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Management And Leadership - Marks And Spencer

INTRODUCTION

Management and leadership is a branch that handles the inside activities of the organization. They both are very essential to manage the work of business in a proper way. Good leadership is an important part of effective management. The leader manages the overall process of development to employees and businesses. Their work is to manage employee work performance in working their task or project and in management they play their role by monitoring the whole activity and functions of the organization (Pontin, Havard and Snelling, 2016). Marks and Spencer is a British international company. They provide lots of products such as home, beauty, wine, food, furniture and gifts & flowers. They established they're headquarter in London, UK successfully. Michael Marks and Thomas Spencer are the founders of the organization. This project describes different leadership styles and their impact on various conditions in the company. It also examines the effect of values and culture in the company.

TASK

2022-02-021. Different leadership styles are needed in various situations faced by the company

Leadership is an important function in organization to manage employee’s performance through motivation and support. Leadership style is a behaviour pattern that leader uses to influence their follower’s behaviour. For example, leader give direction to employees and motivates them to finish their given tasks (Shin, and et.al., 2015). Situational, strategic leadership, autocratic, coaching and team are developing styles of leadership that help to achieve business goals and objectives. Leadership is necessary in company, for controlling overall performance level of employees and other staff members. Firm used this different style for achieving business objectives and growth. This might be valuable in at the difficult situation of firm.

5 different leadership styles:

1. Autocratic leadership: This style is centralized on boss. In this type of leadership, person holds or controls all high authorities and responsibilities in organization. Marks and Spencer’s owner takes all decisions on his own basis without making any consultant with subordinates. Autocratic activity is not flexible in function. About this function it was less creative and more contemporary in style (Nanjundeswaraswamy, and Swamy, 2014). In organization, this activity works to achieve the business goals. They give order to their low level workers and give direction to them regarding the way to perform their tasks within having a good behavior. They take their decision individually which is very helpful in organization for achieving the business objectives.

For example: Organization faced unmanageable activities which affect business growth. At this time, company used autocratic leadership style that makes quick decision for managing employees and other staff members to work without any disturbance. Thus, another situation is poor performance of workers in work area that also need direction of their leaders. Firm supports and follows this kind of leadership at workplace. In their decision, they do not allow any employee and staff members. In any situation of company, autocratic leadership is responsible for making new ideas and planning to get overcome from the situation. It is an effective function that helps to grow business more than the other companies.

2. Situational leadership: This kind of leadership depends on the environment in organization. In Marks and Spencer, there are many employees working together at the same workplace which might create some problems in their work. For example: employees do not feel comfortable within their work they cannot understand how to perform in their task it creates difficulty for another workers they also get demotivate. In this situation, leader needs to tell about the process of performing tasks and giving direction to handle this condition better than now. It helps other employees and encourage them for making their work at high level. This will impact on business growth and achieving company’s objective. Leader of company also uses hierarchy models to handle the situation (Popli, and Rizvi, 2015). In any difficult situation in company, leadership plays an important role by resolving issues and making new ideas for it.

3. Strategic leadership style: Strategic leadership indicated the leader who is the boss of organization. This kind of leader has no limit in firm. They are involved at every stage of business and management through making strategy according to situation. For example: in Marks and Spencer, organization makes products according to demands and needs of customers. Sudden change in economy trends make pressure on company they need to create products and change whole the process of production at this time, head of firm make different strategy and plans that helps to face this situation easily. Leaders also make plans and strategies for the future. Strategic leadership is essential for the firm. By creating new ideas and strategies, it can increase employee’s performance and also effect in business.

4. Coaching leadership: Coaching and training; both work with the same purpose, that is, achieving organizational objectives and goals. In Marks and Spencer, human resource department does hiring of new employees to raise their business growth. Thus, in this situation, leader plays their role by providing effective training and coaching regarding their work. It explains them who to do perform in task or projects. Basically, this type of leadership helps workers to improve their skills and knowledge. They motivate new workers as well as inspire and encourage them to give their performance at workplace highly impressive. It helps to develop their understanding level in project that can achieve firm’s set goals.

5. Team leadership: Team leadership plays their role individually. They provide guidance, directions and instructions to team and single person for their task. Its function is to manage the overall process of employees through motivating them to give their high performance work. Team leadership in Marks and Spencer supports workers in the process of making project and instruct them regarding giving their high performance work. Team leader should carry good behaviour skill which help them to make their employees comfortable at workplace. This activity of team leadership towards workers increase their interest in doing their jobs. Thus, this will help to build employee’s relationship strong in between their leaders and other staff members. The impact of this negative environment on the process of achieving business objectives.

