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Human resource management is defined as the resources which are managed in an organization and it is a function that is used to describe the system for the people. It is the process of dealing the issues which are related to the employees such as training, development, hiring, motivation and compensation to the employees within the organization. Present report is based on Sainsbury, which is a UK based retail industry chain of supermarket engaged in grocery and other items. This report covers the guest model of human resource management and comparison of different definitions of HRM personnel management and IR practices. Further, it also covers the implications for the employees and the line managers to develop strategic approach to HRM (Mondy and Martocchio, 2016). It also includes the model of flexibility with its different types to the employees of the cited organization. Moreover, impact of equal opportunities on the workers of the company. At last, it will include different approaches to human resource management at workplace. It will help to understand the concept of human resource management in the organization.
1.1 Guest's model of HRM
Guest model of HRM is a perspective which is based on the assumption that is different from the personnel management. There are six dimensions of this model which are adopted by Sainsbury as mentioned below:
- HRM Strategy- The organization has to manage the resources as long term and planning on the basis of the different strategies to achieve the goals and objectives at workplace.
- HRM Practices- HR department of the company creates various policies and implementing those policies on the basis of behavior of employees at Sainsbury (Bratton and Gold, 2012). This method analyses the impact on reward program of employees.
- HRM Outcomes- There are different outcome by various strategies which are adopted by Sainsbury that includes flexibility for the employees to provide the best quality to their customers.
- Behavior Outcomes -In Sainsbury, the goal and objective of the company is to manage the behavior of employees at workplace with the help of different strategies and policies.
- Performance Outcomes –With the help of Guest model of HRM at Sainsbury by providing training to employees and managed the strategic development for achieving the goals of the organization (Purce, 2014.).
- Financial Outcomes- by adopting the Guest model of HRM at Sainsbury it leads to increase in the profitability for the company in terms of relationship between employees.
1.2 Comparison Between Different Definitions
According to the Storey’s definition of HRM is explains the strategic approach to the management of the assets and resources at Sainsbury the people who are working as they individually or in a group collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives. Other definitions of Storey in context of difference between the personal management and industrial relations which is described below:
As per Storey’s definition personnel management defined as the employees are comply with the rules formed by the owner of business, so the difference between its definition of HRM and personnel management is described below:
Human Resource Management
Personnel Management/ Industry relations
Human resource management refers to the approach to the management of employees to achieve the competitive advantage with the help of capable workforce and highly committed using the personal techniques.
Personnel management is defined as the traditional approach to manage the people to focus on the personnel administration (Storey, 2014).
In HRM, the administrative function is taken into consideration for achievement of goals at
In case of personnel management, the functions are undertaken as per the employee satisfaction.
The nature of relation in human resource management is unitarist.
While in case of personnel management there is nature of relations if pluralist.
In HRM, the employees are provided proper training and development for various opportunities.
In this the employees are provided less training as they get different opportunities as compared to human resource management.
The people are considered as the most important asset in case of HRM at Sainsbury.
The employees of the organization are considered as an input at the cited firm.
1.3 Implications for line Managers and Employees
Employees and managers are considered as the key asset of the organization as the performance of the employees is directly affects the productivity of the company. There are numerous implications of line managers to develop a strategic approach to human resource management at Sainsbury (Ulrich, 2013). Line manager’s work is to manage the day to day management of the employees and effectively they can manage the operational cost of the organization. The managers of the organization can apply technical expertise and they are required to allocate the work among the different employees. They also check the performance of employees with the quality and evaluate the process of work which is to be done at workplace. Line managers also deal with the clients and customers for the aspects of the process of formation.
In addition to this, the employees also plays the important role in developing a strategic approach to HRM at Sainsbury and it includes that employees helps in developing the performance for the continuous improvement and the effective leaders set the direction for execution of a corporate strategy which builds commitments (Budhwar and Debrah, 2013). There is increase in the productivity to support the innovation of employees and effective reward system to the employees helps to maintain the performance at workplace. At last, with the help of effective communication and feedback from the employees can reduce errors at Sainsbury.
2.1 Flexibility Model for Sainsburry
Flexibility is defined as to deploy and adjust the skills of the employees to match the skills required by the change in workload and methods of production. At Sainsbury, the management of the company seeks to take maximum work out from the employees as they always provide better services their customers. The model of flexibility is adopted by the stated organization in order to manage the time of the workers at Sainsbury (Varma and Budhwar, 2013). With the help of telecommuting as it is also known as work from so that it is easy for the employees to do work at their place only. Further, Sainsbury also uses the part time employees in order to reduce the work pressure and it is cost effective too. Flexible working hours is also an important aspect in context of flexibility so that they fulfill the demand of customers and it also increases the level of satisfaction among the various employees at Sainsbury. Thus it can be said that the employees can do their job in comfort zone which make sure their retention and ensures the loyalty in the stated organization. The model of flexibility helps in engaged the employees for longer time because they do their work as per their convenience which is essential at the workplace (Hoque, 2013).
