needs hierarchy theory for motivation and satisfaction of the employees. Growth is prerequisite for every individual and if they know that there work will give them hike in their salaries than they will carry out operations effectively to achieve the same. Other than this, promotion should be offered to workers with higher level of performance. This will help the restaurant in reducing their employee turnover rate, as workers will be satisfied with the firm and its processes. Furthermore, for the smooth flow of operations and activities, proper training and development events should be arranged. Moreover, employee can also be satisfied with effective mentoring and coaching techniques. Employee's values within the market can be increased by giving them opportunity for development of their capabilities and skills. Even the workers are required to be motivated to improve their inter-personal and communication skills as well. There should be proper grievance handling procedures within the restaurant which take care about the issues related to HR in the firm (Goetsch and Davis, 2014). Strict punishment and fine should be imposed in relation with any kind of discrimination and annoyance. Employees should be offered proper rewards and awards based on their performance. Even the lowest performer of the firm should get some opportunity so that they can be encouraged to improve their skills. Subsequently, Frankie & Benny's restaurant has concerned with the service industry, inter-personal as well as communication skill of the staff members is required to be enhanced. Therefore, it is essential for the restaurant to determine developmental needs of the employees and working accordingly for arranging training sessions so that their competencies and abilities can be enhanced (McLoughlin and Lee, 2010).

TASK - 4

In the present task, a reflective report and career development plan needs to be established for employment within the business and service context. Consequently, personal as well as own managerial skills will be evaluated and career developmental needs will be identified

4.1 Explanation of how own managerial and personal skills leads to development in career

Managerial skills

The managerial skills of an individual will help in development of career life. I am planning to lead my career in the area related to hospitality sector with the hotels like Hotel Hilton. When I will get the opportunity to work for this hotel, I will get chance to utilize my strength and explore new things which will help in seeking higher positions. I have good managerial skills such as risk taking ability, decision making, communication, leadership and emotional intelligence. All this will support me in contributing towards the firm by fulfilling both personal as well as professional objectives (Gansar, 2000).

Personal skills

Along with managerial skills, I possess several personal skills as well like problem solving, honesty, creativity, practical, punctuality and many more. All these skills will significantly support in taking the hotel to the path of success. Seeking help from these skills, allocation of resources can be done effectively.

I am also linked with many institutes that invest high efforts on development of people personally as well as professionally. I have gained both these skills with their support and efforts and this can be evident from my career progression and career development. I have started as a trainee and now I am assistant manager, all was possible because of contribution of my personal as well as managerial skills (Cottrell, 2003). Other than this, my future capabilities will be emphasised in my career development plan. The same will be utilized by my team members and their sub-ordinates effectively. Regarding this, all required aid and support such as flexible working hours, on the job training, instructional training will be arranged. Furthermore, my hard work as well as determination will be valued. All my abilities, competence and potential will be depicted in my organization. I can accomplish my career goals and can help my firm as well to achieve the path of success through attaining the objectives in future as well (Tarke and Wade, 2005).

4.2 Appraising current performance and future needs and career & personal development need to create a development plan

For the purpose of determining the current performance and future developmental needs, it is very essential to review each of the competencies being possessed by me. In my new role as a manager of Hilton Hotel I will require all these three above identified developmental needs i.e. stress management, leadership skills and working with people. Being a manager, I need to instruct my subordinates and work with people. Further, there will be lot of stress that I have to deal with. To develop leadership skills I need to apply different thought processes, attending workshops on leaderships, simulations and impressive team experience. Further, for stress management I need to pay attention towards brain development exercise, practicing yoga and meditation every morning (Fukuda-Parr and Lopes, 2013). And finally for working with people, I need to communicate with employees on a continuous basis so as to understand their nature and behaviour, exercising together, clarifying purpose, establishing rules, showing gratitude and accepting the difference.

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CONCLUSION

Therefore, from the above research study, it can be concluded that both managers and leaders offer direction to the staff members with a view to make improvements in their competence and skills. With this, the main motive here is to lead the company towards glory. From the analysis, it was found out that the present environment in which the organisations are operating is quite challenging and because of this, the managers need to hold a higher level of proficiencies so that an edge over the other companies can be attained. In addition to this, it was also analysed from the study that managers and leaders have different roles and responsibilities and to cope with the changing trend in the market, development is really indispensable.

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