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Organisational Behaviour of A David & Co Limited

University: Regent College

  • Unit No: 12
  • Level: Undergraduate/College
  • Pages: 16 / Words 3904
  • Paper Type: Assignment
  • Course Code:
  • Downloads: 120

INTRODUCTION

Organisational behaviour is replicated as study where people interact in specific groups. Generally, this study is directly applied with appropriate attempt for creating organization in efficient aspect. The main aim of organizational behaviour is scientific approach which could be applied to worker's management. The present report will give brief discussion about Organizational culture with context of Food and Beverages Company such as A David & Co Limited whose turnover is £10 M to £20 M as grown substantially in size with short duration. This report would be analysing influence of politics, power and culture on basis of behaviour with reference to chosen organization. It will also articulate evaluation method for motivating team and individual for accomplishing the objective. In the similar aspect, it will demonstrate understanding on theory for cooperating effectively with others. This report will be giving application of philosophies and concepts of organizational behaviour to provide business situation.

LO1

P1 Analysing organization's culture, power, politics influences individual, team behaviours and performance

Power and politics has essential role in A David & Co Limited, through governing that how decisions are undertaken through interaction of employees with another. Generally, in small and big businesses, the affect of power is dependent with application employees with negative or positive power for influencing others in this workplace. With context of politics it influences power to identify the overall culture of A David & Co Limited for purpose of encouraging productivity. The Charles Handy theory has presence of powerful impact on thinking of modern management. With context of leadership and development of A David & Co Limited in ushering more humanitarian management style along with visionary and purpose driven methodology of business entity (Ranjan, 2017).

With reference to Charles Hand's model, power gives huge influence on individual, team behaviours along with performance. A David & Co Limited is organization where power is in hands of some specific people and only authorities are considered for taking decisions. These employees get special privileges in business entity. These people are considered as very important people and major decision makers. In the similar aspect, these individuals also delegates role and responsibility of other workers. In this culture, subordinations have absence of any option so strictly and blindly they have to follow the instructions of their superior. In this case, employees does not have any liberty for expressing his views or for sharing ideas on an open forum and has to directly follow instructions of superior. In this culture, sometimes manager could be partial to someone or lead to unrest among others. Here employees are judged that on actual aspect what have they gained and how they act. It consequence could be decision making and these decisions are not good for long term interest of entity.

A David & Co Limited with context of role culture is on basis of rules, as it is highly controlled with known information of business entity along with roles and responsibilities. Power in context of culture is identified with its position. The culture is built on detailed structure of organization with typical chain of command. In reference to consequences, decision making in this culture could be painful and A David & Co Limited faces less risk. In simple words, this organization is very bureaucratic. It is a replicated fact on basis of theory of management and practice culture related to group behaviours. It could be elaborated that groups in A David & Co Limited are consists of individuals who belongs to different and common culture. Hence, it could be directly expected that individual's behaviour is highly dependent on culture and shaped world views along with fashioned outlook on basis of life and work. The employees of A David & Co Limited belong to various culture so it faces different challenges for ensuring that how employees behave as per common set of principles which are laid numerous organization's policies.

A David & Co Limited's politics gives major impact to its individual, team behaviour along with performance. It will decrease the output of particular individual and impacts organization's productivity. There are various individual who plays politics and gives less attention to their actual role and responsibilities toward business entity. With this context, employees would be not capable for attaining targets in time frame which is stipulated and it will lead to delay especially in food and beverage company. There is lack of concentration and bounded to create more mistakes by laying emphasis on spoiling image of other person. It will lead to spread negative environment as also spoils relationship amongst different individuals. It will alter the employees' attitude and even employees will lose interest in work and it creates inability for providing 100% at work (Greenberg, 2017).

In the same series, employees get demotivated when they are not rewarded on suitable aspect or the individual who had not given the best efforts but attains benefits because of mere politics. It had been rightly described that discussion will lead to solution of problem and individuals find it hard for confiding to any fellow mate because of fear or revealing secrets. In nutshell, it raises stress and manipulate information which is never passed in desired aspect.

M1: It is very important for the organization to have effective organizational behaviour which can help them in enhancing their performance as well. There is a huge impact of culture, politics and power of the organization on their employees as it can affect their working capabilities. It is very essential for the organization to maintain it effectively as it can affect their sales and production. These can also have positive impact on their working. If their employees are provided with good culture in the organization than it will help them to increase their performance. Also it is very important for them to manage their political impact and power on their employees as it can affect them a lot.