The Shamrock organization model was proposed by Charles Handy with an approach to manage human resource through job enrichment. According to this model appropriate flexibility is provided to individuals with benefits that enhance their motivation levels. The entire workforce is divided into three parts in this model. The leaf is the first section which involves core staff which is made up of highly trained employees and the senior management authorities. The second part is a leaf which has employees who had past experiences with company but currently they are providing services only. The discretionary powers and flexibility levels are quite high in this section (Ulrich, 2013). The third section has professionals who are good at consultancy and depict appropriate commitment towards the company.
Sainsbury can apply this flexibility model in its functioning structure so that high amount of flexibility is experienced. The benefit that can be experienced by the company after application of this model is greater emphasis over the needs and demands of employees. The growth of organization is stabilized when flexibility in functioning is experienced. This model of organization shall be helpful in enhancing employee satisfaction towards the company.
2.2 Types Of Flexibilities
In Sainsbury, employees are considered as the important part of the organization and the management always tries to improve the relationship between the employees. In order to manage this, there are different types of flexibility which are to be developed by the organization which is described below:
- Work from home- This is the first type of flexibility which might be develop to provide the facility to do work from home for the employees which is beneficial and easy for the employees to manage their work at their level only. But in case of retail industry it might be difficult to develop this type of opportunity.
- Flexible working hour-The stated organization has adopted this in order to bridges the gap in the process of business (Dias, 2016). This type of flexibility allows the employees so that they move their hours to meet the demands of life.
- Part time working- This model is also adopted by the management of the organization as it develops an opportunity for those employees who are engaged in other issues other than working so that it helps in managing different areas.
- Job sharing- It can be also developed by the management of Sainsbury which enables employees to develop various skills as they work with other people in the organization.
- Numerical flexibility: The amount of labor or the number of employees that have been appointed in the company for performing the business operations should be in sufficient quantities. Part time working or temporary employment contracts are certain types of numerical flexibility. Sainsbury can employ ground staff and technical assistants with numerical flexibility so that large number of employees are not engaged unnecessarily.
- Functional flexibility: The business environment of a company is continuously changing. Flexibility can be experienced when organization is capable enough to manage these fluctuations. Sainsbury has to develop its strategies with functional flexibility so that sudden changes in the organization due to outsourcing or training are effectively managed (Kehoe and Wright, 2013).
- Temporal flexibility: Working hours and the pressure over employees affects productivity. Sainsbury can implement temporal flexibility which includes conditions like paid overtime, shift-working or zero hours in the employment contract. When variations in the working hours of the company are managed with help of temporal flexibility then employee motivation is not affected.
- Financial flexibility: Expenses and the revenue expenditure can change and fluctuate depending on the financial situation of the company. Sainsbury’s ability to manage such accidental or unexpected expenses is considered as financial flexibility.
2.3 Use of Flexible Working Practises
There are many benefits of suing flexible working at Sainsbury, in order to use from both the employee and employer perspective which is described below:
With the help of flexibility at workplace it reduces the stress of employees and so that it enhance their performance to give the best out from them at the stated organization (Jackson, Schuler and Jiang, 2014).
In order to maintain the personal and professional life, flexibility plays an important role for the employees as they can concentrate equally from both perspectives so that there is increase in the level of performance.
Flexibility gives motivation to employees as they do their job and they are motivated from different things as it gives strength for the various aspects so that it helps in evaluating their performance.
Flexibility helps to retain the members of staff at Sainsbury so that they get benefits from them.
In order to meet the needs of employees and so that they are get motivated towards their work which helps in enhancing the employees to manage the perspective (Berman and Evans, 2013).
Flexibility helps to meet the needs of customers through employers which is beneficial for the company and to increase the productivity of the employees.