2. Impact of leadership style in organization on team performance and the role of leaders in establishing culture of professionalismLeadership style is the way and process of providing instructions and directions, motivating employees and implementing strategy and plans. Management and leadership; both are included in making relationships and network in company with other peoples. This function is highly effective for team. Leader of Marks and Spencer is innovative in their work. Thus, to run company successfully, it needs to include leadership and management in it. According to Asrar-ul-Haq and Kuchinke (2016) they both are necessary for achieving success in an industry. Good leadership function is to communicate with other people in firm. Team leadership plays their role individually. They provide guidance, directions and instructions to team and single person for their task. By using some theories, it can be explained easily.

M&S includes situational leadership and coaching leadership style in their company. Situational leadership style or theory is the process of leader’s performance by motivating employees and taking actions according to situations and conditions. Leadership has different functions and styles that might be appropriate for various types of decisions. For example: leader of organization is expected to have the most experienced and knowledgeable group or team members. Thus, it makes decision to give training and development session to increase their skills better than the other organization’s workers. Leader’s activity is based upon circumstances inside the firm regarding employees and other management functions. Through using this technique at workplace, team or group of workers perform better to achieve business objectives and organizational goals.

Coaching leadership style is the best way to increase team’s performance and organizational objectives. Marks & Spencer includes this theory or style in firm for improving there worker’s performance. Leaders provide coaching that helps to develop skills, knowledge and behaviour of people towards there work and organization. Thus, in this process, leadership provides information about there work and guide them how to perform or manage tasks and projects (Carter, and DeChurch, 2014). Through using this activity in firm increase growth of business and team members as well. Leadership style is the way and process of providing direction and instructions. Both of these functions help to make a positive brand image in marketplace. Team collaboration between staff members make and effective performance team. The work of this group is to attain company’s objectives successfully.

Leader’s activity in organization:

Leader’s responsibility in Marks and Spencer is to establish mutual trust, culture of professionalism, respect and support in between their teams with developing and supporting members in understanding the organization goals and objectives.

  1. Culture of professionalism: Leaders in M&S create culture of professionalism by applying time management. They can establish professionalism by appreciating their workers for high performance at workplace. Leader should perform their responsibilities according to their role in firm. If leader is punctual in their work, they apply punctuality in organization on team as well as other employees. They perform their task on time and also manage their work according to time management system.
  2. Mutual trust: Mutual trust is built by making healthy communication in between workers and leaders. Leaders decision should be transparent and reflected to employees. (Drescher and et.al., 2014). They need to involve employees to take their advice in making decisions for the purpose of achieving business goals. Thus, for this process, they can establish mutual trust among them. Through giving commitments and keep their promises will create mutual trust and understanding at all over in workplace.
  3. Build respect and support within teams: Flexibility is the best way to build respect and support within groups or teams. Leader can make group communication and collaboration activity within teams. They give task or project in between many people for the purpose of building supportive behaviour among them. Leaders can also create effective communication in between team members about discussing how to make environment effective in the work area. Leaders give chance to employees for making collaboration with other workers.
  4. Leaders support and develop their team: Leaders of Marks and Spencer need to include patience in their behaviour towards their workers that can help to gain respect and support by everyone in team. Leader of company supports workers in performing their tasks. They also provide training session to employees for developing their knowledge and skills. Through this process, workers get motivated and perform their task within high work performance to achieve company goals.

All these functions and activities of leaders help employees in understanding organization’s goals and objectives. Leaders give their contribution by motivating their workers, supporting them in their work performance and many other things at workplace in organization. Through this process, workers get motivated. Leaders can also create effective communication in between team members.

3. Ethical and value based approach of leadership and impact of culture and values in organization

The company follows two types of organizational approaches to leadership i.e. ethical and value based:

1. Organization ethical approach to leadership: In this function, the company responds to external and internal factors. These ethics of organization depend organizational culture. The function values of this ethical reflect the way of doing business and it also works to aspire in observing and carrying out their businesses (Inglehart, 2018). Honesty, fairness and truth worthiness are the common values of ethical organization. It belongs to employees and leaders who match their code of ethics. Leadership activities need to match their aims within company aims for achieving business objectives. Leadership in the person who demonstrates activity for common good that is appropriate and acceptable in every field of the business area. Leader of Marks and Spencer act properly in front of their employees. Company is focused on their external and internal environment that affect the overall performance of business.

2. Value based approach to leadership: a values-based approach to leadership define the culture and value in company. This is different to other functions which affect the whole process of employee’s performance. Design, approach and methodology are three key elements of value-based approach. The company follows this function to make their employee comfortable at workplace by the behaviour of their leaders. It helps in making their decision according to the values of leadership and other members in th

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