LO2

P2 Evaluating content and process theories related to motivation and motivational techniques which helps in enabling effective attainment of objectives

  • Content theories: It is considered among the earliest motivation theory along with later modifications. In the work environment of A David & Co Limited, it has huge impact on management policy and practice. It is also known as need theory as it is associated with aspect of concentration on importance of identifying which factor is motivating in huge aspect. This theory comprises Maslows Hierarchy of needs, ERG theory, Herzberg's two factor theory, McClellands Need for Affiliation, Achievement and power along with Management Assumptions (Theory X and Theory Y)

Maslows Hierarchy of needs

It is basic premise of theory as it comprises 5 level of needs which is initiating from the lowest level and motivated for satisfying every level in increasing order. A David & Co Limited will use for satisfying in sufficient aspect along with next level in hierarchy. Its need are categorised in two level for attaining objectives such as:

  • Deficiency needs: Physiological, safety and social needs
  • Growth needs: esteem and self actualisation needs

It will give advantage to this organization as it is very simple for understanding and related to this theory as everyone passes to one or other stage of pyramid requirements in lifetime. It is very easy in every field especially in food and beverage, it comes to self esteem for decorating its décor along with good and expensive furniture and quality raw materials. It also considers human nature for demanding high and low level needs for satisfaction („Å’erne and et.al., 2017).

On the contrary, it will replicate about thinking which is not always similar for every individual as some social affection and here respect is very important as compared to needs of safety. This is the main reason as it is bound to cultural differences with application of different nation as various organization has different culture. The level of satisfaction could be measured with its subjective requirement as it deals with mind of human which cannot be forecasted without fulfilling safety and physiological needs but some will be not satisfied by fulfilling each need level.

Process theories: It addresses various issues on basis that how process is working and sustaining itself from time like factors which identify degree, modification and continuation of effort. It gives concentration on occurring motivation and process of influencing motivation. It comprises Skinner's Reinforcement, Vroom's expectancy, Adam's Eqquity and Lock's goal theory.

Vroom's expectancy theory: It had laid special focus on process along with content of motivation as it directly integrates equity, needs and reinforcement theories. Its main objective is to give explanation that how individuals are selecting from availability of action. Vroom is directly defining motivation in form of process which is directly governing choices in alternative aspect of behaviour of voluntary. The main rationale of this motivation theory through beliefs of decision with reference to desired result. The motivation of involving in any activity for identifying three factors such as:

  • Expectancy: A belief of person with huge effort will be giving success as outcome. If huge efforts will be taken. In case employees of A David & Co Limited are working hard and its outcome will be giving the best outcome.
  • Instrumentality: A belief of person is association among goal and activity which will be giving result as better performance.
  • Valence: A belief of person is association among goal and activity. If performance is well then employees will get reward (Onyishi, 2017).

It could be recognised that individual variances in motivation of work and gives recommendation that motivation is replicated as complex process with comparison of model of Maslow's and Herzberg's simplistic models. In the similar aspect, it clarifies relationship among goals on basis of individual and organization. However, Vroom's theory is indicating conceptual determinants on basis of motivation. In the similar aspect, it will not give specific recommendations that on what factor organizational members are motived as Maslow, Alderfer and Herzberg model. It is very complex and in this concern, its validity could not be tested on whole aspect as it couldn't be directly applied in practice. In this model, the underlying and expectancy theory has stated that motivation is equalised to expectancy which is multiplied by valence and instrumentality. In case any of the factor is 0, then it will lead to unmotivated employee.

Motivational techniques: It is replicated as main reason behind action of people, goals and willingness. It is derived through word motive means' requirement of satisfaction. These specific needs are desire which are directly acquired from influence of society, cultural, lifestyle etc.

Intrinsic and extrinsic motivation: It is replicated as desire for attaining objectives and to develop on professional aspect. The behaviour which is driven with context of internal rewards. In simple words, motivation for engaging behaviours to arise in particular individual in satisfying context. It has been directly recommended that creative people are motivated in intrinsic manner. However, it has various factor such as challenge, control, Recognition, Curiosity, Cooperation and competition. In the similar aspect, Extrinsic motivation has huge involvement of different work factors like promotions and pay. It refers to behaviour which is driven from external rewards like fame, grades, money and praise. Usually it arises through outside individual which is contrast to intrinsic motivation as it is originating from any individual (Conger, 2017).