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2.4 Impact Of Changes In Labour Markets
The effect of the changes in the labor market on the flexible working practices on Sainsbury in the different aspects. There are the changes of the factors such as evolving the technology, demographic changes and increase in the undergraduates, etc. (Decker, Riley and Siemer, 2012). At Sainsbury, there is currently exhibiting a trend which supports the acquisition of the different talents in to prior specialization. To implement the flexibility practices which determine when the personnel work is increasing affordable and that is easy for both employee and employer. To complete the quality jobs as their contract that contributes to the organization so that remain top in retail market. It also includes the demographic and migration which impact on as there is increase in the group of people as they are from different culture and background as they are willing to do the full time(Knowles, Holton III and Swanson, 2014). Thus, these changes made approaches and procedures concerning the implementation of these practices convenient and easier in order to leading the traditional business expenditures and also boost the cultural diversity which is believed by the management of Sainsbury. In order to manage and to be effective organization required to make sure that flexible programs to meet the needs of customers, and so that they need to give the specific model which is supported by the management.
3.1 Types Of Discrimination At Workplace
There are different forms of discrimination which can happen at workplace environment and the situations of the Sainsbury from such of the discrimination. The form of discrimination is related to age in which this is the most important possible view of the labor market change with more of the young people graduate being recruited at Sainsbury and to employ the energetic talents helps the company. Further, gender discrimination can take place at workplace in which certain rules are applied to male and female employees against their wish so that they works in the favor of the organization(Kehoe and Wright, 2013). There is another form of discrimination which can take place at organization such as due to religion and disability so that it creates issues for the employees and management also at Sainsbury. Disability includes physical, medical conditions and mental of an employee so that they are also treated equally at organization in order to manage the different activities of the enterprise. Moreover, the discrimination of employees due to the physical features at the workplace which is not possible as per the aspect of the employees.
3.2 Implications of Equal Opportunities Legislation
Sainsbury has a range of legislative and policy initiatives which helps to promote equal employment opportunity and there are range of policies by which to choose and outcome in variety to the type of equity programs which can produce different outcomes for the employees at workplace. At Sainsbury, the equal pay decisions to provide equal opportunity to all the employees at organization which come through the industrial relation system instead of through the legislation. Further, the company goes through that it does not discriminate to the grounds of sex, age and marital status. The equal opportunities legislation act considers the occurrence of the indirect discrimination and structural that arises from the reality at the organization norms. Moreover, equal employment opportunity legislation in Sainsbury remedies which do not rely on the cases of discrimination was enacted (Riley, 2014). This legislation considers the extant system disadvantage and historic of the women in employment. This has financial implications so as they have to pay external professionals which will be contacted for this task. They have to demonstrate this procedure and policies in the composition of the staff. This implies that as their impact on the process of recruitment so that they give opportunity to all the eligible people regardless of their age, religious brief and gender.
3.3 Approaches for Managing Equal Opportunities And Diversity
Managing diversity at workplace is a part of a culture of the organization. At Sainsbury the approaches in order to manage the equal opportunities and diversity have been working. The human resource management source from other country with different media for the advertisement in context of equality and employment legislation. Another approach which is used at Sainsbury is the application of equality of the gender in the senior management team and line managers (Mendenhall and Osland, 2012). Further, there is another approach which is used at stated organization is the communication with employees which empowers the employees to share their views and concerns are attend to promote the welfare as a key assets of Sainsbury. Moreover, the approach which is used at Sainsbury is the arrangements of flexible working such as part time, work from home, temporary workers during the time of sales so that they are accommodate the various needs of the employees as they are engaged in delivering the services. Thus, all these approaches formed Sainsbury as an equal opportunity organization which promotes diversity. All the employees of the stated organization get equal opportunity irrespective of the factors such as age, gender or culture.
4.1 Performance Management Methods
Performance management is an essential part of the workplace as it gives a platform to monitor or supervises the performance of employee and determine that employee meets the expectations of the company. In order to identify the performance management methods which are used at Sainsbury this is described below:
Graphic rating scales-
It is the ideal for the oriented work environment and for the other workplaces which move at a fast pace so a rating scale consists of job duties, standards of performance and usually a scale from1 to 5 for rating. This method helps the management of Sainsbury to measure the performance of employees as it completed quickly which is beneficial for the supervisors as they manages large departments at Sainsbury.
Management by objectives-
In order to manage the performance of employees in a managerial position management by objective is the useful method to identify the goals and so that the employee achieve the goals with proper timeline (Mok, Sparks and Kadampully, 2013). In order to discuss the progress of employee at the time of evaluation the employee and manager meet to reset the goals for which they required additional time and resources at Sainsbury. The performance is evaluated by the achievement of goals with the designated time frame.
In this method, the supervisors and managers give ranking to employees in three parts as top performers comprises 20% of the workforce, average performers 70% and the employees who are lowest performing about 10% of the workforce. It measures the achievements of employees against others rather than employees past performance so that this method creates a competitive environment at Sainsbury.