M2: For any organization it is very important to manage their working environment in order to perform their functions effectively. There are various theories which can be used by the organization in order to motivate their employees effectively. This will help them to increase their production as well. Having motivated and skilled employees can assist in increasing their sales and production. These theories, such as, Maslow’s theory of motivation, Herzdberg theory, etc. all these are very useful for the organization to improve their performance effectively.

D1: For any organization, it is very important to have a good relationship between organizational culture, politics and power which has a direct link with their motivation. These can also help in making them encouraged. This will also help in managing their working environment effectively in order to enhance their performance. For any firm having a good motivational theories which can help their employees in boosting up their capability and this can provide them a positive impact on their performance. These also helps in succeeding their business more as well.

LO3

P3 Explaining that how effective team is opposed as ineffective team

The team could be effective while opposing to ineffective team with consideration of Belbin theory. Here Belbin has belief where each has processes of behaviours pattern whose feature of behaviours of one individual with context of relationship facilitating for team progress. It is a tendency for contributing, behaving and interrelating with others in particular aspect. In his context, there is definition of possibilities of nine team roles which are categorised in three aspects such as:

  • Action oriented roles
  • People oriented roles
  • Thought oriented roles

Action oriented roles: It had laid special focus for improving performance of team, transforming ideas in action for meeting its deadlines. The three action oriented function are:

  • Shaper: It gives necessary drive for ensuring that team is moving and does not capable for losing momentum or focus.
  • Implementer: There is requirement of plan of workable strategy and to carry it in efficient aspect a with its possibility.
  • Completer Finisher: It very effective which could be implied at ending of task for polishing and scrutinising work of mistakes, subjected to huge standard of quality control.

People oriented goals: It provides combination of ideas along with people.

  • Coordinator: It brings perfect order in team
  • Team-worker: Support has been given to team in diplomatic context
  • Resource investigator: The outside contracts are developed

Thought oriented goals

  • Plant: Brings ground breaking and innovative solutions
  • Monitor evaluator: team decisions are assessed on critical and analytical aspect
  • Specialist: Expertise in specific subject matter (The Nine Belbin team roles, 2018).

The team could be effective by considering all factors but major focus should be given to dynamic, challenging and thrives on pressure. The obstacle could be easily overcome by driving courage which is major strength of shaper in A David & Co. In the similar aspect, it should gives logical eye for purpose of creating various impartial judgement with proper requirement and weighs option of team in dispassionate aspect in monitoring evaluator. There is requirement of focusing objective of team and to draw team members along with delegation of working in appropriate aspect from coordinator. The major role is of team worker with application of versatility for determining work required and to complete on basis of team (Rothbard and Brett, 2017).

M 3 Analyse relevant team and group development theories to support the development of dynamic cooperation

Belbin's typology theory is used for team and group development. It uses different language to describe different roles in a team. There are three roles define by Belbin for the team and group development. These roles consist of action -oriented thought - oriented, people-oriented etc.

  • Action -oriented roles: these are the factors which focuses on improving the performance, putting ideas into action and meeting goals. There are three roles included in these factors: Shaper. Implementer, completer finisher. Shaper in this theory is related to providing direction to the team member, implementer brings self- discipline, completer focuses on the things to do them in proper way.
  • People -oriented roles: This role of Belbin theory focuses on bringing people and ideas together. It includes coordinator, team worker and resource investigator. Coordinator brings order for the team in order to make it an effective team. Team worker are the team members which provide support to the team. Resource investigator develop relationship with outsiders.

LO4

P4 Philosophies of organisational behaviour

The Path-Goal model- Path goal theory focuses on choosing the right leadership style based upon employee characteristics, ability and extent of control a employee want in his work. In path goal theory leader make smooth path to its employee to achieve their daily work goal. A David & Co Limited's use leadership style as directive, supportive,participative and achievement after observe the characteristic of task and employee. Like difficult task are performed under the supportive leadership style. If team have non seriousness and non supportive issue, than directive leadership is taken into consideration. Employees feel motivated when their leader help them in form of guidance, support, freedom(where required), remove path hurdles, and define goal. Various monetary and non monetary benefits are given to employee after done need assessment of the employee (The Nine Belbin team roles, 2018)..