4.2 Approaches For Managing Employee Welfare
The management of Sainsbury maintains the benefits and welfare to the staff in order to motivate their activities and performance as employee welfare involves certain approaches and activities which will provide facilities, security and services to the employees in excess of their salary. Personnel assistance programs as the company used to manage the issues which are not related to the work such as personal issues and family and the stress level that can affect the capability of productivity. Further, programs related to income in which protection is provided to employees to achieve fiscal security at the time of employment and during the retirement. The welfare programs considering the training and development of a personnel in order to increase the skills and expertise to enable the performance and productivity level (Flamholtz, 2012). In addition to this, cafeteria approach an individual to choose the involvement in such programs which is depend on the needs as this applies to the personnel equitably. Thus, these all are the approaches used to manage the employee welfare at Sainsbury and which is effectively work on the employees of the state organization.
4.3 Implications of Health and Safety Legislations
Health and safety legislations has the implication on the human resource practices at Sainsbury as they are abide by them which is for the safety and well-being of the customers and employees but also for the public. Health and Safety act 1974 ensures that employers have to institute a relevant program which is acceptable as the health standards of the employees at the time of recruitments and working. The company is responsible for the health and safety of employees at workplace and offers penalties for any violation. This implies extra cost in training of employees on health and safety issues as human resource managers has to make sure that employees and the environment of the company maintain the stated requirements which helps in solving he issues(Kerzner, 2013). The issues of health and safety affects the human resource practices as they are important factor in their practices and policies. In order to help the human resource management in their practices with respect to the legislation of health and safety they provide various units of safety and security such as fire, uniformed security men and health and safety team which provide facilities to the employees. The team of health and safety includes measuring the risk, conducting various courses for the employees related to the subject of such as first aid, fire safety and manual handling. Thus, it can be said that in the stated organization the legislation of health and safety on the human resource practices as per the implication of it.
4.4 Impact Of Topical Issue on Human Resource Practises
There are certain issues which can impact human resource practices across many sectors in any of the business organization. It can be said that one of the topical issue which affected the human resource practices at Sainsbury is the culture of the organization. The culture at Sainsbury shapes the manner in human resource management does recruitment of employees so that the impact of this is that the team of recruitment in HR has a series of the stages of interview so that the candidates have to ensure successful employees so that they will adapt the culture. In order to better engage with its employees the learning of employees and development is a part of HR and so that they have to manage it. Moreover, the team of recruitment make sure that they are hiring the best employees in order to maintain the qualities of employees at Sainsbury (Mondy and Martocchio, 2016). To ensure the approaches to keep ahead of the competition there is requirement of evolving the advertising and selection method and with the help of social media. The culture also affects the style of leadership of the human resource management and they have to implement effective communication with the employees in order to develop the managerial skills, build relationships and trust at Sainsbury.
Certain topical issues that have been impacting or influencing the human resource practices are work life balance, e-recruitment, flexible benefits, etc. The process of hiring candidates through online platforms is bit complex and involves a lot of risks. The authenticity of an individual cannot be fully determined. If any fraud applicant is recruited in the company then severe losses can be experienced. Hence, the human resource practices are influenced in such cases of online or e-recruitment processes. E-recruitment can have both positive and negative impact over the human resource practises. If handled correctly and with at-most security the human resource department of Sainsburry has to apply less efforts in selecting right candidates for the company. On the other hand, the risks and hazards associated with this topical issue create a negative impact over the hrm practises of the company. Henceforth, this issue can bring in both benefits and consequences for the organisation depending on the critical usage of online recruitments.
From the above report it can be concluded that human resource management is the essential aspect to manage the resources within an organization and it includes the process of staffing, hiring employees and motivate them for their work in order to remain positive at workplace. This report is based on the Sainsbury where they use different theoretical perspectives of human resource management in context of Guest model of HRM with the personnel management and industry relations. Further, to understand the different ways for developing flexibility within workplace with the help of types of flexibility such as functional, numerical and the impact of those flexibilities on employee and employer as they use different methods of flexibility as work from home and flexible working hours at Sainsbury. Moreover, the impact of the changes in the labor market on the practices of flexible working. It also covers the forms of discrimination which can take place such age, gender and religious culture so that the practical implications of the equal opportunities legislation for an organization. In addition to this, the performance management by which the approaches used to manage the welfare of the employees and the implications of health and safety legislation on the human resource practices and the impact of the issue on HR practices at organization.
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