Social capital theory- social capital are the factor which affect the human relationship in an organisation. It includes culture, value, trust, social belief, cooperation among the employees. This theory use to measure impact of these social factor upon tangible resources of the organisation. For example if there is no harmony among employees than organisation will have to face loss of productivity or wastage. Social capital are use by the leaders and higher authority for improvement of performance. David & Co Limited's use its HRM practices to maintain it social capital. For example shared language team making,M&A integration team meeting, general trust building practices, information sharing, mutual benefit sharing practices, organise the activities to increases bonding and belongingness. Leadership plays a important role in maintaining the social capital of the organisation. If human capital is managed in organisation . it will give a positive working environment as well as efficiency in work and quick decision making (Conger, 2017).

Situational leadership theory- in situational leadership theory, leader chose the type of leadership style based upon the situation it has. For example if M1 type of people need less skills for their job they are self motivated to do a work, in this case delegating type of leadership is adopt by David & Co Limited's. In M2 type of people are have all competency and skills to do their work but they are less motivated so directive leadership suit for this kind of people. M3 type person and group are experienced in their field but they have lack of confidence so supportive leadership are doing justice in guiding them. M4 are not interested in doing job but they want to take responsibilities, so coaching leadership or delegating leadership can be practice on them.

Contingency theory: This theory presents that there is no ideal way to make an organisation better. It all depends on the external and internal environmental factors. It shows that the business can get advantage from various aspect like development of technology, suppliers, buyers, consumer interest group, customer and competitor (Greenberg, 2017). This theory assess firm in developing business structure. It lay emphasis that all the factors whether external or internal are dependent on each other. The building

of structure can help organisation in gaining competitive advantage and also enhance their growth. It also makes the firm adjustable to various changes environment.

M4: There are various philosophies of organizational behaviour which can be very useful for the organization in order to increase their productivity which will help in increasing their overall revenue. There are various theories, such as, the path-goal model, which helps in focusing the right leadership quality based on the employee characteristics, ability, etc. Other than this, there are theories, for example, social capital theory, situational leadership theory, etc. All these philosophies assist them in generating a good environment for their employees in order to perform well in their industry.

D2: Working in a team is very effective for the organization in order to enhance their performance. This also helps in improving their production and sales effectively. These team development theories are very useful and has a direct impact on the behaviour concept and philosophies which has a direct impact on the behaviour of their employees in the working place in the organization. These team development theories, such as, Tuckman or Belbin theory are very useful for the employees to make them work in a team which can increase their productivity and capability as well. All these theories if implemented in the organization can enhance their performance which can help them in increasing their overall revenue and profitability.

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CONCLUSION

From the above study it had been concluded that Organizational behaviour is very mandatory for accomplishing success especially in food and Beverage company like A David & Co. It had been reflected that culture, politics and power influences organizational behaviour and Handy theory shows information on basis of power impact on A David & Co. It had shown application of process and content theory for motivating individuals and team for purpose of attaining objective along with various motivational technique. There is appropriate evaluation which helps in enabling effective achievement with reference to A David & Co. In the same series, it had represented understanding for making effective as opposed to ineffective with reference to Belbin's theory. Furthermore, it has stated application of philosophies and concepts of organizational behaviour with context of path goal theory, situational resistance, social capital theory along with contingency theory as well.

REFERENCES

  • Beer, M., 2017. Lead organizational change by creating dissatisfaction and realigning the organization with new competitive realities. The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behaviour. pp.385-401.
  • „Å’erne, M. and et.al., 2017. The role of multilevel synergistic interplay among team mastery climate, knowledge hiding, and job characteristics in stimulating innovative work behavior. Human Resource Management Journal.27(2). pp.281-299.
  • Conger, J. A., 2017. Motivate performance through empowerment. The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behaviour. pp.143-155.
  • DeNisi, A. S. and Gonzalez, J.A., 2017. Design performance appraisal systems to improve performance. The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behaviour. pp.63-75.
  • Gray, H. L., 2018. A perspective on organization theory. In The Management of Educational Institutions (pp. 39-54). Routledge.
  • Greenberg, J., 2017. Promote procedural justice to enhance acceptance of work outcomes. The Blackwell Handbook of Principles of Organizational Behaviour. pp.189-204.

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